McDonnell Douglas DC-10
The McDonnell Douglas DC-10 is an American three-engine wide-body jet airliner manufactured by McDonnell Douglas. It has two turbofan engines mounted on underwing pylons and a third engine at the base of the vertical stabilizer; the DC-10 was intended as a successor to the company's DC-8 for medium- to long range flights, using a larger capacity wide-body layout with seating up to 380 and more powerful engines. Lockheed saw this niche as an ideal place to reenter the commercial airliner market with their similar L-1011 TriStar. Although the L-1011 was more technologically advanced, the DC-10 would go on to outsell the L-1011 by a significant margin due to the DC-10's lower price and earlier entry into the market; the initial DC-10-10 model was a "domestic" design with a typical range on the order of 3,800 miles in a two-class layout. The -15 was a "high" version with more powerful engines; the -30 and -40 models were the "international" versions with extended range of up to 6,220 miles and a third main landing gear leg to support the higher takeoff weights.
An longer-range version proposed for British Airways, the -50, was not built. The KC-10 Extender air-to-air refueling tanker version, was based on the -30 model. Production of the DC-10 ended in 1989, with 386 DC-10s delivered to airlines and 60 KC-10s to the U. S. Air Force; the DC-10 had a poor safety record in early operations due to a design flaw in the cargo doors. Its safety reputation was further damaged by the crash of American Airlines Flight 191, which remains the deadliest aviation accident in the United States. Following the Chicago crash, the FAA withdrew the DC-10's type certificate in June 1979, which temporarily grounded all U. S. DC-10s. In August 1983, McDonnell Douglas announced that it would end production of the DC-10, citing a lack of orders. Airline industry consensus at the time was that the DC-10 had a poor reputation for fuel economy and for its overall safety. In spite of the DC-10's early difficulties, it accumulated a good safety record, as design flaws were rectified and fleet hours increased, comparable to similar second-generation passenger jets as of 2008.
The DC-10 was succeeded by the McDonnell Douglas MD-11 an enlarged version of the DC-10 with some design improvements. Boeing, which merged with McDonnell Douglas in 1997, conducted an upgrade program that equipped many in-service DC-10s with a glass cockpit that eliminated the flight engineer position; the DC-10's last commercial passenger flight took place in February 2014, although freighter versions continue to operate. The largest operator of the DC-10 is U. S. cargo airline FedEx Express. Despite the airliner's popularity, only a few DC-10s are on display, while other retired aircraft are in storage. DC-10s are used for specialist services, such as the Orbis International Flying Eye Hospital, which has a compartment for performing eye surgery. Following an unsuccessful proposal for the U. S. Air Force's CX-HLS in 1965, Douglas Aircraft began design studies based on its CX-HLS design. In 1966, American Airlines offered a specification to manufacturers for a widebody aircraft smaller than the Boeing 747 but capable of flying similar long-range routes from airports with shorter runways.
The DC-10 became McDonnell Douglas's first commercial airliner after the merger between McDonnell Aircraft Corporation and Douglas Aircraft Company in 1967. An early DC-10 design proposal was for a four-engine double-deck wide-body jet airliner with a maximum seating capacity of 550 passengers similar in length of a DC-8; the proposal was shelved in favor of a trijet single-deck wide-body airliner with a maximum seating capacity of 399 passengers, similar in length to the DC-8 Super 60. On February 19, 1968, in what was supposed to be a knockout blow to the competing Lockheed L-1011, George A. Spater, President of American Airlines, James S. McDonnell of McDonnell Douglas announced American Airlines' intention to acquire the DC-10; this was a shock to Lockheed and there was general agreement within the U. S. aviation industry. Together with American Airlines' decision to announce the DC-10 order, it was reported that American Airlines had declared its intention to have the British Rolls-Royce RB211 turbofan engine on its DC-10 aircraft.
The DC-10 was first ordered by launch customers American Airlines with 25 orders, United Airlines with 30 orders and 30 options in 1968. The first DC-10, a series 10, made its maiden flight on August 29, 1970. Following a test program with 929 flights covering 1,551 hours, the DC-10 received its type certificate from the FAA on July 29, 1971, it entered commercial service with American Airlines on August 5, 1971 on a round trip flight between Los Angeles and Chicago. United Airlines began DC-10 service on August 16, 1971. American's DC-10s had 206 seats and United's had 222; the DC-10's similarity to the Lockheed L-1011 in design, passenger capacity, launch date resulted in a sales competition that affected profitability of the aircraft. The first DC-10 version was the "domestic" series 10 with a range of 3,800 miles with a typical passenger load and a range of 2,710 miles with maximum payload; the series 15 had a typical load range of 4,350 miles. The series 20 was powered by Pratt & Whitney JT9D turbofan engines, whereas the series 10 and 30 engines were General Electric CF6.
Before delivery of its aircraft, Northwest's president asked that the "series 20" aircraft be redesignated "series 40" because the aircraft was much improved over the
A tomoe translated as "comma", is a comma-like swirl symbol used in Japanese mon. It resembles the usual form of a magatama; the tomoe appears in many designs with various uses. The simplest, most common patterns of the device contain from one to four tomoe, are reminiscent of similar designs that have been found in wide distribution around the world; when circumscribed in a circle, it appears in a set of three, with this design known as the mitsudomoe. The character 巴 has several meanings, ranging from a Sichuan toponym to a crust formed by dryness, parts of the body such as hands or cheeks, and, as a verb, bearing the sense of "to hope", "expect" or "be anxious over"; the Chinese character used to depicted, according to Bernhard Karlgren's interpretation of the small seal script graph, a python. The Japanese word itself may be of Altaic origin, since it bears comparison with Middle Mongolian tomuγa and Ordos t'omok. In this latter connection Tang ceramic figures of horses show small sacks tethered to the lower neck to stop the horse from throwing its head back.
One view is that the word refers to a picture e of a tomo, or drawings on the latter, the tomo in question, in archaic Japanese tömö, being a round leather arm protector, like the bracer or gauntlet tab of European archery. Roy Andrew Miller describes it as "a small hollow sack or bulb of sewn leather with leather tie straps, sometimes embossed with a comma like decorative device of continental origin", it was worn on the left elbow or wrist of an archer either to prevent chafing from the bowstring twanging back to position on the release of an arrow, or to strike fear into the enemy from the sharp sound caused by the bowstring hitting the wrist guard. The'tomo picture' can therefore be interpreted either as a visual pun on the tomo represented, or, otherwise, as taking its name from that object. Several such examples are conserved in Nara at the Shōsōin. An alternative interpretation takes it to be a stylized magatama; the origin of the tomoe design is uncertain. A pattern resembling the two-comma tomoe has been found in ancient cultures on all inhabited continents.
A stylized design on a Yangshao bowl dates back to 2,000 BCE. The motif of two encircling dolphins biting each other's tails has been found on Cretan ceramics dating from the Minoan period, the two fish biting each other in circular fashion recurs in both Chinese and Central Mexican ware, it is seen on prehistoric Celtic remains, one mirror from Balmaclellan is identical to the mitsudomoe. In China, the double comma form came to be assimilated to the Ying-Yang philosophy of opposing male/female principles, formalized in the Tàijítú design of the late Song Dynasty period; this in turn recurs in the 7th century in Korea, where it was known as Taegeuk. and replicated in the Japanese futatsudomoe and mitsudomoe patterns, the former in association with divinatory rites, the latter linked to temple drums with apotropaic functions. According to Jean Herbert in these contexts, the mitsudomoe embodied three spirits, the yin-yang dyad being represented by an aramitama and a nigimitama, while the third comma denoted the sakimitama, or lucky spirit.
N. Gordon Munro argued that the basis for the mitsudomoe pattern, a motif found among the Ainu, was the eastern European and western Asian figure of the triskelion, which he believed lay behind the Chinese three-legged crow design, and, in his view, its reflex in the mythical Japanese crow, the Yatagarasu, cf. Proto-Indo-European religion As a leather wrist protector tomo appear to have been employed at least as early as the Kofun period, where they are attested on haniwa terracotta figurines depicting archers, may have had, aside from their military function, a ritual or fetish value related to their testicular shape; the tomoe emblem established itself as a common emblem during the Fujiwara ascendency of the late Heian period, around the 10th-11th centuries, proliferated through to Kamakura times. It is thought that a resemblance between the tomoe and the Emperor Ōjin found in the Nihongi may account for its rising popularity among samurai, since Ōjin was apotheosized as a god in Hachiman shrines.
In the Nihongi account, when Ōjin was born, inspection of his body revealed a fleshy growth on his arm similar to a warrior's wrist or elbow pad, for this reason he was called homuta, an old word for a tomo. The Mitsudomoe was adopted as the emblem of the royal family of the Ryukyu Kingdom by the First Shō Dynasty's last ruler, Shō Toku, continued to be used by the Second Shō Dynasty. There it was called hidari gomon. Since it was the royal family's emblem, its usage was once restricted in Okinawa. Okinawans who visited Japan shortly after the Japanese annexation of Ryukyu in 1879 were surprised that mitsudomoe banners were flown everywhere. Nowadays the symbol can still be seen at historical sites and cultural events, but is now more widespread in use as a symbol for Okinawa; the mitsudomoe is associated with Shinto shrines, in particular those dedicated to Hachiman, the god of war and archery. Hachiman in Shinto cosmology and ritual, as for example at Hakozaki Shrine, is connected with the number three.
In Shintoist thinking, this number is taken to represent the three aspects of the four mitama or'souls'. It is commonly displayed on banners
Friedrich Stowasser, better known by his pseudonym Friedensreich Regentag Dunkelbunt Hundertwasser, was an Austrian-born New Zealand artist and architect who worked in the field of environmental protection. Hundertwasser stood out as an opponent of "a straight line" and any standardization, expressing this concept in the field of building design, his best known work is the Hundertwasserhaus in Vienna, Austria which has become a notable place of interest in the Austrian capital, characterized by imaginative vitality and uniqueness. The Second World War was a difficult time for Hundertwasser and his mother Elsa, who were Jewish, they avoided persecution by posing as Christians, a credible ruse as Hundertwasser's father had been a Catholic. Hundertwasser was baptized as a Catholic in 1935. To remain inconspicuous Hundertwasser joined the Hitler Youth. Hundertwasser developed artistic skills early on. After the war, he spent three months at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna. At this time he began to sign his art as Hundertwasser instead of Stowasser.
He left to travel using a small set of paints he carried at all times to sketch anything that caught his eye. In Florence, he met the young French painter René Brô for the first time and they became lifelong friends. Hundertwasser's first commercial painting success was in 1952–53 with an exhibition in Vienna, his adopted surname is based on the translation of "sto" into German. The name Friedensreich has a double meaning as "Peace-realm" or "Peace-rich". Therefore, his name Friedensreich Hundertwasser translates directly into English as "Peace-Realm Hundred-Water"; the other names he chose for himself and Dunkelbunt, translate to "Rainy day" and "Darkly multi-coloured". In the early 1950s, he entered the field of architecture. Hundertwasser worked in the field of applied art, creating flags, stamps and posters, his most famous flag is his koru flag, as well as several postage stamps for the Austrian Post Office. He designed stamps for Cape Verde and for the United Nations postal administration in Geneva on the occasion of the 35th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
In 1957 Hundertwasser acquired a farm on the edge of Normandy. Hundertwasser married Herta Leitner in 1958 but they divorced two years later, he married again in 1962 to the Japanese artist Yuko Ikewada but she divorced him in 1966. He had gained a popular reputation by this time for his art. In 1964 Hundertwasser bought "Hahnsäge", a former saw mill, in the sparsely populated Lower Austria's Waldviertel. There, far from the bustle and surrounded by nature, he set up a new home. In 1972 Hundertwasser incorporated in Switzerland, the "Grüner Janura AG", renamed to "Namida AG" 2008. Via this stock company Hundertwasser managed his intellectual property rights. In the 1970s, Hundertwasser acquired several properties in the Bay of Islands in New Zealand, which include a total area of 372 ha of the entire "Kaurinui" valley. There he realized his dream of living and working connected to nature. Beside other projects he designed the "Bottle House" there, he could live self-sufficient using solar panels, a water wheel and a biological water purification plant.
His first grass roofs experiment took place here. In 1979 Hundertwasser bought the vast historical garden Giardino Eden including the Palazzo Villa delle Rose, from Alexandra of Yugoslavia via his Swiss company. In 1980, Hundertwasser visited Washington D. C. to support activist Ralph Nader's efforts to oppose nuclear proliferation. Hundertwasser planted trees in Judiciary Square and advocated on behalf of a co-op owner, fined for designing her own window. Mayor Marion Barry declared November 18 to be Hundertwasser Day. In 1982, Hundertwasser's only child, his daughter Heidi Trimmel, was born. Hundertwasser was buried in New Zealand after his death at sea on the RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 in 2000 at the age of 71. In a letter from 1954 Hundertwasser described the square as "geometric rectangles compressed columns on the march". In 1959 Hundertwasser got involved with helping the Dalai Lama escape from Tibet by campaigning for the Tibetan religious leader in Carl Laszlo's magazine Panderma. In years, when he was a known artist, Friedensreich Hundertwasser became an environmental activist and most operated as a more prominent opponent of the European Union, advocating the preservation of regional peculiarities.
Among the lesser-known facets of Hundertwasser's personality is his commitment to constitutional monarchy: Austria needs something to look up to, consisting of perennial higher values—of which one now hardly dares to speak—such as beauty, culture and external peace, richness of heart Austria needs an emperor, subservient to the people. A superior and radiant figure in whom everyone has confidence, because this great figure is a possession of all; the rationalist way of thinking has brought us, in this century, an ephemeral higher, American standard of living at the expense of nature and creation, now coming to an end, for it is destroying our heart, our quality of life, our longing, without which an Austrian does not want to live. It is outrageous that Austria has an emperor who did no evil to anyone but is still treated like a leper. Austria needs a crown! Long live Austria! Long live the constitutional monarchy! Long live Otto von Habsburg!- Friedensreich Hundertwasser, Für die Wiederkehr der konstitutionellen Monarchie.
Kaurinui, New Zealand, 28 March 1983. Hundertwasser's original and unruly artistic vision expressed itself in pict
A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, being locally registered in a given sovereign state, enjoys preferential rights or privileges accorded by the government for international operations. The term refers to any carrier, or was owned by a government long after their privatization when preferential rights or privileges continue. Flag carriers may be known as such due to maritime law requiring all aircraft or ships to display the state flag of the country of their registry. A flag carrier may be known as a national airline or a national carrier, although this can have different legal meanings in some countries; the term "flag carrier" is a legacy of the time when countries established state-owned airline companies. Governments took the lead due to the high capital costs of establishing and running airlines. However, not all such airlines were government-owned. Most of these were considered to be flag carriers as they were the "main national airline" and a sign of their country's presence abroad.
The regulated aviation industry meant aviation rights are negotiated between governments, denying airlines the right to an open market. These Bilateral Air Transport Agreements similar to the Bermuda I and Bermuda II agreements specify rights awardable only to locally registered airlines, forcing some governments to jump-start airlines to avoid being disadvantaged in the face of foreign competition; some countries establish flag carriers such as Israel's El Al or Lebanon's Middle East Airlines for nationalist reasons, or to aid the country's economy in the area of tourism. In many cases, governments would directly assist in the growth of their flag carriers through subsidies and other fiscal incentives; the establishment of competitors in the form of other locally registered airlines may be prohibited, or regulated to avoid direct competition. Where run airlines may be allowed to be established, the flag carriers may still be accorded priority in the apportionment of aviation rights to local or international markets.
In the last two decades, many of these airlines have since been corporatized as a public company or a state-owned enterprise, or privatized. The aviation industry has been deregulated and liberalized, permitting greater freedoms of the air in the United States and in the European Union with the signing of the Open Skies agreement. One of the features of such agreements is the right of a country to designate multiple airlines to serve international routes with the result that there is no single "flag carrier"; the chart below lists airlines considered to be a "flag carrier", based on current or former state ownership, or other verifiable designation as a national airline. International Air Transport Association US Maritime Administration
John Cornelius Moorfield known as Te Murumāra, was a New Zealand academic whose expertise was in the teaching of the Māori language. His work, including the publication of resources for learners of the language, contributed to the language's revitalisation. Born in Huntly on 18 October 1943, raised in Te Kauwhata, Moorfield was the son of Moya Ella Winifred Moorfield and her husband Robert Peter Moorfield. Despite being Pākehā, he was educated at St Stephen's School—a Māori boys' boarding school at Bombay, south of Auckland—where his teachers included Hoani Waititi. Moorfield became captivated by the Māori language, went on to study at the University of Auckland, he was one of the first students to complete a Bachelor of Arts majoring in Māori language. After graduating from Auckland, Moorfield went to Auckland Secondary Teachers' College in 1967 to train as a schoolteacher, began his quest for an effective method of teaching the Māori language. In 1984, Moorfield completed a Master of Education at the University College of Wales, where his thesis was titled, An analysis of the bilingual method: theoretical and practical considerations.
In 1998, he earned a Doctor of Literature degree from the University of Otago, based on his body of work of textbooks and resources for adult learners of the Māori language. After leaving teachers' college, Moorfield taught at secondary schools in the Waikato and South Auckland areas: namely Ngaruawahia High School, Wesley College, Tuakau College. Moorfield was appointed to the staff of the University of Waikato in 1976, working and teaching alongside Timoti Kāretu, Te Wharehuia Milroy and Hirini Melbourne. Concerned at the inadequacy of available resource material to support the teaching of the Māori language to adult students, Moorfield set about compiling audio resources and writing appropriate books; the resulting Te Whanake series of resources and textbooks has been recognised internationally as a model for minority language education programmes. At Waikato, Moorfield was responsible for the establishment of the first Māori-medium undergraduate degree programme. After 21 years at Waikato, Moorfield moved to the University of Otago in 1997, his Te Whanake system for Māori language learning was implemented at all levels.
There he began collaborating with Tania Ka'ai, in 2007 both Moorfield and Ka'ai moved to Auckland University of Technology to take professorships in Māori innovation and development. In 2005, Moorfield published a Māori–English dictionary entitled Te Aka, available both in hard copy and online. Moorfield died of cancer on 19 May 2018. In the 2010 Queen's Birthday Honours, Moorfield was appointed a Companion of the Queen's Service Order, for services to Māori language education. Published works by Moorfield include: Moorfield, John C.. Nga kupu. Auckland: Longman. ISBN 978-0582542556. ——. Te pihinga. Auckland: Longman. ISBN 0-582-54327-4. ——. Te kākano: pukapuka tātaki = study guide. Auckland: Longman. ISBN 9780582545458. ——. Te Kōhure. Auckland: Pearson Education New Zealand. ISBN 9780582545199. Te Aka Māori–English, English–Māori Dictionary online
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
A wharenui is a communal house of the Māori people of New Zealand situated as the focal point of a marae. Wharenui are called meeting houses in New Zealand English, or called whare. Called a whare rūnanga or whare whakairo, the present style of wharenui originated in the early to middle nineteenth century; the houses are carved inside and out with stylized images of the iwi's ancestors, with the style used for the carvings varying from tribe to tribe. Modern meeting houses are built to regular building standards. Photographs of recent ancestors may be used as well as carvings; the houses always have names, sometimes the name of a famous ancestor or sometimes a figure from Māori mythology. Some meeting houses are built where many Māori are present though it is not the location of a tribe. While a meeting house is considered sacred, it is not a church or house of worship, but religious rituals may take place in front of or inside a meeting house. On most marae, no food may be taken into the meeting house.
The building symbolises an ancestor of the wharenui's tribe. So different parts of the building refer to body parts of that ancestor: The koruru at the point of the gable on the front of the wharenui can represent the ancestor's head The maihi signify arms, it serves as an area on which to debate issues. Meeting houses are the centre of any cultural, business, or any affair, relevant to the iwi as a whole. Visitors to the village would be allowed to stay in the meeting house at night. Ceremonial occasions, including wedding and funeral take place in the meeting house or on the marae ātea in front of the house. Strict rules of conduct govern the use of the wharenui, considered the domain of unity and peace. If anyone should become irate or physically violent, they would be asked to leave the house until they can control their temper. Māori culture Māori language Longhouse Meeting house This picture is the opening of Te Wheke Hall on December 30, 1901; the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, Illinois has an original Māori meeting house, called Ruatepupuke II as shown in this photo.
The British Museum has a large collection of Māori art