Scissor Sisters is an American pop/rock band formed in 2001. Forged in the "gay nightlife scene of New York", the band took its name from the female same-sex sexual activity tribadism, its members include Jake Shears and Ana Matronic as vocalists, Babydaddy as multi-instrumentalist, Del Marquis as lead guitar/bassist, Randy Real as drummer. Scissor Sisters incorporates diverse and eclectic styles in their music, but tends to sway towards pop rock, glam rock, nu-disco, electroclash; the band came to prominence following the release of their Grammy-nominated and chart-topping disco version of "Comfortably Numb" and subsequent debut album Scissor Sisters. The album was a success in the UK where it reached number one, was the best-selling album of 2004, was certified platinum by the BPI, accrued them three BRIT Awards in 2005. All five of its singles reached positions within the top 20 of the UK Singles Chart while "Filthy/Gorgeous" scored the band their first number one on Billboard's Hot Dance Club Songs, despite the album's meager success in their native US.
The album continued its success in countries around Europe, in Australia and in Canada before the release of the band's second studio album Ta-Dah, their second consecutive UK number one album which produced their first UK number one single "I Don't Feel Like Dancin'". Their third studio album Night Work displayed a shift towards a more club-oriented sound, charting at number two on the UK Albums Chart, number one on Billboard's Top Independent Albums chart and in the top 10 of several international territories; the band released their fourth studio album Magic Hour in May 2012. Scissor Sisters has performed around the world and have become recognized for their controversial and transgressive live performances, they collaborated with a number of other well-known pop musicians, including Elton John and Kylie Minogue. In 2004, lead vocalist of rock band U2, described Scissor Sisters as "the best pop group in the world", they have collaborated with Global Cool in 2007 on one of their green lifestyle campaigns.
Named Dead Lesbian and the Fibrillating Scissor Sisters, the final two words of the latter being derived from the lesbian sexual act tribadism, the band was founded in 2000 after friends Jason "Jake Shears" Sellards and Scott "Babydaddy" Hoffman both moved to New York City, enjoying its open and gay-friendly ethos. They began producing music together, with Babydaddy composing music and Shears writing lyrics; the duo released a couple of singles to little success and began appearing at underground clubs on New York's Lower East Side. On a trip to Disneyland, the pair met Ana "Matronic" Lynch at a screening of Michael Jackson's Captain EO. During a subsequent teacup ride, they discovered. Shears remarked, "I thought she was a freak but when I started singing "Another Part of Me" she showed me the best moonwalk I've seen."Ana Matronic ran a weekly cabaret event known as Knock Off at a club called the Slipper Room in New York, where she liked to hire eccentric and alternative acts. Matronic invited the pair to appear at Knock Off, which they did on September 21, 2001.
Shears dressed as his character "Jason the Amazing Back-Alley Late Term Abortion" whilst Matronic, dressed as a reject from Andy Warhol's Factory, joined the pair on stage and sang. Shears and Babydaddy felt she was effective and asked her to join the band on a permanent basis, to which she agreed; the trio began appearing at other clubs, dropping the word "Fibrillating" from their name. They played electroclash, popular at the time in the underground club scene of New York with bands like Peaches and Chicks on Speed, they were soon joined by Derek "Del Marquis" Gruen on lead guitar, who had known Shears from when they both worked at the IC Guys club where Shears had been a stripper. They were joined by a fifth member, Patrick "Paddy Boom" Seacor, on drums who felt the need to explain to his mother that "it's not a gay band... There gay members. It's about the music and about performance."In 2002, the band signed with a small New York record company called A Touch of Class for a two-single deal.
Their first single "Electrobix" dealt with gay men's obsessions with working out but proved to be less popular than its B-side, a cover version of Pink Floyd's progressive rock classic "Comfortably Numb". Matronic commented, "It's one of those songs that people were either gonna love or hate, that's really powerful, because it means you're evoking a reaction in everyone; the first time I heard it, I thought that if it doesn't make us famous, it'll make us infamous because somebody will shoot us!" Their version of "Comfortably Numb" became a hit in many dance clubs and, after sending Pink Floyd themselves a copy, the Scissor Sisters received positive remarks from the song's original writers Roger Waters and David Gilmour. The song proved to be popular in the UK, where various record labels soon took an interest in the band. In 2003, they decided they would tour Europe where they believed audiences would be more receptive of them and their music than their native US. "Comfortably Numb" came to the attention of British label Polydor, who signed the group to a contract.
Their first single for the label "Laura" (with two different mu
A music workstation is an electronic musical instrument providing the facilities of: a sound module, a music sequencer and a musical keyboard. It enables a musician to compose electronic music using just one piece of equipment; the concept of a music sequencer combined with a synthesizer originated in the late 1970s with the combination of microprocessors, mini-computers, digital synthesis, disk-based storage, control devices such as musical keyboards becoming feasible to combine into a single piece of equipment, affordable to high-end studios and producers, as well as being portable for performers. Prior to this, the integration between sequencing and synthesis was a manual function based on wiring of components in large modular synthesizers, the storage of notes was based on potentiometer settings in an analog sequencer. Polyphonic synthesizers such as Sequential Circuit Prophet-5 and Yamaha DX7 were capable of playing only one patch at a time There was some sequencing ability in some keyboards, but it was not MIDI sequencing.
In the mid to late 80s, workstation synths were manufactured more than single-patch keyboards. A workstation such as the Korg M1 was able to play out 8 different patches on 8 different MIDI channels, as well as playing a drum track, had an onboard MIDI sequencer; the patches were samples, but users could not record their own samples, as they could on a Fairlight. Having samples as the sound source is what made it possible to have various drum sounds in one patch. In contrast, a DX7 or a JX3P did not have the synthesis features to create all the sounds in a drum kit. Examples of early music workstations included the New England Digital Synclavier and the Fairlight CMI. Low-cost computer hardware Leveraging the technology of personal computers, adding a microprocessor enabled complex control functions to be expressed in software rather than wiring. In 1977, the Sequential Circuits Prophet-5 and other polyphonic synthesizers had used microprocessors to control patch storage and recall, the music workstations applied it to control sequence storage and recall as well.
The Fairlight used a dual Motorola 6800 configuration, while the Synclavier used a mini-computer called the ABLE. Digital synthesis While it was possible to create a music workstation with digitally controlled analog synthesis modules, few companies did this, instead seeking to produce new sounds and capabilities based on digital synthesis. Disk-based storage Again leveraging the technology of personal computers, music workstations used floppy disks to record patches and samples. Hard disk storage appeared in the second generation. Control devices In a music workstation, the keyboard was not directly connected to the synthesis modules, as in a Minimoog or ARP Odyssey. Instead, the keyboard switches were digitally scanned, control signals sent over a computer backplane where they were inputs to the computer processor, which would route the signals to the synthesis modules, which were output devices on the backplane; this approach had been used for years in computer systems, allowed the addition of new input and output peripherals without obsoleting the entire computer.
In the case of the music workstations, the next output devices to be added were computer terminal displays, in the case of the Fairlight, the next input device was a light pen for "drawing" on the display screen. The result was that music workstations evolved during this period, as new software releases could add more functionality, new voice cards developed, new input technologies added. By 1982, the Fairlight CMI Series II represented another advance as it now offered more RAM-based sample memory than any other system with an improved sample rate, in the Series III changed from 8-bit to 16-bit samples; the Synclavier introduced hard-disk based sampling in 1982, storing megabytes of samples for the first time. Other products combined synthesis and sequencing. For instance the Sequential Circuits Six-Trak provided this possibility; the Six-Trak was a polyphonic analog synthesizer. Still other products focused on combining sequencing. For instance the E-mu Emulator models, first introduced in 1982, combined sample memory with a simple sequencer in the initial model, an 8-track sequencer in models.
The biggest change in the industry was the development of the MIDI standard in 1983 for representing musical note sequences. For the first time, sequences could be moved from one digitally controlled music device to another. In the late 1980s, on-board MIDI sequencers began to appear more on professional synthesizers; the Korg M1 was the first known and popular music workstation, became the world's best-selling digital keyboard synthesizer of all time. During its six-year production period, more than 250,000 units were sold. MIDI As mentioned above, MIDI data represents pitches and controller events. MIDI information could be used on the backplane that linked the elements of the workstation together, connecting the input devices to the synthesizers, or it could be sent to another device or received from another device. Display technologies Music workstations adopted the most effective input/output devices available for their price range, since there were complex control settings to display, complex waveforms, complex sequences.
The lower-end devices began to use LED displays that showed multiple lines of characters and simple graphics, while the higher-end devices began to adopt personal computers wit
Nightwish is a symphonic metal band from Kitee, Finland. The band was formed in 1996 by lead songwriter and keyboardist Tuomas Holopainen, guitarist Emppu Vuorinen, former lead singer Tarja Turunen; the band soon picked up drummer Jukka Nevalainen, bassist Sami Vänskä after the release of their debut album, Angels Fall First. In 2001, Vänskä was replaced by Marco Hietala, who took over the male vocalist role filled by Holopainen or guest singers. Although Nightwish have been prominent in their home country since Angels Fall First, they did not achieve wider success until the release of the albums Oceanborn and Century Child, their 2004 album, has sold more than one million copies and was the band's breakthrough in the United States. Their biggest US hit single, "Wish I Had an Angel", received MTV airplay and was included on three US film soundtracks to promote their North American tour; the band produced three more singles and two music videos for Once, as well as a re-recording of "Sleeping Sun" for the compilation album, Highest Hopes: The Best of Nightwish, before Turunen's dismissal in October 2005.
Her last performance with Nightwish was during a concert recorded for the live album/DVD End of an Era. After the concert, the other members informed Turunen with an open letter that she was no longer a member of Nightwish. In May 2007, Nightwish announced Anette Olzon as Turunen's replacement; that September, the band released their sixth album, Dark Passion Play, which has sold 2 million copies. The album's lead single, "Amaranth", became; the supporting tour, one of the band's largest, started on October 6, 2007 and ended on September 19, 2009. The band released an EP/live album, Made in Hong Kong, in March 2009 as a CD/DVD, their seventh studio album, was released globally on various days in late 2011/early 2012. On October 1, 2012, Nightwish announced that they had parted ways with Olzon and would be finishing the tour with at that time ReVamp vocalist Floor Jansen. In October 2013, Nightwish made Jansen and longtime session uilleann pipes player Troy Donockley permanent members of the band, they were featured in the acclaimed album Endless Forms Most Beautiful, released on March 27, 2015.
Nightwish is the third-best-selling band and musical entity in Finland with certified sales of nearly 900,000 certified copies. The group is the most successful Finnish band worldwide, selling more than 9 million records and receiving more than 60 gold and platinum awards, having released five Number 1 albums and thirteen Number 1 singles. On October 26th, 2018, Nightwish has been inducted to the Finnish Music Hall of Fame, becoming the honorary gallery's 11th member. After playing keyboards in several heavy metal bands in the 1990s, including Nattvindens Gråt and Darkwoods My Betrothed, Tuomas Holopainen decided to create his own project while sitting around a campfire with friends in 1996, he had a clear idea of the music: experimental acoustic music he wrote himself during his time in the Finnish Army, similar to the music played around campfires, but with a distinct sound and atmosphere, played on his keyboards. He soon invited friend and schoolmate Erno "Emppu" Vuorinen to play acoustic guitars, the classical vocalist Tarja Turunen, who shared the same music teacher, Plamen Dimov.
The three musicians recorded their self-titled acoustic demo in winter 1996. The name "Nightwish" was derived from their first song together – the demo included the song "The Forever Moments", an early version of "Etiäinen". In early 1997, following the release of the Nightwish demo, Jukka "Julius" Nevalainen joined the band, acoustic guitar was replaced with electric guitar; the addition of heavy metal elements to the band's existing experimental style gave the band a different sound, forming the core of the Nightwish sound. The band entered the studio in April 1997 to record seven songs for their second demo, Angels Fall First. In May 1997, the demo made its way to the Finnish record label Spinefarm Records, who wanted to release it as the band's debut album of the same name; the label offered Nightwish to a record deal, the band returned to the studio to record four more songs to accompany the tracks of the demo. The full-length album was released in November 1997 and reached number 31 on the Finnish album charts, with the single "The Carpenter" reaching number 3 on the Finnish singles chart.
"The Carpenter" single was released as a split with label mates Children of Thy Serpent. The band made their live debut in their hometown Kitee in December 1997. Since they were missing a bass player, Samppa Hirvonen joined them as a sessional live member. Marianna Pellinen was a sessional live member as an additional keyboard player and a backing vocalist for Turunen. There were plans to make Hirvonen a permanent member, but he joined the army as part of Finnish army conscription just as they began recording Oceanborn, so they asked Sami Vänskä to join instead, since Tuomas knew him from the band Nattvindens Gråt. During the winter of 1997 and 1998, the band performed only seven times, because Turunen was finishing her schooling, Nevalainen and Vuorinen were serving their obligatory Finnish military service. Nightwish returned to the studio in August 1998 as a five-piece to record their follow-up album for Spinefarm Records. On October 7, 1998, Nightwish released Oceanborn, in Finland only. Adopting a more technical and progressive sound than Angels Fall First, Oceanborn saw the band
Alesis Digital Audio Tape is a magnetic tape format used for the recording of eight digital audio tracks onto a Super VHS tape, used by consumer VCRs. The product was announced in January 1991 at the NAMM convention in California by Alesis; the first ADAT recorders shipped over a year in February or March 1992. More audio tracks could be recorded by synchronizing up to 16 ADAT machines together, for a total of 128 tracks. While synchronization had been available in earlier machines, ADAT machines were the first to do so with sample-accurate timing - which in effect allowed a studio owner to purchase a 24-track tape machine eight tracks at a time; this capability and its comparatively low cost introduced at $3995, were responsible for the rise of project studios in the 1990s. Several versions of the ADAT machine were produced; the original ADAT and the ADAT XT recorded 16 bits per sample. A generation of machines—the XT-20, LX-20 and M-20—supports 20 bits per sample. All ADAT machines use the same high quality S-VHS tape media.
Tapes formatted in the older Type I style can be read and written in the more modern machines, but not the other way around. Generations record at two sample rates, the 44.1 and 48 kHz rates commonplace in the audio industry. All models allow pitch control by varying the sample rate, thus tape speed accordingly. An original Blackface could record at 44.1 kHz if the pitch was lowered or raised by a specific amount. An indicator on the LED display showed. With locate points it was possible to store sample exact positions on tape, making it easy to find specific parts of digital recordings. Using Auto Play and Auto Record functions made it possible to drop in recording at exact points, rather than relying on human ability to drop in at the right place. ADAT machines could be controlled externally with the Alesis LRC, which could be attached to the ADAT with a 1/4" tip/sleeve plug, featured the transport controls and most used functions. Alternatively the BRC could be used, which included many more features which the stand-alone ADAT did not have, such as song naming, more locate points and MIDI Time Code synchronisation.
ADAT tapes are still available through some pro audio retailers with products from Maxell, EMTEC. Although it is a tape based format, the term ADAT now refers to its successor, the Alesis ADAT HD24, which features hard disk recording rather than the traditional tape-based ADAT, which in turn is now considered obsolete. Many still use the ADAT as a simple I/O for transfer of analog to digital signals. "ADAT" is currently used as an abbreviation for the ADAT Lightpipe protocol, which transfers 8 tracks in a single fiber optic cable. The ADAT cable standard is no longer tied to ADAT tape machines, is now utilized by analog-to-digital converters, input cards for digital audio workstations, effects machines, etc. One of the original benefits of utilizing ADAT versus S/PDIF or AES3 was that a single cable could carry up to eight channels of audio. Digital Audio Tape Multitrack recording Media related to ADAT at Wikimedia Commons DAT-XT 8 Track Digital Audio Recorder manuals
An electronic keyboard or digital keyboard is an electronic musical instrument, an electronic or digital derivative of keyboard instruments. Broadly speaking, the term electronic keyboard or just a keyboard can refer to any type of digital or electronic keyboard instrument; these include synthesizers, digital pianos, stage pianos, electronic organs and digital audio workstations. However, an electronic keyboard is more a synthesizer with a built-in low-wattage power amplifier and small loudspeakers. Electronic keyboards are capable of recreating a wide range of instrument sounds and synthesizer tones with less complex sound synthesis. Electronic keyboards are designed for home users and other non-professional users, they have unweighted keys. The least expensive models mid - to high-priced models do. Home keyboards have little, if any, digital sound editing capacity; the user selects from a range of preset "voices" or sounds, which include imitations of many instruments and some electronic synthesizer sounds.
Home keyboards have a much lower cost than professional synthesizers. Casio and Yamaha are among the leading manufacturers of home keyboards. An electronic keyboard may be called a digital keyboard, portable keyboard, or home keyboard referring to their digital-based sound generation, light-weight and portable build. In China, Japan and Southeast Asia, electronic keyboards were mistakenly referred to as an organ, due to popularity of home electronic organs in those countries and keyboards/synthesizers being considered a similar instrument. In Russia, most kinds of keyboards were often referred to as a synthesizer with no other term to distinguish them from actual digital synthesizers; the term electronic keyboard may be used to refer to a synthesizer or digital piano on colloquial usage. The major components of a typical modern electronic keyboard are: Musical keyboard: The white and black piano-style keys which the player presses, thus connecting the switches, which trigger the electronic circuits to generate sound.
Most keyboards use a keyboard matrix circuit to reduce the amount of wiring necessary. Electronic keyboards use unweighted synthesizer-style keys to save costs and reduce the weight of the instrument. In contrast, stage piano and digital pianos have weighted or semi-weighted keys, which replicate the feel of an acoustic piano. User interface system: A program which handles user interaction with controllers such as the musical keyboard and buttons; these controllers enable the user to select different instrument sounds, digital effects, other features. The user interface system includes an LCD screen that gives the user information about the synthesized sound she has selected and on tempo, effects that are activated and other features. Computerized musical arranger: A software program which produces rhythms and chords by the means of computerized commands MIDI. Electronic hardware can do this. Most computerized arrangers can play a selection of rhythms. Sound generator: A digital sound module contained within an integrated Read-only memory, capable of accepting MIDI commands and producing electronic sounds.
Electronic keyboards incorporate sample-based synthesis, but more advanced keyboards might sometimes feature physical modeling synthesis. Amplifier and speakers: an internal audio power amplifier a few watts, connected to the sound generator chip; the amplifier is connected to small, low-powered speakers that reproduce the synthesized sounds so that the listener can hear them. Less expensive instruments may have a single mono speaker. More expensive models may have two speakers producing stereo sound. Power supply: Keyboards may or may not have an internal power supply system built to the main circuit board, but most modern keyboards are equipped with an included AC adapter. MIDI terminals: Most keyboards incorporate 5-pin MIDI connections for data communication so the keyboard can be connected with either a computer or another electronic musical instrument, such as a synthesizer, a drum machine or a sound module, allowing it to be used as a MIDI controller. Not all keyboards have conventional MIDI terminals and connector.
The least expensive models may have no MIDI connections. Post-2000s keyboards may have a USB instead, which serve as both input and output in a single connection. In the 2010s, conventional MIDI in/out terminals are only available in professional-grade keyboards, stage pianos and high-end synthesizers, while low-cost home keyboards, digital pianos, budget synthesizers use USB as the only connection available. Flash memory: Some electronic keyboards have a small amount of onboard memory for storing MIDI data and/or recorded songs. External storage device: Usually available on professional-grade keyboards and synthesizers, this allows the user to store data in externally connected storage media such as ROM cartridges, floppy disks, memory cards and USB flash drives. Floppy disks and cartridges were obsolete by the early 2000s, with memory cards starting to replace them shortly afterwards. USB storage was less common at the time, but was popularized by Yamaha's lineup of workstation keyboards in 2005 and has become a standard feature since.
Open plan is the generic term used in architectural and interior design for any floor plan which makes use of large, open spaces and minimizes the use of small, enclosed rooms such as private offices. The term can refer to landscaping of housing estates, business parks, etc. in which there are no defined property boundaries, such as hedges, fences or walls. Open-plan office designs are promoted as improving collaboration, but moving from cubicles to open workspaces results in fewer face-to-face interactions among staff and reduced productivity. In residential design, open plan or open concept describes the elimination of barriers such as walls and doors that traditionally separated distinct functional areas, such as combining the kitchen, living room, dining room into a single great room. Many pre-industrial huts are single-room, if small. In England in the Middle Ages, the single-room hearth-heated hall house developed into multi-room houses that became popular as the country industrialized, more people beyond nobility could afford them.
In the 1880s, small public rooms of the home with specific functions began to be replaced by larger rooms that would fulfill multiple uses, with the kitchen and bathrooms still being enclosed private spaces. Larger rooms were made possible by advances in centralized heating that allowed larger spaces to be kept at comfortable temperatures. Frank Lloyd Wright was one of the early advocates for open plan design in houses, expanding on the ideas of Charles and Henry Greene and shingle style architecture. Wright's designs were based on a centralized kitchen which opened to other public spaces of the home where the housewife would be "more hostess'officio', operating in gracious relation to her home, instead of being a kitchen mechanic behind closed doors." Lack of dividing walls between the kitchen and combined living room/dining room became more popular in United States in the 1970s. A home with this type of layout has one or more large, open rooms that function as multiple rooms within a single living space.
The most common is a great room that combines the kitchen, dining room, living room into one shared space. These floor plans work well in homes with a smaller area, while larger homes have more leeway to work with when integrating great rooms into a floor plan; the removal of interior walls increases views and allows sunlight from windows in the exterior walls to permeate throughout the house. In the late 2010s, some people have expressed disapproval at the open concept. Complaints about open concept designs is that they make it more difficult for different people to engage in different activities, makes it difficult to hide clutter or a dirty kitchen. Walls are useful to contain noise and smells, provide privacy, small rooms are more efficient to heat and cool. A follow-on trend among wealth homeowners is to build a second "mess kitchen" where the actual activity of food preparation takes place, while entertaining happens in a clean kitchen, part of the open concept space. Prior to the 1950s open-plan offices consisted of large regular rows of desks or benches where clerks, typists, or technicians performed repetitive tasks.
Such designs were rooted in the work of industrial engineers or efficiency experts such as Frederick Winslow Taylor and Henry Ford. In the 1950s a German team named Quickborner developed the office landscape, which used conventional furniture, curved screens, large potted plants, organic geometry to create work groups on large, open floors. Office landscape was supplanted by office-furniture companies which developed cubicles based on panel-hung or systems furniture. Many terms have been used over time for offices using the large arrays of open cubicles. An increase in knowledge work and the emergence of mobile technology during the late 20th-century led to an evolution in open-plan offices. Many companies have started experimenting with designs which provide a mix of cubicles, open workstations, private offices, group workstations. In some cases, these are not assigned to one particular individual, but are available to any employee of the company on either a reservable or "drop-in" basis. Terms for this strategy include Hoteling, "alternative officing" and "hotdesking".
Michael Bloomberg used a team-oriented bullpen style – where employees can see and hear each other but desks are grouped into teams – at his media company Bloomberg L. P. and for his staff while Mayor of New York City. A systematic survey of research upon the effects of open-plan offices found frequent negative effects in some traditional workplaces: high levels of noise, conflict, high blood pressure and a high staff turnover; the noise level in open-plan offices reduces productivity, which drops to one third relative to what it would be in quiet rooms. New technologies like voice-activation and mobile phones decrease effectiveness in the open-plan setting. Although promoted as a way to encourage collaboration and increase the group's collective intelligence, open-plan offices are associated with a dramatic reduction in face-to-face interactions, as employees turn to digital communication, such as sending e-mail messages. Open-plan offices have been found to reduce the confidential or private conversations which employees engage in, to reduce job satisfaction and performance, whilst increasing auditory and visual distractions.
Open-plan offices have been found to elevate the risk of employees needing to take time off for sickness. Panopticon
Korg Inc. founded as Keio Electronic Laboratories, is a Japanese multinational corporation that manufactures electronic musical instruments, audio processors and guitar pedals, recording equipment, electronic tuners. Under the Vox brand name, they manufacture guitar amplifiers and electric guitars. Korg was founded in 1962 in Japan by Tsutomu Katoh and Tadashi Osanai as Keio Gijutsu Kenkyujo Ltd.. It became Keio Electronic Laboratories because its fledgling offices were located near the Keio train line in Tokyo and Keio can be formed by combining the first letters of Katoh and Osanai. Before founding the company, Katoh ran a nightclub. Osanai, a Tokyo University graduate and noted accordionist performed at Katoh's club accompanied by a Wurlitzer Sideman rhythm machine. Unsatisfied with the rhythm machine, Osanai convinced Katoh to finance his efforts to build a better one; the company's first product, released in 1963, was an electro-mechanical rhythm device called the Disc Rotary Electric Auto Rhythm machine, Donca matic DA-20.
The name "Donca" was an onomatopoeic reference to the sound. Buoyed by the success of the DA-20, Keio released a solid-state version of the Rhythm machine, the Donca matic DE-20, in 1966. In 1967, Katoh was approached by an engineer who wanted to build keyboards. Impressed with Mieda's enthusiasm, Katoh asked him to build a prototype and 18 months Mieda returned with a programmable organ. Keio sold the organ under the name KORG, created by using the first letter of each founder's name plus "RG" from their planned emphasis on products targeted for the organ market. Keio's organ products were successful throughout the late 1960s and early 1970s but, concerned about the competition from other big organ manufacturers, Katoh decided to use the organ technology to build a keyboard for the then-niche synthesizer market. Keio's first synthesizer, the Korg miniKORG, was thus released in 1973. During the 1970s, Korg's synthesizer line was divided into instruments for the hobbyist, large expensive patchable instruments such as the PS series.
In the early'80s, Korg branched out into the digital piano category. Korg is credited with a number of innovations and landmark products; the "key transpose" function was Katoh's idea after a singer at his club needed her accompaniment played in a lower key, which the accompanist wasn't accomplished enough to do. Korg was the first company to feature effects on a synthesizer, the first to use a "sample + synthesis" sound design; the M1 workstation, released in 1988, sold over 250,000 units, making it the bestselling synthesizer at that time. In 1989, Korg recruited the design team from Sequential Circuits just as they were relieved of their duties by then-Sequential owner Yamaha. Yamaha Corporation has always been a major partner of Korg, supplying them with circuitry and mechanical parts. In 1987, shortly before the release of the M1 Music Workstation, Yamaha acquired a controlling interest in Korg's stock; the takeover of the company was amicable, with Katoh drawing up the terms, the two companies continued to independently develop their product lines and compete in the marketplace.
After 5 successful years, Katoh had enough money to rebuy most of the Yamaha share back in 1993. Korg has since diversified into digital effects, recording equipment, electronic hand percussion, software instruments. In 1992, Korg acquired Vox primarily a manufacturer of guitar amplifiers. Korg was the exclusive distributor of Marshall Amplification product in the United States for decades, with this distribution arrangement ending in 2010. Tsutomu Katoh died of cancer on March 15, 2011. Category:Korg synthesizers Electronic tuner "Korg Sound Make Up Museum". Korg. Korg home page Korg Middle East home page Korg Arrangers Home Page Korg Page at Synthmuseum.com Korg Kornucopia - Korg analogue synthesizer information and resources information on Korg's analogue vintage instruments Korg museum korgaseries.org - A decade old online resource hosting photos, product info, mailing list and manuals for Korg's A1, A2 and A3 effects processors. Audio interview with Mitch Colby - EVP / CMO of Korg USA Korg - Review NAMM Oral History Interview Tsutomu Katoh discusses his favorite of his many musical products, the tuner.
October 16, 2006