Kosmos 690

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Kosmos 690 / Bion 2
Mission type Bioscience
Operator Institute of Biomedical Problems
COSPAR ID 1974-080A
SATCAT no. 7478[1]
Mission duration 20.5 days
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft type Bion
Manufacturer TsSKB
Launch mass 5,500 kilograms (12,100 lb)
Start of mission
Launch date 20 October 1974, 17:59:59 (1974-10-20UTC17:59:59Z) UTC[2]
Rocket Soyuz-U K 15000-010 [2]
Launch site Plesetsk 43/4
End of mission
Landing date 12 November 1974, 04:48 (1974-11-12UTC04:49Z) UTC
Orbital parameters
Reference system Geocentric
Regime Low Earth
Eccentricity 0.0102525
Perigee 213 kilometres (132 mi)
Apogee 350 kilometres (220 mi)
Inclination 62.8068º
Period 90.4 minutes
RAAN 187.1084 degrees
Argument of perigee 115.0132 degrees
Mean anomaly 246.1654 degrees
Mean motion 15.97292222
Epoch 8 November 1974[3]
Revolution no. 261

Kosmos 690, or Bion 2 (in Russian: Бион 2, Космос 690) was a Bion satellite launched by the Soviet Union.


Kosmos 690 was launched on 22 October 1974 from Plesetsk Cosmodrome with a Soyuz-U rocket. It was placed in low earth orbit, with apogee of 389 kilometres (242 mi), perigee of 223 kilometres (139 mi) and orbital inclination of 62.8 degrees.


The spacecraft was based on the Zenit spy satellite with emphasis on studying the problems of radiation effects on human beings.

It carried albino rats for biomedical research. Scientists from Czechoslovakia, Romania and Soviet Union subjected the rats to daily radiation doses from a gamma source by ground command. When they were recovered 21 days later, many rats had developed lung problems and their blood and bone marrow had changed more than those of control specimens. It had an on-orbit dry mass of 12,100 pounds (5,500 kg).[4][5]

An instrument module in the form of 2 connected truncated cones, weighing 5,300 pounds (2,400 kg), 2.43 metres (8.0 ft) in diameter and 2.25 metres (7.4 ft) in length, carries in most of the auxiliary instrumentation in the hermetized part. Outwardly, ball valves with compressed nitrogen are attached to the gas nozzles of the stabilizer system. At the rear, the TDU-1 braking engine is located at a stroke of 15.83 kN and a maximum operating time of 45 seconds. Hypergolic KPL delivers a turbo pump to the combustion chamber. An auxiliary container containing chemical batteries and additional experiments, cylindrical with a diameter of 1.90 metres (6.2 ft) and a height of 0.90 metres (3.0 ft) is placed above the return module and dumped approximately a day before the landing.

End of mission[edit]

After 21 days, Kosmos 690 returned to Earth and landing in Kazakhstan on 12 November 1974. The return module, weighing 3,100 kilograms (6,800 lb) and 2.3 metres (7.5 ft) in diameter, was covered with an ablative thermal shield 30 to 180 mm thick.[5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "COSMOS 690". N2YO. Retrieved 2016-06-10. 
  2. ^ a b McDowell, Jonathan. "Launch Log". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved July 22, 2018. 
  3. ^ "COSMOS 690". Heavens-Above. Chris Peat. Retrieved 2016-06-18. 
  4. ^ Mark Wade (2011). Bion Archived 2002-08-20 at the Wayback Machine.. Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2016-06-10.
  5. ^ a b "Bion 2". National Space Science Data Center. NASA GSFC. Retrieved 2016-06-10. 


  • Kozlov, D I (1996). Mashnostroenie, ed. Konstruirovanie avtomaticheskikh kosmicheskikh apparatov. Moscow. ISBN.
  • Melnik, T G (1997). Nauka, ed. Voenno-Kosmicheskiy Sili. Moscow. ISBN.
  • "Bion' nuzhen lyudyam". Novosti Kosmonavtiki (6): 35. 1996.