Zlatibor is a mountainous region situated in the western part of Serbia. Among the most popular places in Serbia for tourism, Zlatibor's main attractions include health tourism and hiking; the largest city in the region is Užice—located at the foothills of the mountain—while most of the area belongs to the municipality of Čajetina. The town of Zlatibor has shifted over the years from a group of vacation homes to an urban location with diverse amenities; the Tornik ski resort is located in the area. The Zlatibor region is divided among two municipalities, Čajetina and Užice, while both lie within the Zlatibor District; the Belgrade-Bar railroad passes through Zlatibor. In the Middle Ages, the region was known as Rujno, a župa, part of Raška, a centre of the medieval Serbian state; the name Zlatibor came into the 18th century. It stems from the Serbian words zlatni and bor. Pinus sylvestris var. zlatiborica is a subspecies of pine originating from the mountain, is endangered today. A hill by the name of Cigla, located near the nearby village of Jablanica, still has some borderline markings of the Kingdom of Serbia, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire.
Zlatibor itself is located in the northern part of the Stari Vlah region, a historical border region between Raška, Herzegovina and Bosnia. It spreads over an area of 300 square kilometres, 43 km in length, southeast to northwest, up to 37 km in width, its highest peak, has an elevation of 1,496 m. Zlatibor is situated between 43° 31' N, 43° 51' N, between 19° 28' E and 19° 56' E; the southern and the eastern border of Zlatibor are natural -- the rivers Veliki Rzav. Villages of Mokra Gora and Jablanica mark its western border towards the Tara Mountain. Southern part of Zlatibor, extending towards the Zlatar mountain, is referred to as Murtenica; the climate is humid continental. Situated at an elevation of just over 1,000 metres, Zlatibor is a climatic resort, characterized by a cool alpine climate, clean air, long periods of sunshine during the summer and a heavy snow cover in winter. Tourist facilities include modern hotels, holiday centers and cottages, sports grounds and skiing tracks. Tourist era on Zlatibor began on 20 August 1893, when the King of Serbia Aleksandar Obrenović decided to establish a health resort on an initiative from the local hosts.
To his honor, a fountain was erected on the place. In 1945, it was renamed to Partizanske Vode after Yugoslav Partisans, in 1991 the town received the current name Zlatibor; the area is a location of numerous hotels, restaurants, open swimming pools and other sports facilities. Residents of surrounding villages of Sirogojno, Jablanica, Rožanstvo, Ljubiš, Tripkova and the town of Čajetina opened their homes to tourists and built other facilities; the process began in January 2016 and in October 2017, the government placed part of the mountain under protection as a Nature Park Zlatibor. The land within the "protected area of exceptional importance" is 56% owned and covers the villages of Semegnjevo, Stublo, Ljubiš and Gostilje; the settled area is in the lowest, third level of protection while the first level of protection occupies 4,69% of the entire area, or 1,968.89 ha. Within the park there are four regions: Black Rzav, Uvac Gorge and Griža Gorge. There are previously protected areas: strict natural reserve "Park Forest" and natural monuments "Lira black pine" and "Three black pines - Dobroselica".
The total area of the park is 41.923 ha. There are 1,044 species of plants in the park; the prevailing fauna consists of the autochthonous black pine forests and the mixed forests of black and Scots pine, which are categorized as a priority habitats by the Natura 2000. There are 154 species of birds and 38 species of mammals; the park includes numerous objects of architectural legacy. The park is bounded by the Uvac river on the south, border with Bosnia and Herzegovina on the west, mountains of Mokra Gora and Grude on the north and the mountain of Murtenica and Katušnica river on the east. Ribnica Lake and Čigota massif are within the park, while the towns of Čajetina and Zlatibor remain outside. Ponikve Airport Zlatibor in words and pictures Zlatibor.com Парк природе Златибор
Tara is a mountain located in western Serbia. It stands at 1,000 to 1,590 m above sea level; the mountain's slopes are clad in dense forests with numerous high-altitude clearings and meadows, steep cliffs, deep ravines carved by the nearby Drina River and many karst, or limestone caves. The mountain is a popular tourist centre. Tara's national park encompasses a large part of the mountain; the highest peak is Zborište, at 1,544 m. Tara National Park was established in 1981 and it encompasses Tara and part of the Zvijezda mountain, in a large bend of the Drina River; the area of the park was 191.75 km2 with altitudes varying from 250 to 1,591 m above sea level. On 5 October 2015, the National Assembly of Serbia adopted the new law of national parks which enlarged the Tara National Park to 249.92 km2, by adding to it the protected area of "Zaovine Landscape of Outstanding Features". The park's management office is located in nearby Bajina Bašta; the protective zone of the park, which encircles it, is much larger and spreads over the area of 376 km2.
The national park consists of a group of mountain peaks with deep picturesque gorges between them. The highest point of the park is the Kozji Rid peak on the Zvijezda mountain, with 1,591 m; the most striking of these gorges is the Drina Gorge, with its sheer drops from 1,000 to 250 m and extensive views of western Serbia and nearby Bosnia. It encompasses the gorges of the rivers Rača, Brusnica and Derventa and the waterfall of Veliki Skakavac on the river Beli Rzav; the area is characterised by karst caves, pits and breathtaking vista points. Forests account for three quarters of the national park's area, 160 km2, some of them being the best preserved and well-kept in Europe. With 83.5% of the territory under forest, Tara is the most forested area of Serbia and thus nicknamed the "lungs of Serbia". The forest growth is among the highest in Europe: the total wood mass increases each year and the quality of the forest is enhanced. Cutting of the wood is controlled. Since 1960, the total measurement of the wood mass on Tara has been measured every 10 years.
From 1990 to 2000, the mass grew from 463.7 m3/ha to 476.4 m3/ha. Within the park, there are 9 reserves with an area of 29.5 km2, or 16% of the park, where woodcutting is forbidden. Some of the areas are left unattended for centuries, making them a temperate rainforest. Forests consist of beech and fir. Tara boasts a rare endemic Tertiary species, the Serbian Spruce, now protected in the small area of the park, it was discovered by Josif Pančić in 1875 in the Zaovine's hamlet of Đurići. Because of its rarity and scientific importance, it has been placed under national protection as it can only be found on two locations on Tara: the canyon of the Mileševka river and on the Zvezda massif. Oldest trees in the park are the beeches, in total there are 1,200 plant species in the park, of which 84 are Balkans endemites, 600 species of fungi. There are two species of edelweiss. Pančić discovered the Derventa knapweed on the cliffs of the Derventa canyon, while Alpine edelweiss habitats only one ridge on Mokra Gora and is protected.
Another endemite is common lady's mantle. There are total of 140 insect species in the park. Rare species include Pančić's grasshopper, endemic cricket Balkan isophya discovered in 1882 by Carl Brunner von Wattenwyl and aspen longhorn beetle, which in Serbia lives only on this location. 135 bird species make their temporary or permanent homes on the slopes of the mountain, including golden eagle, griffon vulture, peregrine falcon, Eurasian eagle owl and black grouse. On Perućac lake on the Drina, there is a population of common merganser, with 50 pairs. Tara is inhabited by 53 mammalian species, including the protected brown bear and otter, as well as chamois, roe deer, wolf, wild boar and marten. Since they have been protected, numbers of brown bears soon began to rise. By 2018, there were over 50, considered to be the optimal number of animals on the mountain; as their number grew, despite having feeders they began causing damage to local orchards and apiaries, but have not attacked livestock nor the villagers.
Some of the animals are tracked via satellite. The tracking shows that females with cubs, occupy a compact area, but males range more travelling west, crossing the Drina into Bosnia where hunting is permitted; the bears do not tend to travel into central Serbia, to the east or northeast of the mountain, but the first animal, tracked used to go all the way to the slopes of the Kopaonik mountain, in the southeast. Work published in May 2018 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America journal by the research team from the Northumbria University revealed that the locality "Crveni Tepih" shows the evidence of the oldest lead pollution in Europe, it is dated to 3600 BC, predating the previous oldest findings dated to 3000 BC in southern Spain and pushed back the origins of lead metallurgy for six centuries. Kremenilo, near the village of Višesava, is a prehistoric settlement, dated between 5,000 and 7,000 BC, as part of the Starčevo culture which developed in Podunavlje as the first agricultural culture in the Balkans.
Mountainous Illyrian tribe of Autariatae inhabited the area during the Bronze Age. Though it is mentioned that t
The Ottoman Empire known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire; the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained numerous vassal states; some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.
With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians; the empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires; the Ottomans suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.
The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, atrocities were committed by the Young Turk government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks; the Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy; the word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman.
Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti; the Turkish word for "Ottoman" referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term "Turk" was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, was seen as a disparaging term when applied to urban, educated individuals. In the early modern period, an educated urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker, not a member of the military-administrative class would refer to himself neither as an Osmanlı nor as a Türk, but rather as a Rūmī, or "Roman", meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and Anatolia; the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond.
In Western Europe, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being favoured both in formal and informal situations. This dichotomy was ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character; as the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I, a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived. Osman's early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River.
It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their
Municipalities and cities of Serbia
The municipalities and cities are the second level administrative subdivisions of Serbia. The country is divided into 145 municipalities and 29 cities, forming the basic level of local government. Municipalities and cities are the administrative units of Serbia, they form 29 districts in groups, except the City of Belgrade, not part of any district. A city may not be divided into city municipalities depending on their size. There are six cities in Serbia with city municipalities: Belgrade, Novi Sad, Niš, Požarevac, Užice and Vranje comprise several city municipalities each, divided into "urban" and "other". There are 30 city municipalities. MunicipalitiesLike in many other countries, municipalities are the basic entities of local government in Serbia; the head of the municipality is the President of the municipality, while the executive power is held by the Municipal council, legislative power by the Municipal assembly. Municipal assembly is elected on local elections, while the President and the Council are elected by the Assembly.
Municipalities have their own budget. Only the cities have mayors, although the municipal presidents are informally referred to as such; the territory of a municipality is composed of surrounding villages. The municipality bears the name of the seat town. Only one municipality does not share the name with the seat town, as the seat of that municipality is the town of Dragaš; this municipality is located in Kosovo, thus exists only on paper. The territory of the municipality was merged with part of the Municipality of Prizren in 2000 by UNMIK to form new Municipality of Dragaš; this move is not recognised by Serbian Government. Advocates of reform of Serbian local self-government system point out that Serbian municipalities are the largest in Europe, both by territory and number of residents, as such can be inefficient in handling citizens' needs and distributing the income from the country budget into most relevant projects. Cities and city municipalitiesCities are another type of local self-government.
The territory with the city status has more than 100,000 inhabitants, but is otherwise similar to municipality. There are each having an assembly and budget of its own. Only the cities have mayors, although the presidents of the municipalities are referred to as "mayors" in everyday usage; as with a municipality, the territory of a city is composed of a city proper and surrounding villages. Every city is part of a district; the exception is the capital Belgrade, not part of any district. The city may not be divided into city municipalities. Six cities: Belgrade, Novi Sad, Niš, Požarevac, Užice and Vranje comprise several city municipalities. Competences of cities and these municipalities are divided; the municipalities of these cities have their assemblies and other prerogatives. Two largest city municipalities by number of residents are the Novi New Belgrade. Of these six cities, only Novi Sad did not undergo the full transformation, as the newly formed municipality of Petrovaradin exists pretty much only formally.
The city of Kragujevac had its own city municipalities from 2002 until 2008. In 2013, the city municipality of Sevojno within the city of Užice was established. Serbian law still treats Kosovo as an integral part of Serbia, although Kosovo declared independence in 2008; the Law on Territorial Organization defines 1 city on the territory of Kosovo. Kosovo was under official United Nations' administration from 1999 to 2008; the UNMIK administration changed the territorial organisation on the territory of Kosovo. In 2000 the municipality of Gora was merged with Opolje into the new municipality of Dragaš and one new municipality was created: Mališevo. From 2005 to 2008, seven new municipalities were created: Gračanica, Elez Han, Parteš, Klokot and Mamuša. However, the Government of Serbia does not recognise the territorial re-organisation of Kosovo, although some of these new-formed municipalities have Serb majority, some Serbs participate in local elections. In three of those municipalities: Gračanica, Klokot-Vrbovac and Ranilug, Serbian parties won a majority in the 2009 elections.
In the Brussels Agreement, in 2013, Serbia agreed to disband its parallel municipal institutions in Kosovo, while the authorities of Kosovo agreed on creation of the Community of Serb Municipalities. However, both parties acted to put this agreement in power; this is a lis
Administrative divisions of Serbia
The administrative divisions of Serbia are regulated by the Government of Serbia Enactment of 29 January 1992, by the Law on Territorial Organization adopted by the National Assembly of Serbia on 29 December 2007. Serbia is divided into 29 districts by the Enactment of 29 January 1992, while the units of the territorial organization are: municipalities and cities and autonomous provinces, by the Law on Territorial Organization. Autonomous provincesSerbia has two autonomous provinces: Vojvodina in the north and Kosovo and Metohija in the south; the province of Vojvodina has government. It enjoys autonomy on certain matters, such as infrastructure, science and culture; the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija has been transferred to the administration of UNMIK since June 1999, following the Kosovo War. In February 2008, the Government of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence from Serbia, a move recognized by 113 countries but not recognized by Serbia, China, Spain, Georgia, Indonesia or the United Nations.
Statistical regionsThe five statistical regions of Serbia are: Vojvodina Belgrade Šumadija and Western Serbia Southern and Eastern Serbia Kosovo and Metohija Districts are the first level administrative subdivisions of the country and largest entities, constituted of municipalities and cities. Districts have no assemblies of their own. Districts are not defined by the Law on Territorial Organisation, but are organised under the Government's Enactment of 29 January 1992. Serbia is divided into 29 districts. MunicipalitiesSerbia is divided into 145 municipalities and 29 cities, which form the basic units of local government; each municipality has a municipal president, public service property and a budget. Municipalities have more than 10,000 inhabitants. Municipalities comprise local communities, which correspond to settlements in the rural areas. Urban areas are divided into local communities, their roles include communication of elected municipal representatives with citizens, organization of citizen initiatives related with public service and communal issues.
They are presided over by councils, elected in semi-formal elections, whose members are volunteers. The role of local communities is far more important in rural areas. Cities Cities are another type of local self-government. Territories with the status of "city" have more than 100,000 inhabitants, but are otherwise similar to municipalities. There are each having an assembly and budget of its own. Only cities have mayors, although the presidents of the municipalities are referred to as "mayors" in everyday usage; the city may or may not be divided into "city municipalities". Six cities, Novi Sad, Niš, Požarevac, Užice and Vranje comprise several municipalities, divided into urban and suburban areas. Competences of cities and their municipalities are divided. Of those, only Novi Sad did not undergo the full transformation, as the newly formed municipality of Petrovaradin exists only formally. Although the Serbian laws treat Kosovo as every other part of Serbia, divide it into 5 districts, 28 municipalities and 1 city, the UNMIK administration adopted new territorial organisation of Kosovo in 2000.
This move is recognized by the self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo. According to the new subdivision, Kosovo is divided into 37 municipalities; the "Serb" districts function in the areas where Kosovo Serbs live, but are only recognized by Serbs, while the "UNMIK" districts, which function in all of Kosovo, are recognized only by Kosovo Albanians. Historical administrative divisions of Serbia Statistical regions of Serbia Districts of Serbia Municipalities and cities of Serbia Cities and towns in Serbia Cities and villages in Vojvodina Populated places in SerbiaISO 3166-2:RS Balinovac, Zoran M.. Miklič, Peter, ed. "The government and state administration system in the Republic of Serbia – compilation of laws and explanatory articles". Translated by Čavoški, Aleksandra. Belgrade: Dial, Grafolik. ISBN 86-902823-3-5
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, snow and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates", thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called "showers."Moisture, lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain occurs. A stationary front is present near the area of freezing rain and serves as the foci for forcing and rising air.
Provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus. The cloud droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops and descend toward the Earth where they will freeze on contact with exposed objects. Where warm water bodies are present, for example due to water evaporation from lakes, lake-effect snowfall becomes a concern downwind of the warm lakes within the cold cyclonic flow around the backside of extratropical cyclones. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy. Thundersnow is possible within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. Most precipitation is caused by convection; the movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes.
Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, but over land it is only 715 millimetres. Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Precipitation may occur on other celestial bodies, e.g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most takes the form of frost, rather than rain or snow. Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year, 398,000 km3 of it over the oceans. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall.
Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Mixtures of different types of precipitation, including types in different categories, can fall simultaneously. Liquid forms of precipitation include drizzle. Rain or drizzle that freezes on contact within a subfreezing air mass is called "freezing rain" or "freezing drizzle". Frozen forms of precipitation include snow, ice needles, ice pellets and graupel; the dew point is the temperature to which a parcel must be cooled in order to become saturated, condenses to water. Water vapor begins to condense on condensation nuclei such as dust and salt in order to form clouds. An elevated portion of a frontal zone forces broad areas of lift, which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus.
Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. It can form due to the lifting of advection fog during breezy conditions. There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiational cooling, evaporative cooling. Adiabatic cooling occurs when air expands; the air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain. Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface by being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to colder land. Radiational cooling occurs due to the emission of infrared radiation, either by the air or by the surface underneath. Evaporative cooling occurs when moisture is added to the air through evaporation, which forces the air temperature to cool to its wet-bulb temperature, or until it reaches saturation; the main ways water vapor is added to the air are: wind convergence into areas of upward motion, precipitation or virga falling from above, daytime heating evaporating water from the surface of oceans, water bodies or wet lan
Austria-Hungary referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy in Central and Eastern Europe between 1867 and 1918. It was formed by giving a new constitution to the Austrian Empire, which devolved powers on Austria and Hungary and placed them on an equal footing, it broke apart into several states at the end of World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867. Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies, one autonomous region: the The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown, which negotiated the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement in 1868, it was ruled by the House of Habsburg, constituted the last phase in the constitutional evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal. Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states.
Austria-Hungary was a multinational one of Europe's major powers at the time. Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km2, the third-most populous; the Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States and the United Kingdom. Austria-Hungary became the world's third largest manufacturer and exporter of electric home appliances, electric industrial appliances and power generation apparatus for power plants, after the United States and the German Empire. After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina was under Austro-Hungarian military and civilian rule until it was annexed in 1908, provoking the Bosnian crisis among the other powers; the northern part of the Ottoman Sanjak of Novi Pazar was under de facto joint occupation during that period but the Austro-Hungarian army withdrew as part of their annexation of Bosnia. The annexation of Bosnia led to Islam being recognized as an official state religion due to Bosnia's Muslim population.
Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I which started when it declared war on the Kingdom of Serbia on 28 July 1914. It was effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918; the Kingdom of Hungary and the First Austrian Republic were treated as its successors de jure, whereas the independence of the West Slavs and South Slavs of the Empire as the First Czechoslovak Republic, the Second Polish Republic and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and most of the territorial demands of the Kingdom of Romania were recognized by the victorious powers in 1920. The realm's official name was in German: Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie and in Hungarian: Osztrák–Magyar Monarchia, though in the international relations better Austria-Hungary was used; the Austrians used the names k. u. k. Monarchie and Danubian Monarchy or Dual Monarchy and The Double Eagle, but none of these became widepsread neither in Hungary, nor elsewhere.
The realm's full name used in the internal administration was The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of St. Stephen. German: Die im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreiche und Länder und die Länder der Heiligen Ungarischen Stephanskrone Hungarian: A Birodalmi Tanácsban képviselt királyságok és országok és a Magyar Szent Korona országai The Habsburg monarch ruled as Emperor of Austria over the western and northern half of the country, the Austrian Empire and as King of Hungary over the Kingdom of Hungary; each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with only a few joint affairs. Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, each with its own unique governmental structures; the division between Austria and Hungary was so marked that there was no common citizenship: one was either an Austrian citizen or a Hungarian citizen, never both. This meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, never a common one.
However, neither Austrian nor Hungarian passports were used in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. Instead, the Kingdom issued its own passports which were written in Croatian and French and displayed the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia on them, it is not known what kind of passports were used in Bosnia-Herzegovina, under the control of both Austria and Hungary. The Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary after the Austrian Empire was created in 1804; the administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary remained untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire. Hungary's central government structures remained well separated from the Austrian imperial government; the country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary – located in Pressburg and in Pest – and by the Hungarian Royal Court Chancell