Israel the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west and Egypt to the southwest; the country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition. Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age; the Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was conquered by the Babylonian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces.
The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, expulsion of Jewish population and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina. Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187; the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and British Mandate Palestine.
In 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, rejected by Arab leaders; the following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, since the Six-Day War in 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip, it extended its laws to the Golan East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed.
In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a democratic state. The country has a liberal democracy, with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, universal suffrage; the prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. Israel is a developed country and an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member, with the 32nd-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2017; the country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. Israel has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. Furthermore, Israel ranked 11th in the UN's 2018 World Happiness Report. Upon independence in 1948, the country formally adopted the name "State of Israel" after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel and Judea, were considered but rejected.
In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term "Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively; the name "Israel" in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he wrestled with the angel of the Lord. Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years, until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob, led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus"; the earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith.
Under British Mandate, the whole region was known as Palestine (Hebre
Kosher foods are those that conform to the Jewish dietary regulations of kashrut derived from Leviticus and Deuteronomy. Food that may be consumed according to halakha is termed kosher in English, from the Ashkenazi pronunciation of the Hebrew term kashér, meaning "fit". Food, not in accordance with law is called treif meaning "torn." The Torah permits only land animals that both have cloven hooves. Four animals, the hare, hyrax and pig, are identified as being forbidden because they possess only one of the above characteristics: the hare and camel are hindgut fermenters, while the pig has a cloven hoof; the Torah lists winged creatures that may not be consumed birds of prey, fish-eating water-birds, bats. The Torah permits fish residing in "the waters" only having both scales. However, monkfish is not considered kosher, other seafood considered non-kosher includes shellfish like clams and mussels. There is a risk of products like seaweed and kelp being contaminated by microscopic, non-kosher crustaceans.
The Torah forbids creeping things that crawl the earth and "flying creeping things", with four exceptions: two types of locust, the beetle/cricket, the grasshopper. In addition to meat, products of forbidden species and from unhealthy animals were banned by the Talmudic writers; this included eggs and milk, as well as derived products such as cheese and jelly, but did not include materials "manufactured" or "gathered" by animals, such as honey. According to the rabbinical writers, eggs from ritually pure animals would always be prolate at one end and oblate at the other, helping to reduce uncertainty about whether consumption was permitted or not; the classic rabbinical writers imply that milk from an animal whose meat is kosher is kosher. As animals are considered non-kosher if after being slaughtered they are discovered to have been diseased. However, by adhering to the principle that the majority case overrules the exception, Jewish tradition continues to regard such milk as kosher, since statistically it is true that most animals producing such milk are kosher.
Rabbi Hershel Schachter, a prominent rosh yeshiva at Yeshiva University, has made the bold claim that with modern dairy farm equipment, milk from the minority of nonkosher cows is invariably mixed with that of the majority of kosher cows, thus invalidating the permissibility of consuming milk from a large dairy operation. Breast milk from a human female is permitted. However, authorities assert breast milk may be consumed directly from the breasts only by children younger than four, children older than two were only permitted to continue to suckle if they had not stopped doing so for more than three consecutive days; the situation of cheese is complicated as hard cheese involves rennet, an enzyme that splits milk into curds and whey. Most forms of rennet were derived from the stomach linings of animals, but rennet is most made recombinantly in microbes; because the rennet could be derived from animals, it could be nonkosher. Only rennet made recombinantly, or from the stomachs of kosher animals, if they have been slaughtered according to the laws of kashrut, is kosher.
If a kosher animal is not slaughtered according to the halakha, the rennet is not kosher. Rennet is not considered a meat product and does not violate the prohibition of mixing meat and dairy. Jacob ben Meir, one of the most prominent medieval rabbis, championed the viewpoint that all cheese was kosher, a standpoint, practiced in communities in Narbonne and Italy. Contemporary Orthodox authorities do not follow this ruling, hold that cheese requires formal kashrut certification to be kosher. In practice, Orthodox Jews, some Conservative Jews who observe the kashrut laws, eat cheese only if they are certain the rennet itself was kosher. However, Isaac Klein's tshuva authorized the use of cheese made from non-kosher rennet, this is practised by observant Conservative Jews and Conservative institutions. Eggs are considered pareve despite being an animal product; the Yoreh De'ah argues that if there is blood in the egg yolk hatching must have begun, therefore consumption of the egg would be forbidden.
Modern Orthodox Jews adhere to these requirements. Sephardi Orthodox Jews consider only blood in the yolk to be a problem, treat eggs with blood in the albumen as legitimate food if the blood is removed before use. Today, when battery eggs form the majority of available produce, many permit the egg with a blood spot following the removal of any actual blood. Gelatin is hydrolysed collagen, the main protein in animal connective tissue, therefore could come from a nonkosher source, such as pig skin. Gelatin has been a prominent source of glue, finding uses from musical instruments to embroidery, one of the main historic emulsions used in cosmetics and in photographic film, t
Kosher wine is grape wine produced according to Judaism's religious law Jewish dietary laws. To be considered kosher, Sabbath-observant Jews must supervise and sometimes handle the entire winemaking process, from the time the grapes are crushed until the wine is bottled and any ingredients used, including finings, must be kosher. Wine, described as "kosher for Passover" must have been kept free from contact with chametz, examples being grain and dough; when kosher wine is produced and sold commercially, it would have a hechsher of a kosher certification agency, or of an authoritative rabbi, preferably a posek, or be supervised by a beth din. In recent times, there has been an increased demand for kosher wines and a number of wine producing countries now produce a wide variety of sophisticated kosher wines under strict rabbinical supervision in Israel, the United States, Germany, South Africa and Australia. Two of the world's largest producers and importers of kosher wines and Manischewitz, are both based in the Northeastern United States.
The use of wine has a long history in Judaism, dating back to biblical times. Archeological evidence shows; the traditional and religious use of wine continued within the Jewish diaspora community. In the United States, kosher wines came to be associated with sweet Concord wines produced by wineries founded by Jewish immigrants to New York. Beginning in the 1980s, a trend towards producing dry, premium-quality kosher wines began with the revival of the Israeli wine industry. Today kosher wine is produced not only in Israel but throughout the world, including premium wine areas like Napa Valley and the St-Emilion region of Bordeaux. All Jewish holidays the Passover Seder where all present drink four cups of wine, on Purim for the festive meal, on the Shabbat require obligatory blessings over filled cups of kosher wine that are drunk. Grape juice is suitable on these occasions. If no wine or grape juice is present on Shabbat, the blessing over challah suffices. At Jewish marriages, at Redemption of First-born ceremonies, the obligatory blessing of Borei Pri HaGafen is always recited over kosher wine.
According to the teachings of the Midrash, the forbidden fruit that Eve ate and which she gave to Adam was the grape from which wine is derived, though others contest this and say that it was in fact a fig. The capacity of wine to cause drunkenness with its consequent loosening of inhibitions is described by the ancient rabbis in Hebrew as nichnas yayin, yatza sod, similar to the Latin "in vino veritas". Another evocative expression relating to wine is: Ein Simcha Ela BeBasar Veyayin—"There is no joy except through meat and wine".) Because of wine's special role in many non-Jewish religions, the kashrut laws specify that wine cannot be considered kosher if it might have been used for idolatry. These laws include Yayin Nesekh, wine, poured to an idol, Stam Yainom, wine, touched by someone who believes in idolatry or produced by non-Jews; when kosher wine is yayin mevushal, it becomes unfit for idolatrous use and will keep the status of kosher wine if subsequently touched by an idolater. While none of the ingredients that make up wine is considered non-kosher, the kashrut laws involving wine are concerned more with who handles the wine and what they use to make it.
For wine to be considered kosher, only Sabbath-observant Jews may handle it, from the first time in the process when a liquid portion is separated from solid waste, until the wine is pasteurized or bottles are sealed. Wine, described as "kosher for Passover" must have been kept free from contact with chametz and kitnios; this would include grain and dough as well as legumes and corn derivatives. When kosher wine is mevushal, it thereby becomes unfit for idolatrous use and will keep the status of kosher wine if subsequently touched by an idolater, it is not known whence the ancient Jewish authorities derived this claim. Indeed, in Orthodox Christianity, it is common to add boiling water to the sacramental wine. Another opinion holds that mevushal wine was not included in the rabbinic edict against drinking wine touched by an idolater because such wine was uncommon in those times. Mevushal wine is used in kosher restaurants and by kosher caterers so as to allow the wine to be handled by non-Jewish or non-observant waiters.
The process of boiling a wine kills off most of the fine mold on the grapes, alters the tannins and flavors of the wine. Therefore, great care is taken to satisfy the legal requirements while exposing the wine to as little heat as necessary. There is significant disagreement between halachic deciders as to the precise temperature a wine must reach to be considered mevushal, ranging from 165°F to 194°F. Cooking at the minimum required temperature reduces some of the damage done to the wine, but still has a substantial effect on quality and aging potential. A process called flash pasteurization heats the wine
Kosher salt or kitchen salt is coarse edible salt without common additives such as iodine. Used in cooking and not at the table, it consists of sodium chloride and may include anticaking agents. Coarse edible salt is a kitchen staple, but its name varies in various cultures and countries world-wide; the term Kosher salt gained common usage in North America and refers to its use in the Jewish religious practice of dry brining meats—known as koshering or kashering—as opposed to the salt itself being manufactured under religious guidelines. Some brands further identify kosher certified salt as being approved by a religious body. Coarse edible salt is known as cooking salt, flake salt, rock salt, koshering salt, kashering salt in addition to kitchen salt; because the salt has a purer flavor due to the lack of metallic or bitter tasting additives such as iodine, fluoride or dextrose, it is used in the kitchen instead of additive-containing table salt so such flavors are not introduced to prepared food.
Estimating the amount of salt when salting by hand can be easier due to the larger grain size. Some recipes call for volume measurement of Kosher/kitchen salt which weighs less per measure due to its lower density, is therefore less salty than an equal volume measurement of table salt; the coarse-grained salt is used to create a dry brine which increases succulence and flavor and satisfies some religious requirements, sometimes with flavor additions such as herbs, spices or sugar. The meat is soaked in cool water, drained covered with a thin layer of salt, allowed to stand on a rack or board for an hour or more; the larger salt granules remain on the surface of the meat, for the most part undissolved, absorb fluids from the meat which are partially reabsorbed with the salt and any added flavors brining the meat in its own juices. The salt rub is rinsed off and discarded before cooking. Due to its grain size the salt is used as an abrasive cleaner for cookware such as cast iron skillets. Mixed with oil it retains its abrasiveness but can be dissolved with water after cleaning, unlike pumice or calcium carbonate based cleansers which can leave a gritty residue if not rinsed away.
Rather than cubic crystals, kosher salt has a flat plate-like shape and may have a hollow pyramidal shape. The flat form is made when cubic crystals are forced into this shape under pressure between rollers; the pyramidal salt crystals are made by an evaporative process called the Alberger process. This salt is manufactured with a grain size larger than table salt grains. Pickling salt – Fine-grained salt used for manufacturing pickles Korean brining salt Pickling – Process of preserving food, by either anaerobic fermentation in brine or immersion in vinegar Curing – Food preservation and flavoring processes based on drawing moisture out of the food by osmosis Kosher foods
Kosher style refers to foods associated with Jewish people but which may or may not be kosher. It is a stylistic designation rather than one based on the laws of kashrut. Kosher style food does not include meat from forbidden animals, such as pigs and shellfish, does not contain both meat and milk. In some U. S. states, the use of this term in advertising is illegal as a misleading term under consumer protection laws. Jews who do not keep kosher, but wish to restrict themselves to eating "traditional style" foods not eating forbidden animals or mixing milk and meat, may consider themselves to keep kosher style; some dining establishments, notably delicatessens, serve kosher style food. This means that they serve traditional Ashkenazic Jewish foods, such as bagels with lox, blintzes, matzo ball soup, cold cut sandwiches. Always, when a restaurant calls itself kosher style, the food is not kosher according to traditional halakhic standards. Several notable restaurants in Lower Manhattan fit into this genre, including Katz's Delicatessen and Russ & Daughters.
Canter's restaurant in Los Angeles and Montreal's Schwartz's deli fall into this category. Jews who adhere to the laws of kashrut will not eat at kosher style establishments. Furthermore, the fact that such establishments appear to be kosher can be deceptive to Jews who are visiting an unfamiliar city and are looking for kosher food; some of these establishments are open on the Jewish sabbath for business when this is forbidden by Jewish Law. Others may choose to eat at such restaurants, but not consume cheese at these restaurants. In Toronto, several kosher-style restaurants now serve pork products, such as bacon, ham and sausage in order to serve a larger number of customers; some kosher-style hotdog restaurants, such as Max's Famous Hotdogs and The Windmill, use pork as well as beef hot dogs. Kosher restaurant List of kosher restaurants
Kosher Gym was a fitness club on Coney Island Avenue in the Midwood section of Flatbush, that catered to Orthodox Jews in New York by, among other things, offering separate facilities for men and women. In 2008 the club was sold to Energize Fitness of Cheyenne, which purchased another similar club in Lakewood, New York, Trim Gym, branding both as Energize in an attempt to create a national franchise. However, the company closed both locations a year after the acquisition. David Moshe from Israel founded The Kosher Gym in 1999, he saw a need for Jewish and religious men and women to be healthy and fit, but these people would not go to "typical gyms” because of the immodest atmosphere according to Orthodox standards. The Hebrew motto "a healthy mind and a healthy body" was painted on the walls. Moshe called it Kosher Gym, a play on the word “כושר” which means fitness in Hebrew and played along with the theme of being a "kosher" place to work out, it advertised as "the only kosher gym in the world".
The Kosher Gym started in a renovated car garage on Coney Island in Brooklyn with separate hours for men and women. Only instrumental music was played, only CNN was shown on the club televisions, the fruit juice was kosher, frosted glass prevented passers-by from observing those working out inside, tapes of rabbinical lessons and "Jewish Techno" were available for members' use while working out. In late 2002 Kosher Gym was experiencing financial difficulties and Moshe found an investor, a local businessman, Yehuda Fulda to purchase Kosher Gym. Fulda reincorporated Kosher Gym as KG Fitness, he changed the focus to a health and fitness club and the logo from a set of dumbbells to a running man and leased a second building a block away at 1716 Coney Island that he built as a luxury all women's facility. This enabled the gym to flourish; the all women's gym was enthusiastically received by the community and added thousands of new members to the gym, outgrowing the new facility. Less than 2 years KG Fitness built a new facility for women over three times the size across the street from the men's facility.
By 2007 KG fitness had grown to over 5,000 members, Fulda decided that it would be more efficient to have one large facility with separate facilities for men and women. This would enable KG to consolidate a lot of its staff, save money. In 2007 both facilities were moved to a large 25,000 square foot facility on McDonald Ave. In the new facility on McDonald, KG invested in technology to enable fewer staff. One of the major components was a biometric scanning system that granted members access the club, it enabled KG to monitor and restrict members to specific parts of the club. While in the past the women's exercise classes - which since club's inception were a supplement to the membership cost, could now be monitored. Now, the past "honor system" became an enforced system. Members, abusing the system, now had to pay; some members objected to paying for classes, which they claimed had been included in their memberships. Fulda installed a turnstile and fingerprint reader at the entrance to the building and classes, posted a sign threatening a $500 fine and membership termination for those bypassing them.
Those caught in a class for which they had not paid were required either to pay retroactive class fees or to sign an affidavit that it was the first time they had attended and warned that video records would be searched and they would be charged for the cost of the investigation if the statement was found to be untrue. In 2008 Fulda who had lost millions of dollars on Kosher Gym, decided to sell, he found a buyer in a national club operator revealed to be Energize Fitness of Cheyenne, who would continue operating gender-separate clubs but make changes including opening on the Sabbath, using advertising depicting women, having "immodestly" dressed staff. Many of the members, who had reacted negatively to the hiring of non-Jewish staff, objected to the changes and resented not being released from their membership contracts. Fulda called purchasing the fitness center "a mistake". Members filed complaints with the New York Attorney General's office, although after an extensive investigation the only violation found was a failure to post a notice of bond as required by state law.
Energize purchased a similar club in Lakewood, New York, Trim Gym, branding both as Energize in an attempt to create a national franchise, but closed both locations a year at which time there were 6,000 members in the 25,000 square foot facility in Brooklyn and the Lakewood location
A kosher restaurant is an establishment that serves food that complies with Jewish dietary laws. These businesses, which include diners, cafés, fast food, cafeterias, are in listings together with kosher bakeries, butchers and other similar places, differ from kosher style establishments in that they operate under rabbinical supervision, which requires that the laws of kashrut, as well as certain other Jewish laws, must be observed; such locations must be closed during Jewish holidays if under Jewish ownership. Dairy and meat must be kept separate. In most cases, a kosher establishment is limited to serving either dairy or meat foods; some types of establishments, such as delicatessens serve both, kept in separate areas. Vegetarian kosher restaurants serve only vegetarian fare. Areas with large Jewish populations, such as Jerusalem, New Jersey and Toronto, Canada, are described as having many kosher restaurants, while other areas such as Dublin, Ireland may be lacking. In the United States, New York City has the highest number of kosher restaurants, in Canada, Toronto has the most.
As of 2017, there were over 500 kosher restaurants in the New York area. Locations such as Philadelphia have small numbers of certified kosher restaurants. In cities with smaller Jewish populations, kosher dining is limited to just a single establishment; some cities do not have any kosher dine-in facilities, but the small communities have other arrangements for Jewish residents to obtain ready-made kosher meals and other types of food that may be hard to obtain kosher otherwise. A kosher restaurant serves food; the establishments operate under rabbinical supervision, which requires that the laws of kashrut, as well as certain other Jewish laws, must be observed. Among those laws, the meat and dairy can't be mixed, grape products made by non-Jews can't be consumed. Pork and shellfish can not be served, animals must be slaughtered by a certified "shochet,", a rabbi. In most cases, the location is limited to serving either dairy or meat foods, but some types of establishments, such as delicatessens serve both, kept in separate areas.
Such locations must be closed during Jewish holidays. For example, kosher restaurants close on Saturdays for Shabbat. In the New York area, many kosher restaurants close over the eight days of Passover as "a matter of practicality," as staying open requires that no bread or bread products be used; the restaurants must be cleaned of bread residue to be opened for Passover. According to the Wall Street Journal, more New York kosher restaurants in recent years have remained open on Passover, including both casual and fine-dining locations; because many foods can be kosher as long as the food is prepared heeding Jewish laws, there are "kosher steakhouses, kosher pizzerias, kosher fish joints, kosher Indian restaurants, kosher Thai places," and other sorts. Unlike in the general population, where many restaurants and fast food businesses specialize in a particular type of food, many kosher establishments have a variety of different types of popular food. Many kosher delicatessens exist that serve both meat foods that are kept separate.
The dairy items include various sliced cheeses and cream cheese, the meats include cold cuts and meat spreads. Many pareve items and fish items are served, such as smoked whitefish salad and herring. Pizza is a popular food served at kosher restaurants, but kosher pizza shops also serve Middle Eastern cuisine, such as falafel, other foods that can be served with dairy, such as fish and pasta; some locations have the menus common at pizza shops. Bagel shops are common, serving bagels and cream cheese with lox and a variety of other spreads. At kosher bagel shops, salads may be served. Kosher fleishig establishments serve meat dishes popular within Middle Eastern cuisine, such as Shawarma, along with common American fast food staples like hot dogs and hamburgers. Fish may be served at fleishig restaurants, though it cannot be served on the same plate as meat. Kosher Chinese restaurants are common; these are either fleishig or vegetarian. In recent years, a tradition has developed in Jewish communities to eat Chinese food on Christmas Day, as many Chinese restaurants are open on these days.
This phenomenon is the subject of the song "Chinese Food on Christmas." While most kosher restaurants are small businesses operating only a single location, some operate multiple locations within a city. Some corporate restaurants and fast food chains operate kosher locations in places with Jewish populations. In Israel, kosher KFC, McDonald's, Sbarro franchises can be found. In the United States, there are Krispy Kreme and Subway locations. Most of the kosher Subways had failed by 2011, some of these locations must modify their typical menus in order to comply with Jewish dietary laws. Among other major corporate chains, Baskin-Robbins ice cream is kosher at all locations, certified by the Vaad Hakashrut of Massachusetts, with most flavors kosher. Rita's Italian Ice operates some locations under rabbinical supervision, in states such as Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania. Many cities with Jewish communities have kosher grocery stores; these can range in size from a corner store, similar in style to a delicatessen, or a full-sized supermarket similar in appearance to a big box store.
As of 2010, the largest such store in th