Dhankuta is a hill town and the headquarter of Koshi Zone located in Dhankuta District of Eastern Nepal. According to 2011 Nepal census, it has population of 26,440 inhabitants; until about 1963 Dhankuta Bazaar was the administrative headquarters for the whole of north-eastern Nepal. Located a half mile above the town were the buildings of the Bada Hakim, the feudal district governor of the whole north-eastern region, a man with enormous power; the town had the regional jail and army post. Because of Dhankuta's isolation from the lowland Terai and from Kathmandu, it was in many ways a self-governing area. Income to purchase items that could not be produced locally came from a combination of sales of hill produce and funds repatriated back into the hills by Gorkha soldiers serving first in the British and more-often in the Indian armies; the first five American Peace Corps Volunteers arrived in Dhankuta Bazaar in Fall, 1962 to work as teachers in the two high schools. In October, 1963 three male PCV's arrived to help establish the new Panchayat Development program.
From 1963 Nepal was divided into 75 Panchayat Districts, the traditional Dhankuta administrative region was divided up into about six of the panchayat districts. The power of the Bada Hakim was transferred to the central government's appointed Panchayat Development Officer and each district's elected Panchayat President. During the pre-panchayat period Dhankuta Bazaar prided itself as being in the cultural vanguard, a progressive community with its own "intellectual" elite. Dhankuta Bazaar in the 1930s, had the only high school in Nepal to be located outside of the Kathmandu Valley. Early on it added a two-year college, and now there is a sharp contrast between Dhankuta Bazaar and the surrounding rural villages. The town is a commercial center and has a population, Newar; the surrounding area is agricultural and the population is made up of many caste/tribal groups, notably Limbu, Aathpaharias and Tibetan. Dhankuta Bazaar, on the North-South Koshi Highway, is now the administrative headquarters for the Eastern Development Region, is home to a number of offices for NGOs and aid agencies serving in the area.
The large bazaar of Hile further up the road, is an important trading centre and major road head, serving the remote hinterlands of the Arun valley and Bhojpur. Villagers walk for many days from surrounding districts to trade in Hile and Dhankuta bazaars, although road building in the district may reduce the importance of these centers. ‘Nepal’s cleanest city’ as proposed by The Kathmandu post. The vegetation zones in the district range from sub-tropical Sal forest along the Tamur and Arun rivers, cooler temperate forests on some of the high ridges that mark the watershed between the two catchments; the altitude ranges from around 300m to 2500m. The majority of the population are involved in agriculture and crops include maize and millet. Important cash crops include citrus fruits, cabbage, in recent years, tea. A well-preserved forest spreads along a ridge line on the northwest side of the village, with well-developed mature stands of rhododendron and pine trees. Dhankuta District Hospital is located off the main street at the south end of the town.
The hospital has facilities like inpatient Ultrasonography and x-ray. Besides the government posted doctors and dental intern doctors from BPKIHS are posted there. Radio Nepal has a regional station in Dhankuta. Radio Lali Guransa – 105.2 MHz, Radio Makalu Dhankuta – 92.2 MHZ and Radio Dhankuta 106.2 MHZ are Community radio Station which are transmits local programme
Dhankuta District is one of 14 districts of Province No. 1 of eastern Nepal. The district covers an area of 891 Km² and has a population of 163,412. Dhankuta is the district headquarters of Dhankuta District. Dhankuta was a part of Limbuwan and Kirata Kingdom before unification of those parts into Kingdom of Nepal. After 1816 there were 10 districts in Nepal and Dhankuta-chainpur district was one of them. All land from east of Dudhkosi river to the Mechi river was one district Dhankuta-chainpur. From 1885 to 1962 Nepal remained divided into 32 districts and there were six districts in eastern-hill region: East No. 1, East No. 2, East No. 3, East No. 4, Ilam and Dhankuta. Dhankuta was center of these districts; that time dhankuta was a large district. Current Sankhuwasabha, Taplejung and Dhankuta districts were Incorporated under one district; the total area of the former Dhankuta district was 3,448 square miles. In 1962, Nepal divided into 75 districts and 16 districts of eastern Nepal grouped to form Eastern Development Region and Dhankuta became the headquarter of it.
Dhankuta is a mid-hill district of eastern hill region of Nepal. It is situated between 26 ° 53' to 87 ° 8' to 88 ° 33' east longitude. Total area of the district is 888.7 square kilometres and it is located at 243 metres to 629 metres of elevation above sea level. The vegetation zones in the district range from sub-tropical Sal forest along the Tamor and Arun rivers, cooler temperate forests on some of the high ridges that mark the watershed between the two catchments; the altitude ranges from around 300m to 2500m. The majority of the population are involved in agriculture and crops include maize and millet. Important cash crops include citrus fruits, cabbage, in recent years, tea. A well-preserved forest spreads along a ridge line on the northwest side of the village, with well-developed mature stands of rhododendron and sallo trees. Dhankuta is divided into 4 rural municipalities. Dhankuta was divided into 2 municipalities and many Village development committees. Dhankuta District has singal Parliamentary constituency and 2 Provincial constituencies: Dhankuta, the headquarter of Dhankuta District is connected with NH-08, which connects Dhankuta with NH-01 at Itahari.
Itahari is 69 KM at distance from Dhankuta. The NH-08 connects Dhankuta to northern hill and mountainous area. Pakhribas Bhedetar Namaste Waterfall Zones of Nepal District Development Committee, Dhankuta "Districts of Nepal". Statoids
Province No. 1
Province No. 1 is one of the seven provinces established by the new constitution of Nepal, adopted on 20 September 2015. As per a CDC report, Province No. 1 has 28 parliamentary seats and 56 provincial seats under the first-past-the-post voting system. As per a 17 January 2018 cabinet meeting, the city of Biratnagar has been declared the interim capital of Province No. 1. It borders the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, the Indian states of Sikkim and West Bengal to the east, Province No. 3 and Province No. 2 to the west, Bihar of India to the south. According to the 2011 census, there are around 4.5 million people in the province, with a population density of 175.6 per square kilometer. The Kiratas were the aborigines of the north-eastern Himalayas. According to Baburam Acharya, they ruled over it, they were short and had robust bodies, broad cheeks, flat noses, thin whiskers, dark eyes. They were well trained in the art of warfare, were skillful archers, they were the ancestors of the present day Kiratas.
Yalamber the king of the Kiratas defeated Bhuvan Singh, the last king of the Ahir dynasty and established Kirat rule in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal. He extended his kingdom as far as the Trishuli River in the west. Kirata's Kingdom was divided into many principalities and chiefs ruled in eastern Nepal. Limbuwan, Morang Kingdom belonged to them. King of Gorkha unified all the kirati kingdoms or Principalities in Nepal from 1771 to 1789. Before establishment of new constitution on 20 September 2015, the area of Province No. 1 was one of the five Development Regions of Nepal, named Eastern Development Region. It had 16 districts, 14 existing districts of Province No. 1 and 2 districts Siraha and Saptari of Province No. 2. The Eastern Development Region was divided into 3 zones; the zones were: Kosi Zone and Sagarmatha Zone. Mechi included 4 districts, Kosi included Sagarmatha included 6 districts; the total area of The region was 28,456 km². Province No. 1 covers an area of 25,905 km2. The Province has three-fold geographical division: Himalayan in the north, Hilly in the middle and Terai in the southern part of Nepal, varying between an altitude of 60 m and 8,848 m.
Terai, extended from east to west, is made up of alluvial soil. To the west of Koshi River, in between Mahabharat Range and Churia Range, there elongates a valley called Inner Terai. Churai Range, Mahabharat Range and other hills of various height, basins and valleys form the hilly region; some parts of this region are favorable for agriculture but some other parts are not. Himalayan region, in the north, consists of many mountains ranges. Mahalangur, Umvek, Lumba Sumba and Janak being some of them; the highest mountain in the world, Mount Everest. Nepal's lowest point, Kechana Kawal at 58 m, is located in Jhapa district of this Province. There are gentle slopes as well. Chure, many basins and valleys form the Terai region. Between the Churia and Mahabharat a low land of inner Terai exists; the Koshi river flows through the region with its seven tributaries. Tundra vegetables, coniferous forest, deciduous monsoon forests and sub-tropical evergreen woods are vegetations found here. Sub-tropical, sub-temperate, alpine and tundra types of climates are found here.
Province No. 1 includes the snow fall capped peaks including Mt. Everest, Makalu with Solukhumbu and Taplejung districts towards the north, the jungle clad hill tracts of Okhaldhunga, Bhojpur, Tehrathum and Panchthar in the middle and the alluvial fertile plains of Udayapur, Sunsari and Jhapa. Province 1 includes places like Haleshi Mahadev Temple, Pathivara Temple and Barahachhetra, which are the famous religious shrines for Hindus. Climatic conditions of Nepal vary from one place to another in accordance with their geographical features. Province no. 1 has three geographical folds: The low-land of Terai, the hilly region and the highlands of the Himalayas. The low land altitude is 59 m. Whereas the highest point is 8848 m. In the north summers are cool and winters severe, while in the south summers are tropical and winters are mild. Climatically, the southern belt of Province, the Terai, experiences warm and humid climate. Eastern Nepal receives 2,500 millimeters of rain annually. Province no. 1 has five seasons: spring, monsoon and winter.
Northern part of Province No. 1 has the highest mountain of the world and there are many peaks that are higher. Here is a list of mountains in Province No. 1. There are many rivers in the region which flow towards south from the Himalayas which are tributaries of other large rivers which joins Ganga River. Sapt Koshi or the Koshi is the main river of the region. Seven tributaries join the Koshi; the major rivers in the province are: Mechi River Kankai River Koshi River Below given names are tributaries: Tamor Arun River Sun Koshi Dudh Koshi Likhu Khola Bhote Koshi Indrawati River Sagarmatha National Park – 1,148 km2 Makalu Barun National Park – 1,500 km2 Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve – 175 km2 Kanchenjunga Conservation Area – 2,035 km2 Gokyo Lake Complex – 7,770 ha Kosi
Dharan is one out of two sub-metropolitan cities of Nepal, in the Sunsari District, is situated on the foothills of the Mahabharat Range in the north with its southern tip touching the edge of the Terai region at an altitude of 1148 ft. It serves as the plains of Terai region, it was once the location of a recruitment center for the Brigade of Gurkhas, opened in 1953. The recruitment center is closed and the campus is now the home of B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences since 1993. Dharan sub-metropolitan city organised a Golden Jubilee celebration of Dharan from 28 to 31 January 2011, marking the 50th year of establishment of the municipality, it is the second-largest city of Eastern Nepal. It is known as the soccer/footballer producing factory of Nepal; the Kirat dynasty Burddi Karna raya is famous ruler of Dharan. After a brief period, King Mawrong Hang came to prominence and took over Terai lands of Chethar, Bodhey and Ilam, he rose to power. He became their overlord, he died without any male heir and King Uba Hang took over as supreme ruler of Limbuwan in 849 – 865 AD.
He made many social reforms in Limbuwan. Uba Hang's son Mabo Hang succeeded him in 865 AD and ruled until 880 AD. Uba Hang kept on with the reforms. Uba Hang was succeeded by his son Muda Hang. Muda Hang was a weak ruler. Muda Hang was succeeded by his son Wedo Hang but by this time Limbuwan was in chaos and every principality was ruling independently and fighting with each other. Wedo hang was murdered and his son Chemjonghang succeeded him. During this chaos and the waning phase of King Chemjong hang, King Sirijonga of Yangwarok kingdom rose to power, he took over as the new supreme ruler of Limbuwan. He built two big forts in Chainpur; the remains of the structure still stand today. One of his legacies was that he brought all the Limbus under the same writing system in Limbu script, he brought feudal reform in Limbuwan and divided Limbuwan into new boundaries and districts. After the establishment of Namgyal dynasty in Sikkim and under the Lho-Mehn-Tsong Tsum, a treaty between the Bhutia and Limbu people of the Sikkim area, Limbuwan lost the area between Kunchenjunga range and Teesta River to the Bhutia Kings of Sikkim.
Since Limbuwan comprises all the area between Arun River and Koshi River in the west to Kunchenjunga Mountains and Mechi River in the east. In the beginning of the 15th century, the descendants of King Sirijonga became weak and Limbuwan again fell into chaos and anarchy. At the time Lowland Limbuwan Kingdom of Morang was ruled by King Sangla Ing. Sangla Ing became the first independent ruler of Morang in a century, his son Pungla Ing changed his name into Aamar Raya. He was succeeded by his descendents, who bore Hindu names. Kirti Narayan Raya, Aap Narayan Raya, Jarai Narayan Raya, Ding Narayan Raya Ing, Bijay Narayan raya. King Bijay Narayan Raya built a new town in the middle of Varatappa and Shangori fort and named it Bijaypur after him, he died without an heir. Bijaypur town was founded in 1584 AD and is located next to Dharan, Sunsari District. Bijaypur town remained the capital of Morang Kingdom and Limbuwan region until the Gorkha Limbuwan War in 1774 AD, it was the most powerful and influential of all the Kingdoms in Limbuwan region and was able to establish its hegemony among all the other Limbu rulers.
But in 1609 AD Kirant King Lo hang Sen of Sen dynasty captured Morang and ruled it for seven generations. King of Phedap Murray Hang was made the chief minister of Morong, he stayed in Bijaypur and the King of Morang made his post hereditary. Murray Hang was given a Hindu name and he became Bidya Chandra Raya, his descendents remained Chief Ministers of Morang until Buddhi Karna Raya Khebang. Buddhi Karna Raya Khebang succeeded the last Sen King of Morang Kama Datta sen and sat in the throne of Bijaypur Palace in 1769 AD. Dharan started as a small trading settlement. Over the last few decades, the population of Dharan has increased and diversified to include people from various ethnicities like Limbu, Chhetris, Gurung, Newar and Yakha. Modern Dharan's foundation was laid in 1902 by prime minister Chandra Shamsher, he named it Chandranagar. The purpose was to supply timber to the East India Company, which in the 1890s had expanded its north eastern territory and was laying railway tracks; the first government official to be appointed in this small village was Subba Ratna Prasad.
The settlement grew over the course of time. This growing settlement was named Juddha Nagar after Prime minister Juddha Shamsher, it was declared a municipal town in 1960. The British Gurkha Recruit Center was established in 1953 and this increased the flow of people and expansion of the town. Recruits from all over Nepal flocked to join the British Gurkhas, thereby drastically altering the face of Dharan. There was a surge in population with recruits bringing their families, others who came to seek employment and exploit business opportunities; as a result, Dharan emerged as one of the biggest towns in eastern Nepal. It is in a true sense a melting pot of different ethnic groups, dialect
Sunsari District is one of 14 districts in Province No. 1 of Nepal. The district is located in the eastern Terai and covers an area of 1,257 km2. According to the 2011 Nepal census, the population was 763,487; the district headquarters is located in Inaruwa. The area was part of Morang District but became its own district in 1962 when Nepal was divided into 14 zones and 75 districts. Major cities in Sunsari district are Inaruwa, Itahari and Dharan, Duhabi; some religious places of this district are Budha Subba Temple, Chataradham, Baraha Kshetra, Bishnupaduka and Pindeshori. The district consists of two Sub-metropolitan Cities, four urban municipalities and six rural municipalities; these are as follows: Itahari Sub Metropolitan City Dharan Sub Metropolitan City Inaruwa Municipality Duhabi Municipality Ramdhuni Municipality Barahachhetra Municipality Koshi Rural Municipality Gadhi Rural Municipality Barju Rural Municipality Bhokraha Rural Municipality Harinagara Rural Municipality Dewanganj Rural Municipality Zones of Nepal Official Web Portal of Sunsari District
The Koshi or Kosi River drains the northern slopes of the Himalayas in Tibet and the southern slopes in Nepal. From a major confluence of tributaries north of the Chatra Gorge onwards, the Koshi River is known as Saptakoshi for its seven upper tributaries; these include the Tamor River originating from the Kanchenjunga area in the east and Arun River and Sun Koshi from Tibet. The Sun Koshi's tributaries from east to west are Dudh Koshi, Bhote Koshi, Tamakoshi River, Likhu Khola and Indravati; the Saptakoshi crosses into northern Bihar where it branches into distributaries before joining the Ganges near Kursela in Katihar district. The Koshi is 720 km long and drains an area of about 74,500 km2 in Tibet and Bihar. In the past, several authors proposed that the river has shifted its course for more than 133 km from east to west during the last 200 years, but a review of 28 historical maps dating 1760 to 1960 revealed a slight eastward shift for a long duration, that the shifting was random and oscillating in nature.
The river basin is surrounded by ridges which separate it from the Yarlung Tsangpo River in the north, the Gandaki in the west and the Mahananda in the east. The river is joined by major tributaries in the Mahabharat Range 48 km north of the Indo-Nepal border. Below the Siwaliks, the river has built up a megafan some 15,000 km2 in extent, breaking into more than 12 distinct channels, all with shifting courses due to flooding. Kamalā, Bāgmati and Budhi Gandak are major tributaries of Koshi in India, besides minor tributaries such as Bhutahi Balān, its unstable nature has been attributed to the heavy silt it carries during the monsoon season and flooding in India has extreme effects. Fishing is an important enterprise on the river but fishing resources are being depleted and youth are leaving for other areas of work; the Koshi River catchment covers six geological and climatic belts varying in altitude from above 8,000 m to 95 m comprising the Tibetan plateau, the Himalayas, the Himalayan mid-hill belt, the Mahabharat Range, the Siwalik Hills and the Terai.
The Dudh-Koshi sub-basin alone consists of 296 glacier lakes. The Koshi River basin borders the Tsangpo River basin in the north, the Mahananda River basin in the east, the Ganges Basin in the south and the Gandaki River basin in the west; the eight tributaries of the basin upstream the Chatra Gorge include from east to west: Tamur River with an area of 6,053 km2 in eastern Nepal. The three major tributaries meet at Triveni, from where they are called Sapta Koshi meaning Seven Rivers. After flowing through the Chatra Gorge the Sapta Koshi is controlled by the Koshi Barrage before it drains into the Gangetic plain. Peaks located in the basin include Mount Everest, Lhotse, Cho Oyu and Shishapangma; the Bagmati river sub-basin forms the south-western portion of the overall Koshi basin. The Dudh Koshi joins the Sun Koshi near the Nepalese village of Harkapur. At Barāhkṣetra in Nepal it becomes the Koshi. After flowing another 58 km it crosses into Bihar, near Bhimnagar and after another 260 km joins the Ganges near Kursela.
The Koshi alluvial fan is one of the largest in the world, extends from Barāhkṣetra across Nepalese territory, covering northeast Bihar and eastern Mithila to the Ganges, 180 km long and 150 km wide. It shows evidence of lateral channel shifting exceeding 120 km during the past 250 years, via at least twelve major channels; the river, which flowed near Purnea in the 18th century, now flows west of Saharsa. A satellite image shows old channels with a confluence before 1731 with the Mahananda River north of Lava; the Koshi River is known as the "Sorrow of Bihar" as the annual floods affect about 21,000 km2 of fertile agricultural lands thereby disturbing the rural economy. The Koshi has an average water flow of 2,166 cubic metres per second. During floods, it increases to as much as 18 times the average; the greatest recorded flood was 24,200 m3/s on 24 August 1954. The Koshi Barrage has been designed for a peak flood of 27,014 m3/s. Extensive soil erosion and landslides in its upper catchment have produced a silt yield of about 19 m3/ha/year, one of the highest in the world.
Of major tributaries, the Arun brings the greatest amount of coarse silt in proportion to its total sediment load. The river transports sediment down the steep gradients and narrow gorges in the mountains and foothills where the gradient is at least ten metres per km. On the plains beyond Chatra, the gradient falls below one metre per km to as little as 6 cm per km as the river approaches the Ganges. Current slows and the sediment load settles out of the water and is deposited on an immense alluvial fan that has grown to an area of about 15 000 km2; this fan extends some 180 km from its apex where it leaves the foothills, across the international border into Bihar state and on to the Ganges. The river has numerous interlacing channels. Without channelisation, floods spread out widely; the record flow of 24 200 m3/s is equivalent to water a metre deep and more than 24 km wide, flowing at one metre per second. The Koshi's alluvial fan has fertile soil and abundant groundwater in a part of the world where agricultural land is in gre
Sagarmāthā was one of the fourteen zones of Nepal until the restructuring of zones into provinces. Sagarmāthā is a Nepali word derived from सगर् meaning "sky" and माथा meaning "head", it includes mountain districts of the Himalayas in the north, hill districts in the center, valley districts of the Terai in the south. It is bordered by China to the north, India to the south, the Koshi Zone to the east and the Janakpur Zone to the west. Sagarmāthā is divided into six districts: The main city of the Sagarmāthā Zone was Rajbiraj, the headquarters. Other towns of the Sagarmāthā hill area were Katari, Diktel and Namche Bazaar. Triyuga is an emerging city in the zone. Sagarmāthā Zone took its name from the Nepalese name for Mount Everest, located in the north of the zone within the Sagarmatha National Park in the Solu Khumbu district. Sagarmāthā means "the Head in the Great Blue Sky". Development Regions of Nepal List of zones of Nepal List of districts of Nepal Sagarmatha National Park List of districts of Nepal