J. D. Salinger
Jerome David Salinger was an American writer known for his read novel, The Catcher in the Rye. Following his early success publishing short stories and The Catcher in the Rye, Salinger led a private life for more than a half-century, he published his final work in 1965, gave his last interview in 1980. Salinger began writing short stories while in secondary school. Several were published in Story magazine in the early 1940s before he began serving in World War II. In 1948, his critically acclaimed story "A Perfect Day for Bananafish" appeared in The New Yorker magazine, which became home to much of his work; the Catcher in the Rye became an immediate popular success. His depiction of adolescent alienation and loss of innocence in the protagonist Holden Caulfield was influential among adolescent readers; the novel remains read and controversial, selling around 250,000 copies a year. The success of The Catcher in the Rye led to public scrutiny. Salinger became reclusive, he followed Catcher with Nine Stories.
His last published work, a novella entitled "Hapworth 16, 1924", appeared in The New Yorker on June 19, 1965. Afterward, Salinger struggled with unwanted attention, including a legal battle in the 1980s with biographer Ian Hamilton and the release in the late 1990s of memoirs written by two people close to him: Joyce Maynard, an ex-lover. In 1996, a small publisher announced a deal with Salinger to publish "Hapworth 16, 1924" in book form, but amid the ensuing publicity the release was indefinitely delayed, he made headlines around the globe in June 2009 when he filed a lawsuit against another writer for copyright infringement resulting from that writer's use of one of the characters from The Catcher in the Rye. Salinger died of natural causes on January 2010, at his home in Cornish, New Hampshire. In November 2013, three unpublished stories by Salinger were posted online. One of the stories, "The Ocean Full of Bowling Balls", is said to be a prequel to The Catcher in the Rye. Jerome David Salinger was born in Manhattan, New York on January 1, 1919.
His father, Sol Salinger, sold kosher cheese, was from a Jewish family of Lithuanian descent, his own father having been the rabbi for the Adath Jeshurun Congregation in Louisville, Kentucky. Salinger's mother, was born in Atlantic, Iowa, of German and Scottish descent, but changed her name to Miriam and considered herself Jewish after marrying Salinger's father. Salinger did not learn that his mother was not of Jewish ancestry until just after he celebrated his bar mitzvah, he had an older sister, Doris. In his youth, Salinger attended public schools on the West Side of Manhattan. In 1932, the family moved to Park Avenue, Salinger was enrolled at the McBurney School, a nearby private school. Salinger had trouble fitting in at his new school and took measures to conform, such as calling himself Jerry, his family called him Sonny. At McBurney, he wrote for the school newspaper and appeared in plays, he "showed an innate talent for drama". His parents enrolled him at Valley Forge Military Academy in Wayne, Pennsylvania.
Salinger began writing stories "under the covers, with the aid of a flashlight". Salinger was the literary editor of Crossed Sabres, he participated in the Glee Club, Aviation Club, French Club, the Non-Commissioned Officers Club. Salinger's Valley Forge 201 file reveals that he was a "mediocre" student, unlike the overachievement enjoyed by members of the Glass family about whom he wrote, his recorded IQ between 111 and 115 was above average, he graduated in 1936. Salinger started his freshman year at New York University in 1936, he dropped out the following spring. That fall, his father urged him to learn about the meat-importing business, he went to work at a company in the Austrian city of Vienna and the Polish city of Bydgoszcz. Salinger went willingly, but he was so disgusted by the slaughterhouses that he decided to embark on a different career path, his disgust for the meat business and his rejection of his father had a lot to do with his vegetarianism as an adult. He left Austria one month before it was annexed by Nazi Germany on March 12, 1938.
In the fall of 1938, Salinger attended Ursinus College in Collegeville and wrote a column called "skipped diploma", which included movie reviews. He dropped out after one semester. In 1939, Salinger attended the Columbia University School of General Studies, where he took a writing class taught by Whit Burnett, longtime editor of Story magazine. According to Burnett, Salinger did not distinguish himself until a few weeks before the end of the second semester, at which point "he came to life" and completed three stories. Burnett told Salinger that his stories were skillful and accomplished, accepting "The Young Folks", a vignette about several aimless youths, for publication in Story. Salinger's debut short story was published in the magazine's March–April 1940 issue. Burnett became Salinger's mentor, they corresponded for several years. In 1942, Salinger started dating daughter of the playwright Eugene O'Neill. Despite finding her immeasurably self-absorbed (he confided to a friend that "Little Oona's ho
Google Books is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition, stored in its digital database. Books are provided either by publishers and authors, through the Google Books Partner Program, or by Google's library partners, through the Library Project. Additionally, Google has partnered with a number of magazine publishers to digitize their archives; the Publisher Program was first known as Google Print when it was introduced at the Frankfurt Book Fair in October 2004. The Google Books Library Project, which scans works in the collections of library partners and adds them to the digital inventory, was announced in December 2004; the Google Books initiative has been hailed for its potential to offer unprecedented access to what may become the largest online body of human knowledge and promoting the democratization of knowledge. However, it has been criticized for potential copyright violations, lack of editing to correct the many errors introduced into the scanned texts by the OCR process.
As of October 2015, the number of scanned book titles was over 25 million, but the scanning process has slowed down in American academic libraries. Google estimated in 2010 that there were about 130 million distinct titles in the world, stated that it intended to scan all of them. Results from Google Books show up in both the universal Google Search and in the dedicated Google Books search website. In response to search queries, Google Books allows users to view full pages from books in which the search terms appear if the book is out of copyright or if the copyright owner has given permission. If Google believes the book is still under copyright, a user sees "snippets" of text around the queried search terms. All instances of the search terms in the book text appear with a yellow highlight; the four access levels used on Google Books are: Full view: Books in the public domain are available for "full view" and can be downloaded for free. In-print books acquired through the Partner Program are available for full view if the publisher has given permission, although this is rare.
Preview: For in-print books where permission has been granted, the number of viewable pages is limited to a "preview" set by a variety of access restrictions and security measures, some based on user-tracking. The publisher can set the percentage of the book available for preview. Users are restricted from downloading or printing book previews. A watermark reading "Copyrighted material" appears at the bottom of pages. All books acquired through the Partner Program are available for preview. Snippet view: A'snippet view' – two to three lines of text surrounding the queried search term – is displayed in cases where Google does not have permission of the copyright owner to display a preview; this could be because Google can not identify the owner declined permission. If a search term appears many times in a book, Google displays no more than three snippets, thus preventing the user from viewing too much of the book. Google does not display any snippets for certain reference books, such as dictionaries, where the display of snippets can harm the market for the work.
Google maintains. No preview: Google displays search results for books that have not been digitized; as these books have not been scanned, their text is not searchable and only the metadata such as the title, publisher, number of pages, ISBN, subject and copyright information, in some cases, a table of contents and book summary is available. In effect, this is similar to an online library card catalog. In response to criticism from groups such as the American Association of Publishers and the Authors Guild, Google announced an opt-out policy in August 2005, through which copyright owners could provide a list of titles that it did not want scanned, Google would respect the request. Google stated that it would not scan any in-copyright books between August and 1 November 2005, to provide the owners with the opportunity to decide which books to exclude from the Project. Thus, Google provides a copyright owner with three choices with respect to any work: It can participate in the Partner Program to make a book available for preview or full view, in which case it would share revenue derived from the display of pages from the work in response to user queries.
It can let Google scan the book under the Library Project and display snippets in response to user queries. It can opt out of the Library Project. If the book has been scanned, Google will reset its access level as'No preview'. Most scanned works are commercially available. In addition to procuring books from libraries, Google obtains books from its publisher partners, through the "Partner Program" – designed to help publishers and authors promote their books. Publishers and authors submit either a digital copy of their book in EPUB or PDF format, or a print copy to Google, made available on Google Books for preview; the publisher can control the percentage of the book available for preview, with the minimum being 20%. They can choose to make the book viewable, allow users to download a PDF copy. Books can be made available for sale on Google Play. Unlike the Library Project, this does not raise any copyright concerns as it is conducted pursuant to an agreement with the publisher; the publisher can choose to withdraw from the agreement at any time.
For many books, Google Books displays the original page numbers. However, Tim Pa
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Bhalchandra Vanaji Nemade is a Marathi writer, poet and linguistic scholar from Maharashtra, India. Beginning with his debut novel Kosala, Nemade brought new dimensions to the world of Marathi literature; this was followed by a tetralogy consisting of novels Bidhar, Hool and Jhool. In 2013, Nemade published his magnum opus titled Hindu: Jagnyachi Samruddha Adgal, regarded as his masterpiece. Nemade is a recipient of the Sahitya Akademi Award as well as the Jnanapith Award, the highest literary honour in India. In 2013, he was awarded the Padma Shri. Nemade was born on 27 May 1938 in the village of Sangavi in the Khandesh region of Maharashtra, he received his bachelor's degree from Fergusson College in Pune and master's degree in Linguistics from Deccan College in Pune and English Literature from the Mumbai University in Mumbai. He received PhD and D. Lit. degrees from North Maharashtra University. Nemade taught English and comparative literature at various universities including the School of Oriental and African Studies at London.
He retired from Mumbai University's Gurudeo Tagore Chair for comparative literature studies. In the 1960s, Nemade edited Marathi magazine Vacha. Nemade wrote his first novel Kosala in 1963, it is a fictitious autobiographical novel of one Pandurang Sangvikar, a youth from rural Maharashtra who studies in a college in Pune. Sangvikar, the narrator in Kosala, uses everyday Marathi spoken in rural Maharashtra and his worldview reflects that held by residents of rural Maharashtra. Kosala is a chronological autobiographical narration. Thus, Sangvikar describes one year in his life in the form of a witty diary; as another innovative technique, the narration describes "historical investigations" undertaken by Sangvikar and his friend Suresh Bapat, which uncover to them the absurdity and tragedy of their present condition. Kosla is extensively translated into various languages including English, Gujarati, Assamese, Bengali, Oriya, et al. After Kosala, Nemade presented a different protagonist, Changadev Patil, through his four novels Bidhar, Hool and Jhool.
Another tetralogy begins with Hindu – Jagnyachi Samruddha Adgal in 2010 having Khanderao, the archaeologist as its protagonist. The differences between Sangvikar and Patil are not confined to just their age, profession and intellectual and emotional perception: While Sangvikar at times keeps the world at bay or rejects the world, Patil is all for the world and is forever engaged in confronting and understanding it. Sangvikar is mercurial, Patil is more realistic, whereas Khanderao's consciousness moves across 5000 years to Indus Valley culture in the Hindu tetralogy; as a critic, Nemade's contribution rests in initiating Deshivad, a theory that negates globalisation or internationalism, asserting the value of writers' native heritage, indicating that Marathi literature ought to try to revive its native base and explore its indigenous sources. Nemade antagonised his contemporaries by contending that the short story is a genre inferior to that of the novel. Nemade won the prestigious Jnanpith Award in February 2015.
He was the fourth laureate receiving the award for work in Marathi language. Winner of the Sahitya Akademi Award, he was conferred with Padma Shri in 2011 by Government of India. Novels Hindu – Jagnyachi Samruddha Adgal, published by Popular Prakashan, Mumbai Kosala (कोसला, Popular Prakashan, Mumbai Bidhar, Popular Prakashan, Mumbai Hool, Popular Prakashan, Mumbai Jarila, Popular Prakashan, Mumbai Jhool, Popular Prakashan, MumbaiPoetry collections Melody, Vacha Prakashan, Aurangabad Dekhani, Popular Prakashan, MumbaiCriticism Teekaswayamvar, Saket Prakashan, Aurangabad Sahityachi Bhasha, Saket Prakashan, Aurangabad Tukaram, Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi The Influence of English on Marathi: A Sociolinguistic and Stylistic Study, Rajahauns Prakashan, Panaji Indo-Anglian Writings: Two Lectures, Prasaranga Prakashan, Mysore Marathi For Beginners, Saket Prakashan, Aurangabad Marathi Reading Course, S. O. A. S. Univ. of London. Nivadak Mulakhati, Loka Wangmaya Griha, Mumbai. Sola Bhashane, Loka Wangmaya Griha, Mumbai.
Nativism, Indian Institute of Advanced Study, Shimla How Much Space Does an Indian Writer Need?:Literary Standards-Native, Global, Sahitya Academi, New Delhi Civil Services Junction, Civil Services Junction, 7 February 2015. Reviving the true Hindu ethos, The Hindu, 3 July 2010. Brahmins, Hindutva have ruined Hindu religion: Bhalchandra Nemade, DNA Mumbai, 26 July 2010. ‘हिंदू’ ही भूसांस्कृतिक संकल्पना – भालचंद्र नेमाडे, लोकसत्ता, 18 July 2010. Bhalachandra Nemade speaking on his novel Hindu on YouTube, Star Maaza, 27 July 2010. नेमाड़े ने गांवों में पलते भोले-भाले रिश्तों की तस्वीर को उकेरा है
A debut novel is the first novel a novelist publishes. Debut novels are the author's first opportunity to make an impact on the publishing industry, thus the success or failure of a debut novel can affect the ability of the author to publish in the future. First-time novelists without a previous published reputation, such as publication in nonfiction, magazines, or literary journals struggle to find a publisher. Sometimes new novelists will self-publish their debut novels, because publishing houses will not risk the capital needed to market books by an unknown author to the public. Most publishers purchase rights to novels debut novels, through literary agents, who screen client work before sending it to publishers; these hurdles to publishing reflect both publishers' limits in resources for reviewing and publishing unknown works, that readers buy more books by established authors with a reputation than first-time writers. For this reason, literary communities have created awards that help acknowledge exceptional debut novels.
In contemporary British and American publishing markets, most authors receive only a small monetary advance before publication of their debut novel. For an example of an unusually high advance: in 2013, the anticipated City on Fire by Garth Risk Hallberg captured the attention of ten publishers who started a bidding war that ended with Knopf buying the rights to the book for 2 million dollars; the book's film production rights were purchased soon after by producer Scott Rudin. For similar reasons that advances are not large—novels don't sell well until the author gains a literary reputation. There are exceptions, however; the novel saw huge sales because she had an established audience, publishers were willing to run a large print run. By comparison, bestselling Fifty Shades of Grey sold 14,814 copies in its first week, or popular novels, like Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, only receive small initial print runs. Debut novels that do well will be reprinted as sales increase due to word of mouth popularity of the novels — publishers don't run large marketing campaigns for debut novelists.
There are numerous literary prizes for debut novels associated with genre or nationality. These prizes are in recognition of the difficulties faced by debut novelists and bring attention to deserving works and authors; some of the more prestigious awards around the world include the American Hemingway Foundation/PEN Award, the French Prix Goncourt du Premier Roman, the British Guardian First Book Award, the German Aspekte-Literaturpreis and the Japanese Noma Literary Prize. The New York Times commentator Leslie Jamison described the big, very public, "to do" about debut novels and novelists created by these book awards, as associated with the excitement of finding authors and writers without established legacies. In the same piece for the Times, Ayana Mathis describes the debut novel as a "a piece of the writer’s soul in a way that subsequent books can’t be", because the novel is a work of passion and a product of all of their life before that moment. An author's first novel will not be as complex stylistically or thematically as subsequent works and will not feature the author's typical literary characteristics.
Huffington Post's Dave Astor attributes these to two forces: first that authors are still learning their own unique style and audiences are more willing to read works from unknown authors if they resemble more conventional styles of literature. As examples, Astor points to J. R. R. Tolkien's The Hobbit, Margaret Atwood's The Edible Woman and Charles Dickens' The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club, all of which lack the complexity or stylistic characteristics which audiences praise in the authors' work. Sometimes, instead of writing novels to begin their career, some authors will start with short stories, which can be easier to publish and allow authors to get started in writing fiction. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the earliest attested usage of "first novel" is from 1876. However, the term is much older, with instances going back to at least 1800; the Oxford English Dictionary doesn't have an entry for "debut novel." The earliest usage of "debut novel" in the Google Books database is 1930.
The Google Books Ngram Viewer shows it becoming more used after about 1980, gaining in popularity since
K. M. George (writer)
Karimpumannil Mathai George, popularly known as Dr. K. M. George, was an eminent Malayalam writer and educator. An erudite scholar and literary critic with astute organisational capabilities, he is best known as a pioneer of Comparative Indian Studies and Literatures. For his monumental works – Comparative Indian Literature, Modern Indian Literature and Masterpieces of Indian Literature, that promoted national integration through literature in India, he was awarded the Padma Bhushan in 2001, one of the highest national awards of India; these are some of the awards/recognition. His writings encompass various aspects in literature, he was a learned writer of articles in the media, father of the encyclopaedia in Kerala, editor of Indian literature, researcher of place names of Southern India, travel writer, biographer, literary critic and auto biographer. Well versed in English and in Malayalam, he had a good knowledge of many Indian languages, he has published more than 50 works, translated some works to Malayalam and edited more than 10 great anthologies
Khandesh is a geographic region in Central India, which forms the northwestern portion of Maharashtra state. Khandesh lies in Central India on the northwestern corner of the Deccan Plateau, in the valley of the Tapi River, it is bounded to the north by the Satpura Range, to the east by the Berar region, to the south by the Hills of Ajanta, to the west by the northernmost ranges of the Western Ghats. The principal natural feature is the Tapi River. Unlike the rest of the Deccan, whose rivers rise in the Western Ghats and flow eastward to the Bay of Bengal, the Tapi flows westward from headwaters in southern Madhya Pradesh to empty into the Arabian Sea; the Tapi receives thirteen principal tributaries in its course through Khandesh. None of these rivers is navigable, the Tapi flows in a deep bed which made it difficult to use for irrigation. Most of Khandesh lies south of the Tapi and is drained by its tributaries: the Girna and Panjhra; the alluvial plain north of the Tapi contains some of the richest tracts in Khandesh, the land rises towards the Satpuda hills.
In the centre and east, the country is level, save for some low ranges of barren hills. To the north and west, the plain rises into rugged hills, thickly wooded, inhabited by the tribal Bhil people. In 1295, Khandesh was under the Chauhan ruler of Asirgarh when Ala-ud-din Khilji of Delhi wrested control. Various Delhi dynasties controlled Khandesh over the next century. From 1370 to 1600, the Faruqi dynasty ruled Khandesh with the capital at Burhanpur; the foundation of Khandesh as an independent kingdom was laid by Malik Raja, son of Khanjahan Faurki. Firuz Shah Tughlaq had appointed Malik Raja as the commander-in-chief of Khandesh region, but he declares himself independent after the death of Firoz Tughlaq and ruled until 1399; the Mughals arrived in 1599, when Akbar's army overran captured Asirgarh. For a period of time, Khandesh was renamed as Dandesh in recognition of Akbar's son Daniyal. C. 1640, Todar Mal's revenue settlement system was introduced in Khandesh by Shah Jahan. The mid-17th century has been described as the time of Khandesh's "highest prosperity" owing to trade in cotton, indigo and cloth.
Mughal rule lasted until the Marathas captured Asirgarh in 1760. Maratha raids into Khandesh began in 1670 and the following century was a period of unrest as Mughals and Marathas competed for control. In 1760, the Peshwa ousted the Mughal ruler and gained control of Khandesh, following which portions were granted to Holkar and Scindia rulers. Baji Rao II surrendered to the British in June 1818, but sporadic war continued in Khandesh, among the last of the Peshwa's former territories to come under complete British control. Khandesh was a district in the Bombay Presidency. In 1906, the district was divided into two districts: East Khandesh, headquartered at Jalgaon, had an area of 11,770 km2, while West Khandesh, headquartered at Dhule, had an area of 14,240 km2. After India's independence in 1947, Bombay province became Bombay State, in 1960 was divided into the linguistic states of Maharashtra and Gujarat. East Khandesh became Jalgaon district, West Khandesh became Dhule district, both in Maharashtra state.
The latter was further divided into Nandurbar districts. Khandesh has a rich literary heritage. Marathi is the most-spoken language in Khandesh. Ahirani and Gujari are spoken in the Girana basin of West Khandesh. Khandeshi is spoken in the eastern part of Khandesh. Dakhini is spoken there. In the 13th century, Mukta Bai, the younger sister of Dnyaneshwar, lived at Muktainagar, near where the great yogi Changdeva lived. There was a strong presence of Kabir Panth in Khandesh due to the proximity of Burhanpur, the seat of Kabir Panth. Bahinabai Chaudhari, regarded as one of the greatest female poets in Marathi literature, belonged to a Khandeshi family, her son, Kavi Sopandeo Choudhary, was a well-known poet. Trambak Bapuji Thombre known as Balkavi, is from Jalgaon. Dr. V. B. Kolte, a noted scholar of Marathi, hailed from Khandesh. Bharatratna Lata mangeshkr born in Khandesh. Well known Marathi writers from Khandesh region, include Dr. Bhalchandra Nemade, N. D. Mahanor, Dr. T. T. Mahajan and Dr. Sharad Rane.
Khandesh Agency Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 15, p. 225-240