Bunbuku Chagama is a Japanese folktale about a raccoon dog, or tanuki, that uses its shapeshifting powers to reward its rescuer for his kindness. Bunbuku Chagama translates to "happiness bubbling over like a tea pot"; the story tells of a poor man. Feeling sorry for the animal, he sets it free; that night, the tanuki comes to the poor man's house to thank him for his kindness. The tanuki tells the man to sell him for money; the man sells the tanuki-teapot to a monk, who takes it home and, after scrubbing it harshly, sets it over the fire to boil water. Unable to stand the heat, the tanuki teapot sprouts legs and, in its half-transformed state, makes a run for it; the tanuki returns to the poor man with another idea. The man would set up a circus-like roadside attraction and charge admission for people to see a teapot walking a tightrope; the plan works, each gains something good from the other—the man is no longer poor and the tanuki has a new friend and home. In a variant of the story, the tanuki-teapot returns to its transformed state.
The shocked monk decides to leave the teapot as an offering to the poor temple where he lives, choosing not to use it for making tea again. The temple becomes famous for its supposed dancing teapot. An animated movie based on the tale was produced in 1928 by Yokohama Cinema Shoukai. There is a reference to this story in Studio Ghibli's 1994 animated film Pom Poko. A character in the manga To Love-Ru is seen holding the book and commenting that she is taking an interest in Japanese folklore. In the Naruto series, Shukaku the One-Tail, modeled after a tanuki, is mentioned to have been sealed into a teapot, it is revealed that his former jinchūriki was an old man named Bunbuku. In Ichiro by Ryan Inzana, the legend of the tanuki teapot is woven into the story of an American teenager, the son of a Japanese immigrant mother and an American soldier killed in combat. Kachi-kachi Yama, another Japanese folktale on the tanuki "Bunbuku Chagama". Folklore of Japan. Kids Web Japan. Retrieved August 22, 2008. "The Accomplished and Lucky Tea-Kettle", translation by Algernon Bertram Freeman-Mitford in Tales of Old Japan "The Magic Kettle" adaptation by Andrew Lang in The Crimson Fairy Book
Awa Tanuki Gassen
The Awa Tanuki Gassen is a Japanese legend that takes place in the Awa Province. The legend is about a great war between two tanuki powers. There are several well-known tales about tanuki in Shikkoku, this one is said to be the most famous among those from Tokushima; this story first appeared near the end of the Edo Period, in literature, it was first published in Meiji 43 under the title "Shikoku Kidan Jissetsu Furudanuki Gassen". It was a kōdan from the Meiji period until the time of the war and gained popularity in the beginning of the Showa period as it became depicted in movies. In the Heisei period, it has become a common theme in community development and is known in Tokushima Prefecture; the story took place around the tenpō period near Higaino in Komatsushima. A dyer named Moemon, who ran a dyeing shop called Yamatoya, saved a tanuki, being bullied by people. Before long, Yamatoya's business was flourishing; the tanuki came to serve as the guardian angel of Mankichi, who worked at the shop, told of his origins.
This tanuki was called Kinchō and he was chief of the local tanuki, aged around 206 years old. While around Mankichi, Kinchō performed great services such as curing customers' diseases and performing divination, gaining himself a great reputation. A few years Kinchō/Mankichi decided to try to raise his rank in society beyond that of a mere tanuki, so he became an apprentice to the bake-danuki, who lived in Tsuda Bay, Myōdō District. After much training, Kinchō displayed great accomplishments and achieved the rank of Senior First Rank. Rokuemon, loath to let go of Kinchō, tried to make him stay as a son-in-law through marriage to his daughter. However, Kinchō felt obliged to return to Moemon, furthermore disliked Rokuemon's cruel personality, so he refused. Unsatisfied with this, Rokuemon thought that Kinchō would become his enemy and, together with a vassal, tried to assassinate Kinchō. Kinchō, with the assistance of a tanuki from Higaino named Fuji no Kidera no Taka, counterattacked. However, Taka died in battle, only Kinchō was able to escape to Higaino.
Kinchō attempted to recruit followers in order to take revenge for Taka, started a battle with Rokuemon and his followers. In this battle, Kinchō's army won and Rokuemon was bitten to death, but Kinchō suffered mortal wounds and died afterwards before long, it is said that Moemon, in regret for how Kinchō lost his life just before achieving the rank of Senior First Rank, went himself to Kyoto's priest at the Yoshida Shrine, awarded him the title of Senior First Rank. Around the time of this battle, it was rumored that Kinchō's army was gathering at the Chinju Forest in preparation for battle against Rokuemon; when people entered the forest for sight-seeing, they heard much clamour and saw the footprints of a great number of tanuki, leading to speculation that the rumours of a battle were not lies or fairy tales. The exact story varies depending on the source, seen to be the result of being influenced by a certain kōdan. Rokuemon's daughter's name was Koyasuhime, she was in love with Kinchō, criticized Rokuemon for trying to attack Kinchō, committed suicide in an attempt to make him feel guilt.
However, Koyasuhime's death only increased Rokuemon's hatred. Kinchō, upon hearing the death of Koyasu who loved him, became more determined to bring down Rokuemon; the battle took place around Katsuura River, Kinchō's and Rokuemon's army were both more than 600 tanuki, the battle lasted for 3 days and nights. Shibaemon-tanuki from Awaji Island took part in the battle. Despite receiving a mortal wound, Kinchō returned to Higaino and told thanks to Moemon before losing his final strength. Moemon, moved by seeing this and how he lived, deified Kinchō as a daimyōjin. On the verge of death, Kinchō became a spirit and served as Mankichi's guardian spirit, swore to serve as a god for the Moemon family after death, as an act of gratitude. Moemon, moved by this, deified Kinchō as a daimyōjin. After Kinchō and Rokuemon's deaths, their sons started fighting in grief over Kinchō and Rokuemon, but Tasaburō-tanuki intervened and mediated, ending the war. In the years of Tenpō, there existed a tale about how a tanuki saved by Yamatoya repaid the favor as a sign of gratitude, leading to the theory that this story came from that tale.
In a certain year after that, there was an incident where a great number of tanuki corpses were found at the river banks of Katsuura River, leading to the theory that the tale of the great clash between Kinchō and Rokuemon was born from people creating a "kōdan" based on these events. On the other hand, the kinds of battles and conflicts detailed in this war, being aspects of human society, can be thought of as a depiction of events in human society with the people replaced by tanuki. In a spiritual mountain of the Tokushima's Shugendō practitioners, there was a battle between the different sects. In the legend called the Furudanuki Kinchō Giyuu Chinsetsuseki, there was a scene of rock-throwing, since rock-throwing was a military technique of the Middle Ages, there's the theory that the tale of the battle between tanuki was based on a battle between Shugendō practitioners on Mount Tairyūji and Mount Tsurugi. In this theory, the Shugendō practitioners on Tairyūji would be based on Kinchō and the Shugendō practitioners on Mount Tsurugi would be based on Rokuemon, suggesting that it's related to a clash that erupted when differ
Abura-akago is a Japanese yōkai that appeared illustrated in Toriyama Sekien's mid-Edo period Konjaku Gazu Zoku Hyakki, as an infant spirit lapping oil out of an andon lamp. Sekien's accompanying notes describe it: In the eighth town of Ōtsu in Ōmi Province there exists a flying ball-like fire; the natives say that long ago in the village of Shiga there was an oil merchant, every night he stole the oil from the Jizō of the Ōtsu crossroads, but when this person died his soul became a flame and now they grow accustomed to this errant fire. If it is so the baby which licks the oil is this person's rebirth; the words after "long ago in the village of Shiga" were quoted from a story about a mysterious fire called the "abura-nusumi no hi", which featured in the Edo period books, the Shokoku Rijin Dan and the Honchō Koji Innen Shū. In those books, it's stated that there was a folk belief where an oil merchant from Ōtsu, Ōmi Province steals oil from a Jizō statue at the crossroads so that he can sell them, became lost and turned into a mysterious fire after death.
In Mount Hiei, it's said that a mysterious fire called the abura-bō appears, in the Shokoku Rijin Dan, this fire is seen to be the same as the "abura-nusumi no hi." It's inferred that Sekien's abura-akago was a made-up tale based on this "abura-nusumi no hi" in the Shokoku Rijin Dan and other books. In more modern yōkai literature, it's interpreted that this yōkai takes on the appearance of a ball of flames and flies into people's houses, shapeshifts into that of a baby and licks the lanterns, returns to being a ball of fire and leaves. There's the theory that in the countryside in the past, unrefined materials like fish oil were used, so when cats licked the lamps, they might have looked like an abura-akago. Resembling this interpretation, in the book Tōhoku Kaidan no Tabi by the novelist Yamada Norio, a collection of kaidan, there was one Akita Prefecture kaidan titled "abura-name akago" in which a baby-carrying woman in Akida stayed at the house of a shōya, there the baby sucked dry all the oil of a lantern.
Specialists have pointed out that Tōhoku Kaidan no Tabi includes many Sekien-created yōkai that have not originated from folklore, leading to the theory that this "abura-name akago" was created based on Sekien's abura-akago. In Ihara Saikaku's early Edo period ukiyo book the Honchō Nijū Fukō, an oil lantern-drinking baby appears, but it's been noted to be something made up. Like the abura-nase and the ubagabi, there are many yōkai legends related to an attachment to oil. In this background, oil was a valuable resource used as food and as illumination in Japan, becoming more of a necessity since the middle ages due to an improvement in refining technology, leading to the theory that these yōkai were born as a warning against wasting oil by licking and sucking it. Mizuki, Shigeru. Mujara 3: Kinki-hen. Japan: Soft Garage. P. 18. ISBN 978-4-86133-006-3. Toriyama, Sekien. Toriyama Sekien Gazu Hyakki Yakō Zen Gashū. Tokyo: Kadokawa Shoten Publishing Co. Ltd. pp. 10–65. ISBN 978-4-04-405101-3. "Kaii Yōkai Denshō Database: Konpaku En".
Archived from the original on 25 May 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-16. Http://www.obakemono.com/obake/aburaakago/ The Obakemono Project: Abura akago
Tsuru no Ongaeshi
Tsuru no Ongaeshi is a story from Japanese folklore about a crane who returns a favor to a man. A variant of the story where a man marries the crane that returns the favor is known as Tsuru Nyōbō. An elderly couple saves a crane caught in a trap; that night, a beautiful girl asks to stay the night. Soon, she asks to be their daughter, takes care of them, offers to weave cloth so that they may sell it for money at the market, she warns them not to look in on her as she is weaving. When they look in on her weaving, they discover a crane plucking out its feathers to weave the cloth, she admits she was the crane they once saved, had wished to take care of them to return the favor. She explains that she must leave now that her identity is revealed, so she transforms into a crane and flies away. In The Crane Wife, a man marries a woman, in fact a crane disguised as a human. To make money the crane wife plucks her own feathers to weave silk brocade which the man sells, but she becomes ill as she does so.
When the man discovers his wife's true identity and the nature of her illness, she leaves him. In The Copper Pheasant Wife, the wife does not weave cloth but instead provides her husband a plume to feather an arrow shaft the husband is rewarded for; the wife is not looked in on by the husband like in The Crane Wife. In The Bird Wife, it is an injured wild goose. In this story, the wife weaves without prompting from the husband. One day she disappears, he finds her in a local pond, it is there she explains she was trying to repay his kindness, asks him to use the money from selling the cloth to take care of their child before flying away. In The Fox Wife, it is a fox that the man helps and who shows up on the man's doorstep to become his bride. In this tale the fox uses her tail to help sweep the floors. Upon discovering his wife's identity, the husband drives her away. In The Clam Wife A man finds, they become married, the wife cooks the husband a delicious bean soup each day. He peeks in on her cooking, discovers that she is urinating clam juice into the soup, so he chases her away.
In The Fish Wife a fisherman releases fish that he does not need to eat back into the water because he does not have a greedy nature. A beautiful woman begs to be his wife; the wife cooks the husband a bean soup, so good he is suspicious of how she makes it. He spies on her while she is cooking, discovers she urinates in the soup. At dinner he alludes to her cooking method; when the wife realizes he knows she says she must return to her former home, bids the husband visit her at the pond the following day. When he does, she explains how she was a fish he had wanted to repay the favor, she disappears into the water, leaving him a box of silver. In The Snake Wife a beautiful woman appears in a widower's doorway asking to stay the night, they become married, the wife becomes pregnant. The wife warns the husband not to look in on the hut, he looks, discovers a snake. The wife says, she ends up giving her child her two eyeballs for nourishment. When the son grows of age he takes care of his blind mother.
Legion – Episode "Chapter 3" Ultraman Leo – "A Monster's Favor" In Miss Kobayashi's Dragon Maid, one of the characters, an anthropomorphized dragon, tells the human main character to not peek into the kitchen until she calls for her, while holding a book copy of the tale, so that she can cook her own tail unseen for her. Yo-kai Watch – Episode 56 One Piece – Chapter 913 Hozuki's Coolheadedness – Season 2, episode 18 Iroha from the Samurai Shodown video game series is loosely based on the "Crane Wife" version of the story, being a crane-turned-human who became a maidservant to an unseen "master", to repay him for the kindness of rescuing her from a hunter's trap. During one of her special attacks she hides behind a shoji while saying "Please don't look, no matter what", referencing a scene from the story; the Grateful Crane from the videogame The Battle Cats is based on the crane of this folkloric tradition. The Crane Wife The Crane Wives Swan maiden Yuki-onna Hagoromo
Kintarō is a folk hero from Japanese folklore. A child of superhuman strength, he was raised by a yama-uba on Mount Ashigara, he became friendly with the animals of the mountain, after catching Shuten-dōji, the terror of the region around Mount Ōe, he became a loyal follower of Minamoto no Yorimitsu under the new name Sakata no Kintoki. He is a popular figure in Bunraku and kabuki drama, it is a custom to put up a Kintarō doll on Boy's Day in the hope that boys will become brave and strong. Kintarō is based on a real person, Sakata Kintoki, who lived during the Heian period and came from what is now the city of Minamiashigara, Kanagawa, he served as a retainer for the samurai Minamoto no Yorimitsu and became well known for his abilities as a warrior. As with many larger-than-life individuals, his legend has grown with time. Several competing stories tell of Kintarō's childhood. In one, he was raised by his mother, Princess Yaegiri, daughter of a wealthy man named Shiman-chōja, in the village of Jizodo, near Mount Ashigara.
In a competing legend, his mother gave birth to him in, Yamagata. She was forced to flee, due to fighting between her husband, a samurai named Sakata, his uncle, she settled in the forests of Mount Ashigara to raise her son. Alternatively, Kintarō's real mother left the child in the wilds or died and left him an orphan, he was raised by a yama-uba or "mountain witch". In the most fanciful version of the tale, the yama-uba was Kintarō's mother, impregnated by a clap of thunder sent from a red dragon of Mount Ashigara; the legends agree that as a toddler, Kintarō was active and indefatigable and ruddy, wearing only a bib with the kanji for "gold" on it. His only other accoutrement was a hatchet, he was bossy to other children, so his friends were the animals of Mt. Kintoki and Mt. Ashigara, he was phenomenally strong, able to smash rocks into pieces, uproot trees, bend trunks like twigs. His animal friends served him as messengers and mounts, some legends say that he learned to speak their language.
Several tales tell of Kintarō's adventures, fighting monsters and oni, beating bears in sumo wrestling, helping the local woodcutters fell trees. As an adult, Kintarō changed his name to Sakata no Kintoki, he met. Yorimitsu was impressed by Kintarō's enormous strength, so he took him as one of his personal retainers to live with him in Kyoto. Kintoki studied martial arts there and became the chief of Yorimitsu's Shitennō, renowned for his strength and martial prowess, he went back for his mother and brought her to Kyoto as well. Kintarō is an popular figure in Japan, his image adorns everything from statues to storybooks, manga to action figures. For example, the manga and anime Golden Boy stars a character with the same name. Kintarō as an image is characterized with an ono, a haragake apron, sometimes a tame bear. In many of Kintarō's pictures, it seems; this seems to glorify his strength. Kintarō candy has been around since the Edo period. Japanese tradition is to decorate the room of a newborn baby boy with Kintarō dolls on Children's Day so that the child will grow up to be strong like the Golden Boy.
A shrine dedicated to the folk hero lies at the foot of Mount Ashigara in the Hakone area near Tokyo. Nearby is a giant boulder, chopped in half by the boy hero himself; the name and certain traits of the main character of Gin Tama, Gintoki Sakata, are loosely based on Kintarō. The relation has been confirmed in Gin Tama's episode 98 and manga volume 10. Gintoki has its name contain the character for "silver" instead of "gold", he has silver hair. One of his nemeses, the golden-haired Sakata Kintoki made an appearance. In the anime series Otogi Zoshi, Kintaro is one of the main characters; the Imagin Kintaros from the tokusatsu series Kamen Rider Den-O is based on Kintarō, emulating the bear and axe elements. In the video game Otogi 2: Immortal Warriors developed by From Software, Kintoki wields a large axe as his main weapon, known as the'Crimson Axe'. Kintarō appears as an alien character who rides a flying bear and wields a small axe in the animated television series Urusei Yatsura. In the anime and manga series The Prince of Tennis, a character by the name of Tōyama Kintarō is the youngest regular member of the Shitenhoji Middle School tennis team.
He is named after Kintarō, shares his namesake's amazing superhuman strength. In the series One Piece, the character called, his signature attacks is called Ashigara Dokkoi. In the Power Instinct video game series, Kintaro appears as a playable character as Kintaro Kokuin, he uses his animal friends, such as a bear and a koi fish, as well as his axe, to attack the opponent, is capable of transforming into a dog-like superhero named "Poochy". In the video game Persona 4, Kintaro becomes a playable persona, under the name Kintoki-Douji. In a visual pun, instead of carrying an axe, it carries a Tomahawk missile. In the anime Kai Doh Maru, Kintoki is a girl who passes as a boy and is rescued by Raiko no Minamoto from her evil uncle Shuten Doji. H
The akaname is a Japanese yōkai depicted in Toriyama Sekien's Gazu Hyakki Yagyō. Meaning "filth licker", they are stated to lick the filth that collects in bathrooms. In classical yōkai depictions, children with clawed feet and cropped heads are depicted by the bath place sticking out a long tongue; these depictions do not feature any kind of explanation, so anything related to them can only be inferred, but in the Edo period kaidan book Kokon Hyakumonogatari Hyōban, there are writings about a yōkai called "akaneburi" and it is inferred that the akaname is a depiction of this akaneburi. According to the Kokon Hyakumonogatari Hyōban, the akaneburi is a monster that lives in old bathhouses and are said to lurk in dilapidated estates. In those times, it was believed that fish were born from water and lice were born from dirt, seeing how fish intake water and lice eat dirt, all things were thus believed to eat the material that spawns them, the akaneburi being the ones that transform from the air of the places that gather dust and filth and therefore live by eating filth.
In literature about yōkai from the periods of Shōwa, beyond and akaneburi were interpreted the same way as above. These interpretations state that the akaname is a yōkai that lives in old bathhouses and dilapidated buildings that would sneak into places at night when people are asleep to lick using a long tongue at the filth and grime sticking to bath places and bathtubs, it doesn't do anything other than lick at the filth, but since yōkai were considered creepy to see in any case, it is said that people worked hard to ensure that the bath places and bathtubs are washed clean so that the akaname wouldn't come. There were none who saw what the akaname were, but since "aka" can remind people of the color red, they are said to have red faces or be red. "aka" has connotations to the idea of "impurities" such as "depravities," "sins," or "worldly desires" and other things that are not necessary, which leads to the theory that it wasn't a lesson to keep bath places clean, but to keep such impurities from lurking in one's own self.
The Pokémon Lickitung may draw inspiration from the akaname, as it has some elements of the creature. Bannik 岩井宏實. 暮しの中の妖怪たち. 河出文庫. 河出書房新社. ISBN 978-4-309-47396-3. 少年社・中村友紀夫・武田えり子編. 妖怪の本 異界の闇に蠢く百鬼夜行の伝説. New sight mook. 学習研究社. ISBN 978-4-05-602048-9. 多田克己. 幻想世界の住人たち. Truth In Fantasy. IV. 新紀元社. ISBN 978-4-915146-44-2. 村上健司編著. 妖怪事典. 毎日新聞社. ISBN 978-4-620-31428-0. Gould, Robert Jay. Japan Culture Research Project. Stevens, Ben. A Gaijin's Guide to Japan: an Alternative Look at Japanese Life and Culture. HarperCollins UK. Akaname Bandcamp
Akashita is a yōkai that appeared in Toriyama Sekien's Gazu Hyakki Yakō. It is drawn as a beast with clawed hands and a hairy face, with most of its body hidden in a black cloud over a floodgate, it is characterized by its open mouth and large tongue. Sekien did not attach an explanatory note about this yōkai, but its origins are identifiable as Akaguchi which appears in older Edo period yōkai scrolls such as Bakemono no e; this yōkai is known interchangeably as Akashita. Akaguchi has association with the use of water in farming country. Though some sources say Akaguchi is an omen of bad luck, others represent Akaguchi as a protective spirit. During droughts, water is controlled and distributed to farmers in the area; as a form of warfare, some would siphon above the allotted amount of water for their personal fields. This could cost neighboring farmers their livelihood, it was believed that the perpetrators of this crime not punished by law would be punished by Akaguchi. If these criminals came near the floodgate Akaguchi would appear and swallow them, scooping them up with its giant red tongue.
The name Akashita may be correlated to shakuzetsujin. It may be related to the shakuzetsunichi, a day of bad luck in Onmyōdō. "Aka-shita". The Obakemono Project. Archived from the original on 10 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-18. 赤舌. Archived from the original on 11 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-18