The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year. The Ancient Greek word Hellas is the original word for Greece, from which the word Hellenistic was derived. At this time, Greek cultural influence and power was at its peak in Europe, North Africa and Western Asia, experiencing prosperity and progress in the arts, literature, architecture, mathematics and science, it is considered a period of transition, sometimes of decadence or degeneration, compared to the enlightenment of the Greek Classical era. The Hellenistic period saw the rise of New Comedy, Alexandrian poetry, the Septuagint and the philosophies of Stoicism and Epicureanism. Greek science was advanced by the works of the polymath Archimedes; the religious sphere expanded to include new gods such as the Greco-Egyptian Serapis, eastern deities such as Attis and Cybele and a syncretism between Hellenistic culture and Buddhism in Bactria and Northwest India.
After Alexander the Great's invasion of the Achaemenid Empire in 330 BC and its disintegration shortly after, the Hellenistic kingdoms were established throughout south-west Asia, north-east Africa and South Asia. The Hellenistic period was characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization which established Greek cities and kingdoms in Asia and Africa; this resulted in the export of Greek culture and language to these new realms, spanning as far as modern-day India. However, these new kingdoms were influenced by the indigenous cultures, adopting local practices where beneficial, necessary, or convenient. Hellenistic culture thus represents a fusion of the Ancient Greek world with that of the Near East, Middle East, Southwest Asia; this mixture gave rise to a common Attic-based Greek dialect, known as Koine Greek, which became the lingua franca through the Hellenistic world. Scholars and historians are divided as to; the Hellenistic period may be seen to end either with the final conquest of the Greek heartlands by Rome in 146 BC following the Achean War, with the final defeat of the Ptolemaic Kingdom at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, or the move by Roman emperor Constantine the Great of the capital of the Roman Empire to Constantinople in 330 AD.
"Hellenistic" is distinguished from "Hellenic" in that the first encompasses the entire sphere of direct ancient Greek influence, while the latter refers to Greece itself. The word originated from the German term hellenistisch, from Ancient Greek Ἑλληνιστής, from Ἑλλάς. "Hellenistic" is a 19th-century concept. Although words related in form or meaning, e.g. Hellenist, have been attested since ancient times, it was Johann Gustav Droysen in the mid-19th century, who in his classic work Geschichte des Hellenismus, coined the term Hellenistic to refer to and define the period when Greek culture spread in the non-Greek world after Alexander's conquest. Following Droysen and related terms, e.g. Hellenism, have been used in various contexts; the major issue with the term Hellenistic lies in its convenience, as the spread of Greek culture was not the generalized phenomenon that the term implies. Some areas of the conquered world were more affected by Greek influences than others; the term Hellenistic implies that the Greek populations were of majority in the areas in which they settled, but in many cases, the Greek settlers were the minority among the native populations.
The Greek population and the native population did not always mix. While a few fragments exist, there is no complete surviving historical work which dates to the hundred years following Alexander's death; the works of the major Hellenistic historians Hieronymus of Cardia, Duris of Samos and Phylarchus which were used by surviving sources are all lost. The earliest and most credible surviving source for the Hellenistic period is Polybius of Megalopolis, a statesman of the Achaean League until 168 BC when he was forced to go to Rome as a hostage, his Histories grew to a length of forty books, covering the years 220 to 167 BC. The most important source after Polybius is Diodorus Siculus who wrote his Bibliotheca historica between 60 and 30 BC and reproduced some important earlier sources such as Hieronymus, but his account of the Hellenistic period breaks off after the battle of Ipsus. Another important source, Plutarch's Parallel Lives although more preoccupied with issues of personal character and morality, outlines the history of important Hellenistic figures.
Appian of Alexandria wrote a history of the Roman empire that includes information of some Hellenistic kingdoms. Other sources include Justin's epitome of Pompeius Trogus' Historiae Philipicae and a summary of Arrian's Events after Alexander, by Photios I of Constantinople. Lesser supplementary sources include Curtius Rufus, Pausanias and the Byzantine encyclopedia the Suda. In the field of philosophy, Diogenes Laër
Ialysos is a town and a former municipality on the island of Rhodes, in the Dodecanese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Rhodes, of which it is a municipal unit; the municipal unit has an area of 16,7 km2. It is the second-largest town on the island of Rhodes, it has a population of 11,300, is located eight kilometres west of the town of Rhodes, the island's capital, on the island's northwestern coast. The town is situated near the site of the ancient Doric polis of Ialysos, homeland of the famous ancient boxer Diagoras of Rhodes; the municipal unit consists of the surrounding areas. While official sources use Trianta as a name for the town, Ialysos for the whole municipal unit, unofficial usage tend to favour Ialysos to describe both the modern town and the municipal unit; until the mid-1980s Trianta/Ialysos was a village with a population of around 2500 people, but during the following years population grew to an official 10,107 at the 2001 census, as it to an increasing degree became a suburban district to the town of Rhodes.
Ialysos has in addition become a tourist destination, with several hotels and resorts located on the coast in the new settlement of Ixia, situated between the towns of Ialysos and Rhodes. Being on the windward north-western coast of the island, it is a noted location for wind-surfing; the municipal unit has a land area of the smallest of any on Rhodes. State facilities by category: Primary Education: 3 primary schools Secondary Education: 1 high school and 1 lyceum Town football team GAS Ialysos competes at national level third tier while in the 90s team competed at Beta Ethniki losing promotion to Greece's top league during 1994-95 season. GAS Ialysos competes on local league but in the past reached national league C. Town municipal "Ekonomideio" stadium hosts Ialysos indoor hall basketball. Timocreon poet Diagoras of Rhodes boxer Ialysos Official website Temple of Athena Polias at Ialysus Museum of mineralogy & paleontology Stamatiadis
Attavyros is a former municipality on the island of Rhodes, in the Dodecanese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Rhodes, of which it is a municipal unit; the population is 2,433. It is the westernmost municipal unit on the island, occupying the central portion of its western coast; the seat of the municipality was in Emponas. Its largest other towns are Ágios Kritinia. In land area it is the second-largest municipal unit on Rhodes and the second-least densely populated, after South Rhodes; the municipal unit is composed by five communities: Media related to Attavyros at Wikimedia Commons
South Rhodes is a former municipality on the island of Rhodes, in the Dodecanese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Rhodes, of which it is a municipal unit; the municipal unit comprises the southernmost portion of the island, is a result of a union of ten former communities: At the 2011 census, the population was 3,561. It has a land area of 379.050 km², covering about 27 percent of the island's area. The seat of the municipality was in a town of 655 inhabitants. / South Rhodes official website Logo of South Rodes
Kritinia is a Greek village in the municipal unit of Attavyros, on the island of Rhodes, South Aegean region. In 2011 its population was 503; the village, meaning New Crete, was founded by some families escaped from Crete during the Turkish rule in the island. The settlement was located by the coast, in the current position of Kameiros Skala. In 1658, the Venetian Doge Francesco Morosini tried to conquer Rhodes entering at Kameiros Skala beach, but the Venetian army was rejected; the castle above Kritinia, named Kastellos, was built in 1472 by Giorgio Orsini to protect the inhabitants of the village from the attacks of the Ottoman fleets. Until the liberation of the Dodecanese, the village was named Kastelli, from the Latin Castellum, meaning castle. Kritinia is located on a hillside between Mount Attavyros and the western coast of the island of Rhodes, it is 10 km from Embonas, 51 km from the town of Rhodes, 53 km from Lindos and 35 km from Rhodes International Airport. The locality of Kameiros Skala is located by 5 km from Kritinia.
It has a little port with a ferry service to the island of Halki. Despite the name Kameiros Skala is some 14 km from Kameiros. Close to it is Mandriko, a locality, part of the community of Embonas. Media related to Kritinia at Wikimedia Commons Kritinia official website
Maritsa is a village situated on west coast of the island of Rhodes, about 17 km far from the capital, between Kremasti and Psinthos. It is a part of the Municipality of Petaloudes; this village is renowned for its traditional active nightlife all year round. Near the village at the old international airport and motorbike races are held as well as model airplane shows. Outside the village, there are two churches: the Agios Georgios church, built in the 15th century and the Agios Nikolaos church, with wall paintings from the 15th century. Maritsa is home to Iraklis AKS, a sports club with senior and junior teams competing at regional level. Iraklis football club has experience playing for a year in the late 90's in the 4th National division. Maritsa is renowned for its hospitable inhabitants and traditional character, it is the only village in Rhodes without a seasonal hotel, though studio apartments are available upon request; every December all the young people organise a celebration for welcoming the new year at the centre square of the village.
The money needed for the celebration is an offer from the villagers and the owners of the restaurants and bars. The ceremony takes place at about 19:00 of 31 December and 3 hrs the party is "fired up" by a group playing local songs and dances performed by instruments like lyra and bouzouki. At the same period α live crib is opened where represents the birth of Christ with genuine animals and goats; the crib is found in the top of Mt. Koymoyli, next to the holily abbey of transformation of Savior Christ. At the crib is offered hot tea from locally herbs as well as traditional rusk while the small children can come out photographs with Santa Claus; the crib functions from 24 Dec until 6 Jan. The village has taken his name from an Italian officer called "Maritza" that had the responsibility for the control of the village at the duration of Italian possession. Today it numbers about 1800 residents
Greece the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of 11 million as of 2016. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast; the Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres; the country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace and the Ionian Islands.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, in which Greek language and culture were dominant. Rooted in the first century A. D. the Greek Orthodox Church helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence.
Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The sovereign state of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, a high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001, it is a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power, it is the largest economy in the Balkans. The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The Greek name of the country is Hellas or Ellada, its official name is the Hellenic Republic. In English, the country is called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia and means'the land of the Greeks'; the earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, in the Greek province of Macedonia. All three stages of the stone age are represented for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries, as Greece lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Europe. Greece is home to the first advanced civilizations in Europe and is considered the birthplace of Western civilisation, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea at around 3200 BC, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland; these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek.
The Mycenaeans absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse. This ushered from which written records are absent. Though the unearthed Linear B texts are too fragmentary for the reconstruction of the political landscape and can't support the existence of a larger state contemporary Hittite and Egyptian records suggest the presence of a single state under a "Great King" based in mainland Greece; the end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea, So