click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Kosmos 21

Kosmos 21 was a Soviet spacecraft with an unknown mission. This mission has been tentatively identified by NASA as a technology test of the Venera series space probes, it may have been an attempted Venus flyby similar to the Kosmos 27 mission, or it may have been intended from the beginning to remain in geocentric orbit. In any case, the spacecraft never left Earth orbit after insertion by the SL-6/A-2-e launcher; the orbit decayed on November three days after launch. Cosmos 21 was launched at 06:23:35 UTC on 11 November 1963, atop a Molniya 8K78 carrier rocket flying from Site 1/5 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Beginning in 1962, the name Kosmos was given to Soviet spacecraft which remained in Earth orbit, regardless of whether, their intended final destination; the designation of this mission as an intended planetary probe is based on evidence from Soviet and non-Soviet sources and historical documents. Soviet planetary missions were put into an Earth parking orbit as a launch platform with a rocket engine and attached probe.

The probes were launched toward their targets with an engine burn with a duration of 4 minutes. If the engine misfired or the burn was not completed, the probes would be left in Earth orbit and given a Kosmos designation; the spacecraft's original development name before being given the Cosmos 21 denomination once it reached orbit was 3MV-1 No. 1

Dissolution of parliament in Latvia

The Constitution of Latvia, ratified on February 15, 1922, contains a provision regarding one of the reserve powers of the President of Latvia to initiate the dissolution of the parliament. According to Article 48-50 of the Constitution, 48; the President shall be entitled to propose the dissolution of the Saeima. Following this proposal, a national referendum shall be held. If in the referendum more than half of the votes are cast in favour of dissolution, the Saeima shall be considered dissolved, new elections called, such elections held no than two months after the date of the dissolution of the Saeima. 49. If the Saeima has been dissolved, the mandate of the members of the Saeima shall continue in effect until the newly elected Saeima has convened, but the dissolved Saeima may only hold sittings at the request of the President; the agenda of such sittings shall be determined by the President. 50. If in the referendum more than half of the votes are cast against the dissolution of the Saeima the President shall be deemed to be removed from office, the Saeima shall elect a new President to serve for the remaining term of office of the President so removed.

Since 2009, Article 14 foresees the right for the citizens without involvement of president: 14. Not less than one tenth of electors has the right to initiate a national referendum regarding recalling of the Saeima. If the majority of voters and at least two thirds of the number of the voters who participated in the last elections of the Saeima vote in the national referendum regarding recalling of the Saeima the Saeima shall be deemed recalled; the right to initiate a national referendum regarding recalling of the Saeima may not be exercised one year after the convening of the Saeima and one year before the end of the term of office of the Saeima, during the last six months of the term of office of the President, as well as earlier than six months after the previous national referendum regarding recalling of the Saeima. The electors may not recall any individual member of the Saeima. Thus, the Constitution establishes one of the possible procedures to resolve a political crisis in a parliamentary republic by entitling the President, an otherwise ceremonial figure, to initiate the dissolution of parliament, but at the potential cost of his own office, should his initiative be rejected by popular vote.

This constitutional power was used for the first time in the history of the Latvian state by the President, Valdis Zatlers, on May 28, 2011. This move was in response to the parliament's refusal to sanction a search at the home of Ainārs Šlesers, a Saeima member and former Cabinet minister; the referendum on the dissolution of parliament has to take place no than two months time after the President's decree. On May 30 the Central Election Commission resolved that the vote take place on July 23, 2011. Following the riots in Riga on January 13, 2009, President Zatlers promised to dissolve the Saeima unless it adopted amendments to the Constitution providing for the possibility of dissolving it by popular vote; these amendments were adopted by the Saeima on April 8, 2009, but on April 1, 2009, the President decided not to dissolve parliament. The Latvian parliament, the Saeima, was dissolved unconstitutionally on May 15, 1934 following a bloodless coup organized by then-Prime Minister Kārlis Ulmanis.

The Cabinet declared a military state of emergency and suspended the activity of all parties which put a ban on the work of the Saeima. This act was in direct violation of the Constitution and led to the establishment of an authoritarian regime. 2011 Latvian parliamentary dissolution referendum Politics of Latvia Legal Analysis of the Procedure for Saeima's Dissolution

Quinsigamond

More than nine variations of the name have been seen in the records throughout history. In Native American Algonquian language, Quinsigamond is loosely translated as "the pickerel fishing place." Pickerel is a type of fresh water fish native to inland lakes and ponds. American Nipmuc Indians named the body of water between Worcester and Shrewsbury, "Quinsigamond", the largest lake in the East. Colonial settlers adapted the name of the lake for a nearby village. Quinsigamond was the name given to the area known today as "Worcester." The name for Quinsigamond Community College, was chosen to honor the rich cultural heritage of Worcester County. During the early 1600s, more than 15,000 Nipmuc Native Americans roamed, in small clans, the areas known as; the Nipmucs were known as the original settlers of the area in western New England. This territory encompassed the central trail to all areas of the northeast called the "Great Path" or the Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor; the Nipmucs or "western" band of Indians were known as the "fresh water fishing" tribe or "people from the small pond", since they inhabited inland areas of New England.

The Nipmuc people were known as a hunting and gathering tribe who lived a "scattered existence." They migrated during the seasons to follow their food source to hunt, to cultivate the "three sisters". They made canoes out of hollowed out logs, their main mode of transportation on the lake. English settlers arrived to the Worcester County area and found, what looked to them as, dispersed yet abandoned villages; the Nipmuc that were encountered, attempted to adopt the white man's ways. Rev. John Elliot converted many Native Americans to Christianity. Clusters of the converted Indians formed “praying towns” to practice their new religion. In 1637, the first settlement of Worcester was called the “Village of Quinsigamond” or the “Quinsigamond Plantation.” Three buildings formed the heart of the Village, Quinsigamond branch library, the Quinsigamond school, the Quinsigamond fire house. It functioned as a self-sustaining community, predomidantly populated with Swedish and Irish immigrants; the English persuaded the Nipmuc people to allow the purchase of large amounts of land for minimal compensation.

In 1652, the “Indian Land Rights Law” was passed. The law stated that Indian tribes would forfeit the title of their land if they hadn't made improvements upon it; when the Nipmuc realized their land was being taken from them, they joined the rise of King Philip's War. A man named Metacomet was a Wampanoag Indian leader, known as King Philip, he was responsible for initiating the war. Metacomet and his band of Wampanoag Indians fought the colonist after the land called Plymouth was taken from them. King Philip's War was devastated most of the settlements in New England. By the time the war had ended, most of the villages from Marlboro to Grafton were destroyed, having been burnt to the ground; the remaining Nipmuc Indians in the area, were captured and exiled to Deer Island in Boston Harbor without proper clothing, food, or provisions. The bulk of the Nipmuc population perished, or were forced to live on reservations in the Worcester County area; the overall toll of the conflict dwindled the size of the Indian bands to less than 1,000.

In 1684, the English settlers of Quinsigamond Village changed their community name to "Worcester", to honor the King of England's defeat during the Civil War. In 1722, Worcester became a town and grew into a city, focusing its efforts on promoting the tourism industry; the Quinsigamond Lake area grew into an amusement park tourist attraction offering picnic areas, boat rides, concerts, a dance hall, a rollerskating rink. Horrace Bigelow purchased much of the land around the lake for summer homes, he owned much of the lake real estate and boasted to friends that the park was drenched in "fifty thousand electric lights." Thus, the east side of the lake area became nicknamed "White City". The colonists utilized the lake for recreational sports like swimming, fishing. Competitive rowing teams were popular on the lake; the Olympic rowing trials were held on Lake Quinsigamond in 1952. Today, Nipmuc people live on the Chaubunagungamaug Reservation area in Webster, the Hassanamisco Reservation in Grafton.

The Indian population is about 2,000 people. Many carry on the traditions of their ancestors; the Quinsigamond Lake region is no longer home to an amusement park but a shopping area, there are two state parks on the lake. The current usage of Quinsigamond Lake remains popular for recreational use. Many college and area club rowing teams continue to utilize the lake for this sport; as the second largest city in Massachusetts, Worcester became known as "the heart of the commonwealth" and has continued to prosper. Quinsigamond Community College has flourished as one of six biggest colleges in the Worcester Area, it has continued to proudly bear the iconic original name of "Quinsigamond” and represent the rich cultural Native American history. Worcester Historical Museum QCC Public Library Worcester official website

USS Shokokon (1862)

USS Shokokon was a large steamer with powerful 30-pounder rifled guns, purchased by the Union Navy during the beginning of the American Civil War. With a crew of 112 sailors, she was employed by the Union Navy as a heavy gunboat outfitted to pursue blockade runners of the Confederate States of America, to participate in river operations; when required, towards war's end, she acted as a minesweeper, removing Confederate naval mines from Northern Virginia rivers. Shokokon—a wooden-hulled ferry built as Clifton in 1862 at Greenpoint, New York—was purchased by the Navy at New York City on 3 April 1863; the double-ender was assigned to the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron and arrived at Newport News, Virginia, on the morning of 24 May 1863. Shokokon was first stationed in the outer blockade off North Carolina. C. On 4 July, as battered Confederate troops retreated from Gettysburg, she ascended the Pamunkey from White House and destroyed an unidentified schooner which had run aground some five miles upstream.

A week Shokokon was switched to the James River where, on the 14th, the former ferryboat joined seven other Union fighting ships in capturing Confederate stronghold, Fort Powhatan. The force destroyed 20 gun platforms. On 10 August, after repairs at the Norfolk Navy Yard, Shokokon returned to blockade duty off Wilmington, North Carolina, was stationed off Smith's Island. On the 18th, she assisted USS Niphon in destroying steamer, which Niphon had chased aground while that blockade runner was attempting to slip through the Union cordon of warships with drugs and provisions badly needed by the South. Four days two boats from Shokokon destroyed schooner, Alexander Cooper, in New Topsail Inlet, North Carolina, demolished extensive salt works in the vicinity. Late in August 1863, the ship was damaged in a hurricane and sent north for repairs which lasted through the end of the year, she returned to Newport News on the morning of 16 January 1864 and, for the remainder of the war, was active in supporting Union ground forces in the rivers of Virginia and North Carolina.

On 9 March, she joined USS Morse and USS General Putnam in escorting a Union Army expedition up the York and Mattapony rivers. On 5 May, she was one of the warships which swept the river to clear away Confederate torpedoes and supported the crossing of the landings at Bermuda Hundred and City Point, which established a Union bridgehead on the southern shore of the James. During the ensuing months, she continued to shuttle between the York and James rivers to assist ground operations in General Ulysses S. Grant's tightening stranglehold on Richmond. In the autumn, Shokokon returned to North Carolina waters and spent the remainder of the war supporting Army efforts in that theatre; when peace was restored, the double-ender returned north and was decommissioned at the New York Navy Yard. She was sold at public auction at New York City on 25 October 1865 and redocumented as Lone Star on 15 December 1865, she served for more than two decades before being abandoned in 1886. United States Navy List of United States Navy ships This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships.

The entry can be found here

Fosun International

Fosun International Limited is a Chinese conglomerate and investment company. Founded in 1992 by Guo Guangchang and four others, the company is headquartered in Shanghai and was incorporated in Hong Kong in 2004, its Co-CEOs are Chen Quiyu. Wang Qunbin joined Guo Guangchang as Co-Chairman in early 2020; the company ranked 416th on the Forbes Global 2000 ranking. Fosun Group was founded in 1992 as the Guangxin Technology Development Company by five graduates of Fudan University in Shanghai: Guo Guangchang, Liang Xinjun, Wang Qunbin, Fan Wei, Tan Jian. Fosun started its business by doing market research; the major holding company of the group, Fosun Pharmaceutical Company, was incorporated in 1994 in mainland China. The company specialized in producing medication for Hepatitis A, which occurs in China. Fosun extended its business into the healthcare industry, real estate, etc. In 2004, a new holding company of the group, Fosun International Limited was incorporated in Hong Kong. In July 2007, Fosun International was listed on the main board of the Stock Exchange of Hong Kong as SEHK:656.

During 2011, the three major growth engines of Fosun, industrial profits, investment profits and asset management profits rose enabling Fosun to make strides toward its vision of becoming "a premium investment group with a focus on China's growth momentum". From 2010 through 2015, Fosun spent billions buying foreign firms in the healthcare, tourism and banking industries in the US and Europe; these included France's Club Med, Britain's Thomas Cook Group, Canada's Cirque du Soleil, American clothing label St John, Greek jeweler Folli Follie. At the end of 2014 Fosun acquired the US insurer Meadowbrook for around $433 million, marking the first full purchase of a US insurer by a Chinese company. Fosun purchased Australian oil company Roc Oil, its first acquisition in the petroleum industry. On 11 December 2015, it was reported that the chairman of Fosun, the billionaire Guo Guangchang, had disappeared, it was speculated that he had been questioned by government authorities in an inquiry stemming from Party General Secretary Xi Jinping’s anti-corruption efforts.

Guo however reappeared on 14 December 2015 at a Fosun board of directors meeting. During his disappearance, Fosun requested; the Fosun board of directors issued a statement saying that Guo was assisting in a government inquiry which, in their opinion, did not present a “material adverse impact” on Fosun's finances or operations. On 21 July 2016, it was confirmed that Fosun had bought the English football club Wolverhampton Wanderers from its previous owner Steve Morgan for an estimated £45 million. Under Fosun's ownership, Wolves have progressed from being a mid table side in the Football League Championship to finishing seventh in the FA Premier League, reaching an FA Cup semi-final and qualifying for European competition. In 2016 Fosun began to invest in India. “Delhivery” was one such investment made in 2017, in addition to previous investments in MakeMyTrip, India's largest online travel company and Gland Pharma. Fosun is involved in the Indian real estate market. On 28 August 2019, Thomas Cook Group announced that the group "had agreed the main terms of a rescue package that will see Hong Kong’s Fosun Tourism take over its tour operations and creditor banks and bondholders acquire its airline"In early November 2019, Fosun said it would purchase the Thomas Cook brand for £11m.

The company viewed itself as a "potential saviour" by purchasing the name. Fosun's businesses cover industrial operations, asset management, insurance with many subsidiary companies in each business. Industrial operations: Fosun Pharmaceutical Hainan Mining Fosun High Technology Investment: Fosun Finance Fosun Hani Securities Miacom Diagnostics Secret Recipe St John, an American fashion brand that specializes in women's knitwear Perfect World Guide Investimentos Asset management: IDERA Resolution Property Fosun Eurasia Capital Rio Bravo Investmentos Insurance: Peak Reinsurance Fidelidade NAGICO Real estate: Shanghai Forte Land Fosun Property Holdings 126 Madison Avenue 28 Liberty Street Citigroup Center 73 Miller Street Lloyds Chambers a project in Donggang Private hospitals: Luz SaúdeEntertainment: Club Med Studio 8 Wolverhampton Wanderers F. C. Carlyle-Fosun Fosun Capital Fosun RZ Capital Fosun Chuanghong Ji'nan Financial Development Investment Fund Pramerica-Fosun China Opportunity Fund Shanghai Sunvision Binhe Equity Investment Center Shanghai Sunvision Xicheng Equity Investment Center Star Capital Weishi Fund Zhejiang Growth Fund Nanjing Nangang Iron and Steel United Nanjing Iron and Steel Company Pramerica–Fosun Life Insurance Banco Comercial Português China Minsheng Bank China Financial Services Holdings The Floow Limited Cirque du Soleil Focus Media Folli Follie New China Life Insurance Shanghai Zendai Property Thomas Cook Group Plc - Entered Compulsory Liquidation 23 September 2019 Yong'an Property Insurance Delhivery Yuyuan Tourist Mart Zhaojin Mining MakeMyTrip China Huarong Asset Management Ironshore T

Jiang Wenli

Jiang Wenli is a Chinese actress, director and screenwriter. A native of Tianjin, she graduated from the Beijing Film Academy in 1992. Li ranked 52nd on Forbes China Celebrity 100 list in 2014. Jiang was born into an affluent family, her father Jiang Peiji was a railroad engineer and her mother was a railroad telephone operator. Both of her parents love the arts, she is the youngest of three sisters, her elder sister is Jiang Wenjuan. Since Jiang was a young girl, her father taught her to appreciate famous books and songs; when she was 5 years old, she dreamt about being a gymnast, so her mother sent her to study dance and gymnastics. However, since her stature did not fit the standards of a gymnast, the coach of the Bengbu city gymnastics team refused to regard her as a formal team member. Afterwards, she spent five years practicing as an informal member. At the age of 17, she took the college entrance examination with the goal of going to normal university. However, she was instead accepted by a water conservation secondary school because her score was five points below the acceptance line for a normal university.

In 1986, she graduated from the secondary school and started to work at the Bengbu City Water Company. Her job was to design ways of water transportation for residents, she was not satisfied with her life at the time and decided to go to Beijing in 1988 to start her new life. Her niece Ma Sichun is an active actress now. Without any preparation, Jiang was accepted by the Beijing Film Academy. After she became a student of the academy, countless film companies invited her to play roles in their films, her first role was a nursery school teacher in a TV series called Lily on Cliff, that series won the Flying Apsaras Awards the same year. Jiang was a candidate for the Best Supporting Actress award. After this, she played Shuixiu in the movie Li Li Yuan Shang Cao, which won an award at a French film festival; the last film of her college period was The Story of Xing Hua in which Jiang played a girl named Xing Hua. After graduating from college, she went to America for a long time before returning to China to continue her career.

After coming back to China, Jiang played a role in Miaomiao Liu’s movie The Story of Xinghua. In 1993, she played an important role as Chengyi’s mother in the movie Farewell My Concubine, which won the Best Movie Award at the Cannes Film Festival that year. In 1999, Jiang acted in a 20 episode TV series called Lead by the Hand, for her performance she won one of the Chinese television industry's highest honors, Best Actress, from both the Golden Eagle Awards and the Flying Apsaras Awards. In 2000, for her performance in the film Female Coach & Male Player, Jiang won the Best Actress award from Huabiao Film Awards. Jiang Wenli was married to Gu Changwei, the couple has a son Gu Hehe.. 蒋雯丽:相当体操运动员 拿世界冠军 结婚后才自信. Guangming Daily. 2011-02-28. Retrieved 2020-01-03.. "Archived copy" 蒋雯丽演浪漫继母不矫情. Beijing Daily. 2011-02-19. Archived from the original on 2011-07-07. Retrieved 2020-01-03. CS1 maint: archived copy as title. "Archived copy" 蒋雯丽: 把剩女演成万人迷. Beijing Daily. 2011-02-25. Archived from the original on 2011-03-02.

Retrieved 2011-03-03. CS1 maint: archived copy as title. "Archived copy" 对话 演老的演丑的是做演员的魅力所在. Beijing Daily. 2011-02-28. Archived from the original on 2011-07-07. Retrieved 2011-03-03. CS1 maint: archived copy as title Jiang Wenli on IMDb Jiang Wenli at AllMovie Jiang Wenli on Mtime Jiang Wenli on Douban Jiang Wenli at the Chinese Movie Database