Koreatown, Los Angeles

Koreatown is a neighborhood in Central Los Angeles, centered near Eighth Street and Irolo Street, west of MacArthur Park. Koreans found housing in the Mid-Wilshire area. Many opened businesses as they found tolerance towards the growing Korean population. Many of the historic Art deco buildings with terra cotta façades have been preserved because the buildings remained economically viable for the new businesses. Despite the name evoking a traditional ethnic enclave, the community is complex and has an impact on areas outside the traditional boundaries. While the neighborhood culture was oriented to the Korean immigrant population, Korean business owners are creating stronger ties to the Latino community in Koreatown; the community is diverse ethnically, with half the residents being Latino and a third being Asian. Two-thirds of the residents were born outside of the United States, as a high figure compared to the rest of the city. In 1882, the United States and Korea established the United States-Korea Treaty of 1882, which ended Korea's self-imposed isolation.

The establishment of diplomatic relations between the United States and Korea paved the way for Korean immigration to Hawaii in the late 1880s. In the early 1900s, Korean immigrants began making their way to Los Angeles, where they created communities based around ethnic churches; as the number of Koreans increased to the hundreds, their residential and commercial activities spread to the southwestern corner of the Los Angeles business district, putting them within walking distance of Little Tokyo and Chinatown. By the 1930s 650 Koreans resided in Los Angeles, they established churches and community organizations, as well as businesses that focused on vegetable and fruit distribution. In 1936, the Korean National Association, one of the largest Korean immigrant political organizations, moved its central headquarters from San Francisco to Los Angeles to continue promoting political, cultural and religious activities. However, racial covenant laws and economic constraints limited Korean residents to an area bounded by Adams Boulevard to the north, Slauson Avenue to the south, Western Avenue to the west, Vermont Avenue to the east.

The 1930s saw the height of the area's association with Hollywood. The Ambassador Hotel hosted the Academy Awards ceremony in 1930, 1931, 1932, 1934; as the entertainment industry grew in the surrounding Koreatown area, Koreans remained segregated into low-income districts because of discriminatory housing policies. After the 1948 Shelley v. Kraemer Supreme Court case prohibited racially restrictive housing policies, Koreans began to move north of Olympic Boulevard to establish new homes and businesses. In the late 1960s, the surrounding neighborhood began to enter a steep economic decline; the once-glamorous mid-Wilshire area became filled with vacant commercial and office space that attracted wealthier South Korean immigrants. They found many opened businesses in Koreatown. Many of the area's Art Deco buildings with terracotta facades were preserved because they remained economically viable with the new commercial activity that occupied them; the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 removed restrictions on Asian migration and helped further the growth of the immigrant community in Koreatown.

By the late 1970s, most businesses in the Olympic Boulevard and 8th Street areas were owned by Koreans. This economic boom led to the creation of Korean media outlets and community organizations, which played a key role in developing a sense of communal identity in the neighborhood; the ethnic enclave was able to establish itself as the primary hub of the Korean community in Southern California, the residents lobbied for the installation of the first Koreatown sign in 1982. The 1992 Los Angeles riots had a significant impact on the community, solidifying the importance of community-based nonprofit organizations, such as the Koreatown Youth and Community Center and Koreatown Immigrant Workers Alliance; these organizations advocated for reparations and protections for Korean Americans, who received little support from government authorities as a result of their low social status and language barrier. During the time of the riots and Korean Americans were facing racial strife. In many predominately Black neighborhoods, Korean citizens owned the majority of businesses.

When white residents left the area, Koreans purchased their businesses from them for little money. Rapper Ice Cube spoke of this, along with Asian suspicion of Black residents in his 1991 album "Death Certificate" during the song "Black Korea". On March 16, 1991, a Korean store owner, Soon Ja Du, shot and killed a 15-year old, black customer, Latasha Harlins. Du accused Harlins of stealing orange juice, after watching her slamming down the jug and turning to leave, shot her in the head; some historians view Du's posting bail as the breaking point in tensions. The 1992 unrest stimulated a new wave of political activism among Korean-Americans, but split them into two camps; the liberals sought to unite with other minorities in Los Angeles to fight against racial oppression and scapegoating. The conservatives emphasized law and order and favored the economic and social policies of the Republican Party; the conservatives tended to emphasize the political differences between Koreans and other minorities Blacks and Hispanics.

Despite this divide within the Korean American community, the 1992 riots inspired further efforts to build coalitions rooted in intersectionality. The 1992 Koreatown Peace Rally was a record-setting demonstration w


Rycote is a hamlet 2.5 miles southwest of Thame in Oxfordshire. Richard and Sybil Quartermayne and lady of the manor of Rycote, founded Saint Michael's chapel as a chantry in 1449, it is a Perpendicular Gothic building with a chancel and west tower. It retains original 15th-century wooden fittings including stalls and a screen. In the 17th century the chapel was ornamented with a west gallery, altar rails, a reredos and other fittings; the first reredos, dated 1610, is now damaged and in 1974 was kept under the tower. It has been replaced by a second reredos dated 1682. Carved masonry has been found from a substantial house. Rycote House was a great Tudor country house, built here early in the 16th century for Sir John Heron, Treasurer of the Chamber to first Henry VII and Henry VIII, who bought the manor of Rycote on his retirement in 1521. Henry VIII and his fifth wife, Catherine Howard, honeymooned here in 1540. Pictures from circa 1695 and 1714 show that the main part of the house was arranged around a courtyard.

It had stepped gables, a gatehouse and polygonal corner turrets with cupolas and was surrounded by a moat. In 1539 Rycote was bought by Sir John Williams, created Baron Williams of Thame. Baron Williams died without a male heir, so Rycote became part of the Norreys family estates via his son-in-law Henry Norris, 1st Baron Norreys. Charles I visited Rycote in 1625. In 1682 James Bertie, 5th Baron Norreys of Rycote was created 1st Earl of Abingdon, he died in 1699 and a memorial to him in the chapel was erected in 1767. It was long believed that Rycote House burned down in 1745 and that its remains were demolished in 1800, apart from one corner turret and some outbuildings. However, in 2001 Channel 4's Time Team investigated Rycote Park looking for the remains of the Tudor Rycote House and established that Rycote had been rebuilt after the fire over a period of about 20 years; the Bodleian Library in Oxford holds records of sales of contents and fabric from Rycote, indicating that the Tudor house was sold by lot for removal between 1779 and 1807, the year in which the 5th Earl of Abingdon ordered its demolition.

In about 1920 the extensive stables were converted into the present Rycote House. Rycote belonged to the Member of Parliament and prominent Rugby Union player Alfred St. George Hamersley. In the chapel there is a memorial to Hamersley made by the sculptor Eric Gill. Sherwood, Jennifer. Oxfordshire; the Buildings of England. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. Pp. 747–749. ISBN 0-14-071045-0

The X Factor (New Zealand series 2)

The second and final series of the New Zealand television reality music competition The X Factor premiered on TV3 in February 2015. Pre-auditions began in October 2014; as well as again being open to singers aged 14 and over, the series was open to bands, which had to contain no more than five members and have at least two singers. The contestants were split into the show's four traditional categories: Boys, Over 25s and Groups; the series premiered on Sunday 15 February, screened three nights per week until March 15, when it returned to the regular schedule of two nights per week. As well as being broadcast on TV3, the full series was streamed live on TV3's website; the live shows were simulcast on More FM. The series was again hosted by Dominic Bowden. Both former All Saints singer Melanie Blatt and Australian Idol winner Stan Walker returned to judge the series, they were joined by new judges, married couple Willy Moon and Natalia Kills until the first live show former The X Factor Australia judge Natalie Bassingthwaighte and I Am Giant drummer Shelton Woolright from the second live show.

The series was accompanied by spin-off show The Xtra Factor, hosted by Guy Williams, Sharyn Casey, Clint Roberts, screened on Four after The X Factor. As of February 2016, five acts from series 2 have been signed to a certain music label. Beau Monga, Mae Valley, Brendon Thomas and The Vibes were signed to Sony Music New Zealand, Stevie Tonks was signed to Christian music label "Parachute" and Finlay Robertson had received a grant by NZ On Air to release a single titled "Control"; the X Factor was created by Simon Cowell in the United Kingdom and the New Zealand version is based on the original UK series. Broadcast funding agency NZ On Air contributed $800,000 as a minority investor, for the production of 41 episodes of 60 minutes duration each; the series' broadcast sponsor is McDonald's, with Mazda, Fruttare, 2degrees and VO5 as programme partners. The initial pre-audition tour of 13 towns and cities was held in October and early November 2014, with the judges' auditions round filmed in Auckland in late November and early December.

The Boot Camp round was filmed in mid-January 2015 in Auckland. In September, two of the judges from the first series, Stan Walker and Melanie Blatt, were confirmed to return as judges; the other two judges from the first series, Daniel Bedingfield and Ruby Frost, were confirmed as not returning for the second series, with Frost wanting to focus on her music career. In October the final two judges were confirmed as New Zealand-born singer Willy Moon and his wife, English singer Natalia Kills. On 16 March 2015, only hours before the second live results show and Moon were sacked from the show after a public backlash ensued against the couple after they berated a contestant's appearance on air during the first live show the previous night. More than 50,000 people signed. For the show on 16 March, there were only two judges on the panel; the X Factor Australia judge Natalie Bassingthwaighte and New Zealand-born I Am Giant drummer Shelton Woolright were named as the replacements of Moon and Kills respectively.

In August 2014, Dominic Bowden was confirmed to return as the host of the second series. The first appeal for applicants was made on 24 August 2014, with the announcement of the application process and pre-audition tour details. Pre-auditions in front of the show's producers began on 11 October 2014 and travelled through 13 locations around New Zealand; this was a reduction from the 27 locations visited for the first series, with the second series focusing on cities. Bands were able to pre-audition in Auckland and Christchurch or by uploading a performance video; the auditionees chosen by the producers were invited back to the last set of auditions that took place in front of the judges and a live studio audience. These auditions were filmed at SkyCity Theatre in Auckland from 26 November to 2 December 2014 and broadcast from 15 February; the successful contestants progressed to the Boot Camp round. Notable returning auditionees included three contestants who had competed in the first series: Finlay Robertson, who made it to judges' retreats.

Stuss featured as Cassie Henderson's backing band in week eight of the first series' live shows. Steve Broad appeared on the second series of NZ Idol in 2005, where he placed third, on Pop's Ultimate Star in 2007. Archie Hill and Rick Aslett were two separate acts that appeared on series three of New Zealand's Got Talent at the audition stage in 2013. Richard Aslett went on to appear live as one of the "crowd favourites" at the finale of series 3 of NZGT in December 2013. Auditions 1: Featured successful auditionees: Shayla Armstrong, Jazzy Axton, Brendon Thomas and the Vibes, Joe Irvine, Ralph Zambrano, Nofo Lameko, Beau Monga, Ellaphon Tauariki and Eb Skye. Auditions 2 Featured successful auditionees: Michelle Beck, Liam Fitzsimon Cooper, Finlay Robertson, Matt Sainsbury, Tux Severne, Sarah Spicer and Stevie Tonks. Auditions 3: Featured successful auditionees: Co-lab, Hannah Cosgrove, Dr3am, Fare Thee Well and Urban Legacy. Auditions 4: Featured successful auditionees: Yolanda Bartram, Steve Broad, Teea Cecil, Nyssa Collins, Malakai Funaki, Archie Hill, Ria Hoeta, The Kicks, Anthony O'Hagan, Julie Rogers and Reiki Ruawai.

Auditions 5: Featured successful auditionees: Ashy Batchelor, Lili Bayliss, Georgia Bishop, Abby Cristodoulou, Bethan Dunstone-Leith, Elae and Leilani, Joseph Emanuel, Georgina Banfield and Kerin