Annatto is an orange-red condiment and food coloring derived from the seeds of the achiote tree native to tropical regions from Mexico to Brazil. It is used to impart a yellow or orange color to foods, but sometimes for its flavor and aroma, its scent is described as "slightly peppery with a hint of nutmeg" and flavor as "slightly nutty and peppery". The color of annatto comes from various carotenoid pigments bixin and norbixin, found in the reddish waxy coating of the seeds; the condiment is prepared by grinding the seeds to a powder or paste. Similar effects can be obtained by extracting some of the color and flavor principles from the seeds with hot water, oil, or lard, which are added to the food. Annatto and its extracts are now used in an artisanal or industrial scale as a coloring agent in many processed food products, such as cheeses, dairy spreads and margarine, custards and other baked goods, snack foods, breakfast cereals, smoked fish and more. In these uses, annatto is a natural alternative to synthetic food coloring compounds, but it has been linked to rare cases of food-related allergies.
Annatto is of particular commercial value in the United States because the Food and Drug Administration considers colorants derived from it to be "exempt of certification". The annatto tree B. orellana is believed to originate in tropical regions from Mexico to Brazil. It was not used as a food additive, but for other purposes such as ritual and decorative body painting and insect repellent, for medical purposes, it was used for Mexican manuscript painting in the 16th century. Annatto has been traditionally used as both a coloring and flavoring agent in Latin America, the Caribbean, the Philippines, other countries where it was taken home by Spanish and Portuguese explorers in the 16th century, it has various local names according to region. Its use has spread in historic times to other parts of the world, it was incorporated in local culinary traditions of many countries outside the Americas. Ground annatto seeds mixed with other seeds or spices, are used in the form of paste or powder for culinary use in Latin American, Belizean, Chamorro and Filipino cuisines.
In Mexican and Belizean cuisines, it is used to make the spice recado rojo. In Venezuela, annatto is used in the preparation of hallacas and other traditional dishes. Pasteles and sazón in Puerto Rico contain annatto. Annatto paste is an important ingredient of cochinita pibil, the spicy pork dish popular in Mexico, it is a key ingredient in the drink tascalate from Chiapas, Mexico. In the Philippines, it is used for the sauce of pancit. Annatto is used to impart a yellow or orange color to many industrialized and semi-industrialized foods. In the European Union, it is identified by the E number E160b. Annatto has been a traditional colorant for Gloucester cheese since the 16th century. During the summer, the high levels of carotene in the grass would have given the milk an orange tint, carried through into the cheese; this orange hue came to be regarded as an indicator of the best cheese, spurring producers of inferior cheese to use annatto to replicate it. The custom of adding annatto spread to other parts of the UK, for cheeses such as Cheshire and Red Leicester, as well as colored Cheddar made in Scotland.
Many cheddars are produced in both white and red varieties, with the latter being more popular despite the only difference between the two being the presence of annatto as a coloring. That practice has extended to many modern processed cheese products, such as American cheese and Velveeta; the yellow to orange color is produced by the chemical compounds bixin and norbixin, which are classified as carotenoids. The fat-soluble color in the crude extract is called bixin, which can be saponified into water-soluble norbixin; this dual solubility property of annatto is rare for carotenoids. The seeds contain 4.5 -- 5.5 % pigment -- 80 % bixin. Unlike beta-carotene, another well-known carotenoid, annatto-based pigments are not vitamin A precursors; the more norbixin in an annatto color, the more yellow it is. In the United States, annatto extract is listed as a color additive "exempt from certification" and is informally considered to be a natural coloring. Foods colored with annatto may declare the coloring in the statement of ingredients as "colored with annatto" or "annatto color."Annatto condiments and colorants are safe for most people when used in food amounts, but they may cause allergic reactions in those who are sensitive.
In one 1978 study of 61 patients suffering from chronic hives or angioedema, 56 patients were orally provoked by annatto extract during an elimination diet. A challenge was performed with a dose equivalent to the amount used in 25 grams of butter. Twenty-six percent of the patients reacted to this color four hours after intake, worse than synthetic dyes such as amaranth, Sunset Yellow FCF, Food Red 17, Ponceau 4R, erythrosine and Brilliant Blue FCF. Annatto is not among the "Big Eight" substances causing hypersensitivity reactions, which are responsible for more than 90% of allergic food reactions; the Food and Drug Administration and experts at the Food Allergy Research and Resource Program at the University of Nebraska do not include annatto in the list of major food allergens. As annatto is a source of tocotrienols, such as geranylgeraniol—compounds similar in structure and function to vitamin
The Bora are an indigenous tribe of the Peruvian and Brazilian Amazon, located between the Putumayo and Napo rivers. The Bora speak a Witotan language and comprise 2,000 people. In the last forty years, they have become a settled people living in permanent forest settlements. In the animist Bora worldview, there is no distinction between the physical and spiritual worlds and spirits are present throughout the world. Bora families practice exogamy; the Bora have an elaborate knowledge of the plant life of the surrounding rainforest. Like other indigenous peoples of the Peruvian Amazon, such as the Urarina plants trees, hold a complex and important interest for the Bora. Bows and arrows are the main weapons of the Bora culture used in person to person conflict; the Bora are divided and politically unorganized. The Bora have guarded their lands from both indigenous foes and outsider colonials. Around the time of the 20th century, the rubber boom had a devastating impact on the Boras. A book which recorded the mistreatment of the Boras during that time period is "The Putumayo.
E. Hardenburg; the tribe's ancestral lands are threatened by illegal logging practices. The Bora have no indigenous reserves; the Bora People Putumayo, The Devil's Paradise, by W. E. Hardenburg, 1912. Via Wikisource. Harrison, Theresa. Basic Beliefs of the Bora Indians Classroom Synonym Aces. Feb. 2015
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Manihot esculenta called cassava, yuca, mandioca and Brazilian arrowroot, is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae. It is extensively cultivated as an annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous root, a major source of carbohydrates. Though it is called yuca in Spanish and in the United States, it is not related to yucca, a shrub in the family Asparagaceae. Cassava, when dried to a powdery extract, is called tapioca. Cassava is the third-largest source of food carbohydrates in the tropics, after maize. Cassava is a major staple food in the developing world, providing a basic diet for over half a billion people, it is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, capable of growing on marginal soils. Nigeria is the world's largest producer of cassava, while Thailand is the largest exporter of dried cassava. Cassava is classified as either bitter. Like other roots and tubers, both bitter and sweet varieties of cassava contain antinutritional factors and toxins, with the bitter varieties containing much larger amounts.
It must be properly prepared before consumption, as improper preparation of cassava can leave enough residual cyanide to cause acute cyanide intoxication and ataxia, partial paralysis, or death. The more toxic varieties of cassava are a fall-back resource in times of famine or food insecurity in some places. Farmers prefer the bitter varieties because they deter pests and thieves; the cassava root is long and tapered, with a firm, homogeneous flesh encased in a detachable rind, about 1 mm thick and brown on the outside. Commercial cultivars can be 5 to 10 cm in diameter at the top, around 15 to 30 cm long. A woody vascular bundle runs along the root's axis; the flesh can be yellowish. Cassava roots are rich in starch and contain small amounts of calcium and vitamin C. However, they are poor in protein and other nutrients. In contrast, cassava leaves are a good source of protein, but deficient in the amino acid methionine and tryptophan. Wild populations of M. esculenta subspecies flabellifolia, shown to be the progenitor of domesticated cassava, are centered in west-central Brazil, where it was first domesticated no more than 10,000 years BP.
Forms of the modern domesticated species can be found growing in the wild in the south of Brazil. By 4,600 BC, manioc pollen appears in the Gulf of Mexico lowlands, at the San Andrés archaeological site; the oldest direct evidence of cassava cultivation comes from a 1,400-year-old Maya site, Joya de Cerén, in El Salvador. With its high food potential, it had become a staple food of the native populations of northern South America, southern Mesoamerica, the Caribbean by the time of European contact in 1492. Cassava was a staple food of pre-Columbian peoples in the Americas and is portrayed in indigenous art; the Moche people depicted yuca in their ceramics. Spaniards in their early occupation of Caribbean islands did not want to eat cassava or maize, which they considered insubstantial and not nutritious, they much preferred foods from Spain wheat bread, olive oil, red wine, meat, considered maize and cassava damaging to Europeans. For these Christians in the New World, cassava was not suitable for communion since it could not undergo transubstantiation and become the body of Christ.
"Wheat flour was the symbol of Christianity itself" and colonial-era catechisms stated explicitly that only wheat flour could be used. The cultivation and consumption of cassava was nonetheless continued in both Portuguese and Spanish America. Mass production of cassava bread became the first Cuban industry established by the Spanish, Ships departing to Europe from Cuban ports such as Havana, Santiago and Baracoa carried goods to Spain, but sailors needed to be provisioned for the voyage; the Spanish needed to replenish their boats with dried meat, water and large amounts of cassava bread. Sailors complained. Tropical Cuban weather was not suitable for wheat planting and cassava would not go stale as as regular bread. Cassava was introduced to Africa by Portuguese traders from Brazil in the 16th century. Around the same period, it was introduced to Asia through Columbian Exchange by Portuguese and Spanish traders, planted in their colonies in Goa, Eastern Indonesia and the Philippines. Maize and cassava are now important staple foods.
Cassava has become an important staple in Asia, extensively cultivated in Indonesia and Vietnam. Cassava is sometimes described as the "bread of the tropics" but should not be confused with the tropical and equatorial bread tree, the breadfruit or the African breadfruit. In 2016, global production of cassava root was 277 million tonnes, with Nigeria as the world's largest producer having 21% of the world total. Other major growers were Thailand and Indonesia. Cassava is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, can be grown on marginal soils, gives reasonable yields where many other crops do not grow well. Cassava is well adapted within latitudes 30° north and south of the equator, at elevations between sea level and 2,000 m above sea level, in equatorial temperatures, with rainfalls from 50 mm to 5 m annually, to poor soils with a pH ranging from acidic to alkaline; these conditions are common in certain parts of Africa and So
The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. The Amazon drainage basin covers an area of about 6,300,000 km2, or about 35.5 percent that of the South American continent. It is located in the countries of Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana, Peru and Venezuela. Most of the basin is covered by the Amazon Rainforest known as Amazonia. With a 5,500,000 km2 area of dense tropical forest, this is the largest rainforest in the world; the Amazon River begins in the Andes Mountains at the west of the basin with its main tributary the Marañón River in Peru. The highest point in the watershed of the Amazon is the peak of Yerupajá at 6,635 metres. With a length of about 6,400 km before it drains into the Atlantic Ocean, it is one of the two longest rivers in the world; the Amazon system transports the largest volume of water of any river system, accounting for about 20% of the total water carried to the oceans by rivers. Some of the Amazon rainforests are deforested because of the increasing of cattle ranches and soy beans field.
The Amazon basin flowed west to Pacific Ocean until the Andes formed, causing the basin to flow eastward towards the Atlantic Ocean. Politically the basin is divided into the Brazilian Amazônia Legal, the Peruvian Amazon, the Amazon region of Colombia and parts of Bolivia and the Venezuelan state of Amazonas. Plant growth is dense and its variety of animal inhabitants is comparatively high due to the heavy rainfall and the dense and extensive evergreen and coniferous forests. Little sunlight reaches the ground due to the dense roof canopy by plants; the ground remains dark and damp and only shade tolerant vegetation will grow here. Orchids and bromeliads exploit other plants to get closer to the sunlight, they grow hanging onto the branches or tree trunks with aerial roots, not as parasites but as epiphytes. Species of tropical trees native to the Amazon include rubber tree and Assai palm. More than 1,400 species of mammals are found in the Amazon, the majority of which are species of bats and rodents.
Its larger mammals include the jaguar, ocelot and South American tapir. About 1500 bird species inhabit the Amazon Basin; the biodiversity of the Amazon and the sheer number of diverse bird species is given by the number of different bird families that reside in these humid forests. An example of such would be the cotinga family. Birds such as toucans, hummingbirds are found here. Macaws are famous for gathering by the hundreds along the clay cliffs of the Amazon River. In the western Amazon hundreds of macaws and other parrots descend to exposed river banks to consume clay on an daily basis, the exception being rainy days; the green anaconda inhabits the shallow waters of the Amazon and the emerald tree boa and boa constrictor live in the Amazonian tree tops. Many reptiles species are illegally exported for the international pet trade. Live animals are the fourth largest commodity in the smuggling industry after drugs and weapons. More than 1,500 species of amphibians are found in the Amazon. Unlike temperate frogs which are limited to habitats near the water, tropical frogs are most abundant in the trees and few are found near bodies of water on the forest floor.
The reason for this occurrence is quite simple: frogs must always keep their skin moist since half of their respiration is carried out through their skin. The high humidity of the rainforest and frequent rainstorms gives tropical frogs infinitely more freedom to move into the trees and escape the many predators of rainforest waters; the differences between temperate and tropical frogs extend beyond their habitat. About 2,500 fish species are known from the Amazon basin and it is estimated that more than 1,000 additional undescribed species exist; this is more than any other river basin on Earth, Amazonia is the center of diversity for Neotropical fishes. About 45% of the known Amazonian fish species are endemic to the basin; the remarkable species richness can in part be explained by the large differences between the various parts of the Amazon basin, resulting in many fish species that are endemic to small regions. For example, fauna in clearwater rivers differs from fauna in white and blackwater rivers, fauna in slow moving sections show distinct differences compared to that in rapids, fauna in small streams differ from that in major rivers, fauna in shallow sections show distinct differences compared to that in deep parts.
By far the most diverse orders in the Amazon are Characiformes and Siluriformes, but other groups with many species include Cichlidae and Gymnotiformes. In addition to major differences in behavior and ecology, Amazonian fish vary extensively in form and size; the largest, the arapaima and piraiba can reach 3 m or more in length and up to 200 kg in weight, making them some of the largest strict freshwater fish in the world. The bull shark and common sawfish, which have been recorded far up the Amazon, may reach greater sizes, but they are euryhaline and seen in marine waters. In contrast to the giants, there are Amazonian fish from several families that are less than 2 cm long; the smallest are the Leptophilypnion sleeper gobies, which do not surpass 1 cm and are among the smallest fish in the world. The Amazon supports large fisheries, including well-known species of large catfish (such as Brachyplatystoma, which perform l
Religion is a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, worldviews, sanctified places, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements. However, there is no scholarly consensus over what constitutes a religion. Different religions may or may not contain various elements ranging from the divine, sacred things, faith, a supernatural being or supernatural beings or "some sort of ultimacy and transcendence that will provide norms and power for the rest of life". Religious practices may include rituals, commemoration or veneration, festivals, trances, funerary services, matrimonial services, prayer, art, public service, or other aspects of human culture. Religions have sacred histories and narratives, which may be preserved in sacred scriptures, symbols and holy places, that aim to give a meaning to life. Religions may contain symbolic stories, which are sometimes said by followers to be true, that have the side purpose of explaining the origin of life, the universe, other things.
Traditionally, faith, in addition to reason, has been considered a source of religious beliefs. There are an estimated 10,000 distinct religions worldwide, but about 84% of the world's population is affiliated with one of the five largest religion groups, namely Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism or forms of folk religion; the religiously unaffiliated demographic includes those who do not identify with any particular religion and agnostics. While the religiously unaffiliated have grown globally, many of the religiously unaffiliated still have various religious beliefs; the study of religion encompasses a wide variety of academic disciplines, including theology, comparative religion and social scientific studies. Theories of religion offer various explanations for the origins and workings of religion, including the ontological foundations of religious being and belief. Religion is derived from the ultimate origins of which are obscure. One possible interpretation traced to Cicero, connects lego read, i.e. re with lego in the sense of choose, go over again or consider carefully.
The definition of religio by Cicero is cultum deorum, "the proper performance of rites in veneration of the gods." Julius Caesar used religio to mean "obligation of an oath" when discussing captured soldiers making an oath to their captors. The Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder used the term religio on elephants in that they venerate the sun and the moon. Modern scholars such as Tom Harpur and Joseph Campbell favor the derivation from ligare bind, connect from a prefixed re-ligare, i.e. re + ligare or to reconnect, made prominent by St. Augustine, following the interpretation given by Lactantius in Divinae institutiones, IV, 28; the medieval usage alternates with order in designating bonded communities like those of monastic orders: "we hear of the'religion' of the Golden Fleece, of a knight'of the religion of Avys'". In the ancient and medieval world, the etymological Latin root religio was understood as an individual virtue of worship in mundane contexts. In general, religio referred to broad social obligations towards anything including family, neighbors and towards God.
Religio was most used by the ancient Romans not in the context of a relation towards gods, but as a range of general emotions such as hesitation, anxiety, fear. The term was closely related to other terms like scrupulus which meant "very precisely" and some Roman authors related the term superstitio, which meant too much fear or anxiety or shame, to religio at times; when religio came into English around the 1200s as religion, it took the meaning of "life bound by monastic vows" or monastic orders. The compartmentalized concept of religion, where religious things were separated from worldly things, was not used before the 1500s; the concept of religion was first used in the 1500s to distinguish the domain of the church and the domain of civil authorities. In the ancient Greece, the Greek term threskeia was loosely translated into Latin as religio in late antiquity; the term was sparsely used in classical Greece but became more used in the writings of Josephus in the first century CE. It was used in mundane contexts and could mean multiple things from respectful fear to excessive or harmfully distracting practices of others.
It was contrasted with the Greek word deisidaimonia which meant too much fear. The modern concept of religion, as an abstraction that entails distinct sets of beliefs or doctrines, is a recent invention in the English language; such usage began with texts from the 17th century due to events such the splitting of Christendom during the Protestant Reformation and globalization in the age of exploration, which involved contact with numerous foreign cultures with non-European languages. Some argue that regardless of its definition, it is not appropriate to apply the term religion to non-Western cultures. Others argue that using religion on non-western cultures distorts what people believe; the concept of religion was formed in the 16th and 17th centuries, despite the fact that ancient sacred texts like the Bible, the Quran, others did not have a word or a concept of religion in the original languages and neither did the peopl
A tarpaulin, or tarp, is a large sheet of strong, water-resistant or waterproof material cloth such as canvas or polyester coated with polyurethane, or made of plastics such as polyethylene. In some places such as Australia, in military slang, a tarp may be known as a hootch. Tarpaulins have reinforced grommets at the corners and along the sides to form attachment points for rope, allowing them to be tied down or suspended. Inexpensive modern tarpaulins are made from woven polyethylene; the word tarpaulin originated as a compound of the words tar and palling, referring to a tarred canvas pall used to cover objects on ships. Sailors tarred their own overclothes in the same manner as the sheets or palls. By association, sailors became known as "jack tars". In the mid-19th century, "paulin" was used for such a cloth. "Two wagon beds... were placed upon frames... Thus constructed, they were placed upon a duck paulin, drawn up around the beds and secured." Tarpaulins have multiple uses, including as shelter from the elements, i.e. wind, rain, or sunlight, a ground sheet.
Tarpaulins are used during the build process to protect brickwork and masonry from weather damage. Tarpaulins are used for a fly in camping, a drop sheet for painting, for protecting the infield of a baseball field, for protecting objects, such as unenclosed trucks, semi-trailers or freight cars as well as wood piles; such was the demand for tarpaulins by the New South Wales Government Railways, up until 1990, they operated their own tarpaulin factory. It is used on outdoor market stalls to provide some protection from the elements of nature. Tarpaulins are used for advertisement printing, most notably for billboards. Another historical use of a tarpaulin is to cover seats in a stadium that are used, are in venues oversized for a venue, or are obstructed view seats in a multi-purpose stadium or indoor arena for a certain sport; the entire third deck of the Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum is covered in tarp for Oakland Athletics games, but is uncovered for Oakland Raiders games, while portions of the upper deck CenturyLink Field in Seattle are covered with images of the Seattle Sounders FC crest or sponsor logos in games which do not require use of that seating.
Perforated tarpaulins are used for medium to large advertising, or for protection on scaffoldings, the aim of the perforations is to reduce wind vulnerability. Polyethylene tarpaulins have proven to be a popular source when an inexpensive, water resistant fabric is needed. Many amateur builders of plywood sailboats turn to polyethylene tarpaulins for making their sails, as it is inexpensive and worked. With the proper type of adhesive tape, it is possible to make a serviceable sail for a small boat with no sewing. Plastic tarps are sometimes used as a building material in communities of indigenous North Americans. Tipis made with tarps are known as tarpees. Tarpaulins can be classified based on a diversity of factors, such as material type, measured in mils or generalized into categories, grommet strength, among others. Tarpaulins can be classified by size—a common determining factor for consumers in acquiring tarps—and measured in width by length. Actual tarp sizes are about three to five percent smaller than the advertised size.
Some other factors that may influence a purchase decision include color, grommet type, grommet-to-grommet distance. The weave count, a measure of tarp strength runs between and the greater the count, the greater its resistance against ripping in high wind conditions. Tarps may be washable or non-washable and waterproof or non-waterproof, mildewproof vs. non-mildewproof. Tarp flexibility refers to its ability to remain pliable during cold winter months; some manufacturers advertise their tarps as "rot-proof", but this may be more a subjective than an objective measurement. A polyethylene tarpaulin is not a traditional fabric, but rather, a laminate of woven and sheet material; the center is loosely woven from strips of polyethylene plastic, with sheets of the same material bonded to the surface. This creates a fabric-like material that resists stretching well in all directions and is waterproof. Sheets can be either of high density polyethylene; when treated against ultraviolet light, these tarpaulins can last for years exposed to the elements, but non-UV treated material will become brittle and lose strength and water resistance if exposed to sunlight.
Canvas tarpaulins are not 100 % waterproof. Thus, while a little bit of water for a short period of time will not affect them, when there is standing water on canvas tarps, or when water cannot drain aw