Kosmos 690

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Kosmos 690 / Bion 2
Mission type Bioscience
Operator Institute of Biomedical Problems
COSPAR ID 1974-080A
SATCAT no. 07478[1]
Mission duration 20.5 days
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft type Bion
Manufacturer TsSKB
Launch mass 5,500 kilograms (12,100 lb)
Start of mission
Launch date 20 October 1974, 18:00:00 (1974-10-20UTC18Z) UTC
Rocket Soyuz-U
Launch site Plesetsk 43/4
End of mission
Landing date 12 November 1974, 04:48 (1974-11-12UTC04:49Z) UTC
Orbital parameters
Reference system Geocentric
Regime LEO
Eccentricity 0.0102525
Perigee 213 kilometres (132 mi)
Apogee 350 kilometres (220 mi)
Inclination 62.8068º
Period 90.4 minutes
RAAN 187.1084 degrees
Argument of perigee 115.0132 degrees
Mean anomaly 246.1654 degrees
Mean motion 15.97292222
Epoch 8 November 1974, 02:18:12 UTC[2]
Revolution no. 261

Kosmos 690, or Bion 2 (in Russian: Бион 2, Космос 690) was a Bion satellite launched by the Soviet Union on 22 October 1974 at 1800 hours UTC.


It carried albino rats for biomedical research. Scientists from Czechoslovakia, Romania and Soviet Union subjected the rats to daily radiation doses from a gamma source by ground command. When they were recovered 20.5 days later, many rats had developed lung problems and their blood and bone marrow had changed more than those of control specimens. It had an on-orbit dry mass of 5500 kilograms and had a U.S. National Space Science Data Centre ID of 1974-080A.

The spacecraft was based on the Zenit spy satellite with emphasis on studying the problems of radiation effects on human beings.

It was also known as Biocosmos 2, Cosmos 690 and 07478.[3][4]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ COSMOS 690. N2YO. Real Time Satellite Tracking. Retrieved 2016-06-10.
  2. ^ Chris Peat. COSMOS 690. Heavens-Above. Retrieved 2016-06-18.
  3. ^ Mark Wade (2011). Bion Archived 2002-08-20 at the Wayback Machine.. Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2016-06-10.
  4. ^ NASA Bion 2. NSSDC Master Catalog. Retrieved 2016-06-10.