Serbian army's retreat through Albania
Following the October 1915 invasion of Serbia during World War I by the German, Austro-Hungarian and Bulgarian armies, the Serbian army retreated through Albania, an event sometimes called the Albanian golgotha. During the long march, some 240,000 retreating Serbs died from the cold, starvation and combat with Albanian tribesmen; the march through the Albanian mountains decimated its ranks and contributed to the high losses the Serbs suffered in the First World War – the highest per capita of any country involved in the war. At the end of 1912, the Kingdom of Serbia occupied most of the Albanian-populated territory to the Adriatic coast. During the attempt to annex those lands, the Royal Serbian Army committed serious crimes against the local Albanian population. In order to investigate the crimes, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace formed a special commission, sent to the Balkans in 1913. Summarising the situation in Albanian areas, the commission concluded: Houses and whole villages reduced to ashes and innocent populations massacred en masse, incredible acts of violence and brutality of every kind — such were the means which were employed and are still being employed by the Serbo-Montenegrin soldiery, with a view to the entire transformation of the ethnic character of regions inhabited by Albanians.
The Serbian government denied the reports on war crimes. During the war, Serbian propaganda implemented a strong anti-Albanian campaign; these events contributed to the enmity of the local Albanian population against the Serbian Army. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb student and member of Young Bosnia, assassinated the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo, Bosnia; the political objective of the assassination was to break the Austro-Hungarian's south-Slav provinces off from the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The assassination triggered a chain of events that embroiled the major European powers; this began a period of diplomatic manoeuvring among Austria-Hungary, Russia and Britain called the July Crisis. Wanting to end Serbian interference in Bosnia and the Balkans, Austria-Hungary delivered the July Ultimatum to Serbia, a series of ten demands intentionally made unacceptable, intending to provoke a war with Serbia; when Serbia agreed to only eight of the ten demands, Austria-Hungary declared war on 28 July 1914.
The dispute between Austria-Hungary and Serbia escalated into what is now known as World War I, which involved Russia, Germany and the United Kingdom. By December 1914, the Serbs had over 170,000 soldiers killed, diseased or missing. By this time, the Serbian army had managed to repulse three successive Austro-Hungarian invasions and Austro-Hungarian commander Marshal Oskar Potiorek was sacked. In early 1915, an enormous typhus outbreak started to wreak havoc across the country, during which some 150,000 people are estimated to have died during the worst typhus epidemic in world history. On 7 October 1915, the Kingdom of Serbia was invaded by a combined German and Austro-Hungarian force. On 14 October, Kingdom of Bulgaria declared war on Serbia. With his troops vastly outnumbered and outgunned, Serbian Field Marshal Radomir Putnik ordered a full retreat of the Serbian military south and west through Allied Kingdom of Montenegro and into neutral Principality of Albania on 25 November 1915; the weather was terrible, the roads were poor and the army had to help the tens of thousands of civilians who were retreating along with soldiers and who had no supplies or food.
But the bad weather and poor roads worked for the Serbians as well, as the Germans and Bulgarians could not advance past the Albanian mountains, so the thousands of Serbians who were fleeing their homeland managed to evade capture. However, hundreds of thousands perished due to hunger, thirst and because of attacks by enemy forces and Albanian tribal bands, carried out in revenge for the massacres committed by the Serb army against Albanian civilians in 1912-13, during the Balkans Wars; the circumstances of the retreat were disastrous, all told, some 155,000 Serbians soldiers, reached the coast of the Adriatic Sea, embarked on Italian and French transport ships that carried them to various Greek islands before being sent to the Salonika Front. During the retreat 200,000 Serbs perished in the Albanian mountains and thousands more perished once they arrived on the Greek island of Corfu; because of the massive loss of life, the Serbian army's retreat through Albania is considered by Serbs to be one of the greatest tragedies in their nation's history.
The survivors of the retreat were so weakened that thousands of them died from sheer exhaustion in the weeks after their rescue. While the main camps of the recuperating army were on the island of Corfu itself, the sick and dying soldiers, were treated on Vido to prevent epidemics. In spite of Allied material help, the conditions of both the improvised medical facilities and many of the patients on the island resulted in a high fatality rate. Due to the small area of the island and because of its rocky soil, it soon became a necessity to bury the dead in the sea. More than 5,000 Serbs were buried in such a manner in what became known as the Blue Graveyard, near the Greek island of Vido. Serbian soldier Milutin Bojić wrote a poem called Plava Grobnica or Ode to a Blue Sea Tomb to commemorate his fallen comrades. Bojić himself succumbed to tuberculosis and was buried
Second Army (Bulgaria)
The Bulgarian Second Army was a Bulgarian field army during the Balkan Wars, World War I, World War II. After 1907, during times of peace, the territory of Bulgaria was divided in three army inspectorates, each one comprising three divisional district. During war they formed three independent field armies; the Second Army Inspectorate, which had its seat in Plovdiv, formed the headquarters of the Second Army. On 17 September Bulgaria declared the mobilization of its armed forces and the three field armies were activated. Lieutenant General Nikola Ivanov took command of the Second Army and colonel Nikola Zhekov was made chief of staff; the Second Army was tasked with covering the concentration of the remaining forces. Its own mobilization and deployment were carried out according to schedule and on 30 September all units had reached their designated areas along the Ottoman border; the Army established its headquarters at Simeonovgrad. On 5 October 1912 O. S. Bulgaria declared war on the Ottoman Empire.
The Second Army had the following order of battle: The task of the army was to neutralize the strong garrison of the Adrianople fortress while the First and Third armies engaged the main forces of the Ottoman Eastern Army. After the advance had begun, in order to achieve its objective, the Second Army was temporarily reinforced with the 1st Brigade of the 3rd Balkan Infantry Division, attached to the 9th Division; the army met little resistance and its main forces headed towards Adrianople. The Haskovo Detachment engaged the Ottoman forces of Yaver Pasha around Kurdzhali and after a decisive battle took the town on 8 October; this secured the right flank of the army and made any Ottoman attacks on its rear lines of communication impossible. On 9 October, the Ottoman Army in Eastern Thrace commenced an offensive against the Bulgarian forces; the fortress garrison left the town and attacked to the west and the east against the Bulgarian Second and First armies. The Bulgarians were not surprised and managed to hold the attacks, forcing the Ottomans to return to the fortress.
On 10 October, with the end of the attempted breakthrough the Bulgarian High Command ordered the 1/3 Brigade to be returned to the 3rd Balkan Infantry Division. The Haskovo Detachment was ordered to leave two battalions in Kardzhali and approach Adrianople from the west. After the victory at the Battle of Kirk Kilisse the Bulgarian First and Third armies advanced to the south in pursuit of the Ottoman Eastern Army and cut the line of communication between Adrianople and Constantinople; the 3rd Balkan Division was ordered by the commander of the First Army to remain around Adrianople, to protect the army's rear and cooperate with the Second Army. With the fortress now completely isolated, its commander Shukru Pasha ordered a new attack on 16 October with 18 infantry battalions against the Bulgarian 3/8, 1/9 and 2/9 infantry brigades but it soon failed and the Turkish troops retired to their main defensive line. On the same day with their main forces engaged at the Lule Burgas the Bulgarians decided to complete the encirclement of the fortress.
Two brigades of the 9th Division were sent to assist the Third Army while their place was taken by the newly formed 11th Mixed Infantry Division. By 26 October the fortress was cut off but the Bulgarian lines were overstretched and in held by few troops on many places; the Bulgarian High Command used a reached agreement with Serbia, that allowed the deployment of Serbian forces in Eastern Thrace, to reinforce the Bulgarians with two divisions of the Serbian Second Army. By early November the last of the Serbian forces had arrived. With the attention of the Bulgarians focused on the Çatalca line a new attempt by the Ottomans to break the siege was repulsed on 29 and 30 October; until the first armistice was concluded the Second Army limited its operations to tightening the encirclement and shelling the fortress in order to reduce the morale of its defenders. During the first armistice, while the peace talks in London continued, the Bulgarians strengthened and fortified their positions around the fortress.
As soon as it became evident that the Ottomans were not willing to satisfy the demands of the Balkan League, the Bulgarian High Command began preparing for a possible renewal of the military operations and drawing plans for the capture of the Adrianople Fortress. In January 1913 the talks broke down and hostilities recommenced. On 26 January the Ottomans began a large offensive against Bulair and on the Çatalca line in order to breakthrough the Bulgarian armies and relieve the forces in Adrianople. To use this development on the next day Shukru Pasha again ordered his forces to break out the besieged fortress but once again the attack failed; the Ottomans offensive as a whole failed to achieve its objectives. The Bulgarian High Command decided to storm the fortress in order to prevent any more large attempts for its rescue and to free the Bulgarian forces besieging it for operations elsewhere. By March the Second Army was ready to attack, its battle area was divided in sectors that had the following order of battle: The Serbian Second Army was deployed in the Western and Northwestern sector.
The final assault began on 11 March with the forces in the Eastern Sector tasked with the main attack. After three days of heavy fighting the fortress fell and Sukru Pasha surrendered to generals Nikola Ivanov and Georgi Vazov; the Ottoman Empire was left with no choice and received a second armistice on 3 April. This marked the end of the Bulgarian military operations in the war. With the end of the First Balkan War
Max von Gallwitz
Max Karl Wilhelm von Gallwitz was a German general from Breslau, who served with distinction during World War I on both the Eastern and Western Fronts. Gallwitz grew up in a Catholic family in Breslau. In 1891, he married Friedrike, they had a son Werner, who became a lieutenant general in the Second World War. He began the First World War as a corps commander on the Western Front, but was immediately transferred east to join the Eighth Army under Hindenburg. In 1915 he took command of Armee-Gruppe Gallwitz and participated in the Galicia offensive alongside Mackensen, who commanded the Eleventh Army. Towards the end of 1915, he succeeded Mackensen as commander of the Eleventh Army, as the latter campaigned against Serbia. In 1916, Gallwitz moved back to the Western Front and defended against the British attack in the Battle of the Somme, he took over command of 2nd Army and of Heeresgruppe Gallwitz - Somme controlling 1st and 2nd Armies. From 1916–18 he commanded the Fifth Army in the west, most notably engaging the Americans during the Battle of Saint-Mihiel.
Following his retirement from the army, Gallwitz served as a deputy in the Reichstag for the German National People's Party. Pour le Mérite, Oak Leaves added on 28 September 1915 Grand Cross of the Order of the Red Eagle Order of the Black Eagle Notes Bibliography Jung, Jakob. Max von Gallwitz. Biblio. P. 292. ISBN 978-3-7648-2435-8. Newspaper clippings about Max von Gallwitz in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Montenegrin Campaign of World War I
The Montenegrin Campaign of World War I, in January 1916, was a part of the Serbian Campaign, in which Austria-Hungary defeated and occupied the Kingdom of Montenegro, an ally of Serbia. By January 1916, the Serbian Army had been defeated by an Austrian-Hungarian and Bulgarian invasion; the remnants of the Serbian army had withdrawn through Montenegro and Albania, were being evacuated by allied ships from 12 December first to Italy and to Corfu. The Austro-Hungarian High command at Teschen, decided to use the success in Serbia to knock Montenegro out of the war; the army of Montenegro that had fought alongside their Serbian allies, had now withdrawn into their own territory, but were still resisting against the Central Powers. Furthermore, the Austrian Commander-in-Chief Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf wanted to take the Italian-held Albanian ports of Durazzo and Valona. Two Austrian army corps for this task were formed in December 1915. One in the west under command of Stjepan Sarkotić between Trebinje and Cattaro, composed of the XIX Armeekorps, reinforced with troops from Bosnia-Hercegovina and Dalmatia.
They were to attack the main body of the Montenegrin army, gathered around Mount Lovcen, supported by French artillery, a second attack was planned from Trebinje towards the east. In the east and north, the VIII Armeekorps under command of Hermann Kövess von Kövessháza was to attack the Montenegrin troops there; the VIII Armeekorps, which pursued the withdrawing Montenegrin army, had two tasks. On the one hand to slow down the Montenegrin troops. On the other hand, it had to pass the Montenegrin right wing and converge with the XIX Korps on Podgorica; the 62nd and 53rd Infantry Division entered Montenegro on 5 January 1916 from the North-East and advanced along the river towards Pljevlja and Bijelo Polje, where they were stopped by the Montenegrins in the Battle of Mojkovac. At the same time, the Austrian 10th and 18th Mountain brigades advanced from Novi Pazar and on 10 January took the city of Berane; the 205th and 9th Mountain brigades took Peć and Velika. The 57th Infantery Division advanced from Prizren.
Mount Lovcen was the key defensive position of the Montenegrin army, who defended it as a citadel with two-thirds of their forces. On 8 August 1914 the Montenegrin High Command commenced operations against the Austro-Hungarian naval base at Cattaro, the Austro-Hungarian Kriegsmarine's southernmost base in the Adriatic, it was just across the border from Mount Lovćen where the Montenegrin army had placed several batteries of artillery, on the same day, Montenegrin guns commenced firing on Austro-Hungarian fortifications at Cattaro, established by the Austro-Hungarian general Stjepan Sarkotić. The forts of Cattaro and the armoured cruiser SMS Kaiser Karl VI returned the fire, aided by reconnaissance from navy seaplanes. However, on 13 September, Austrian-Hungarian reinforcements arrived from Pola, in the form of three active pre-dreadnought coastal battleships, the SMS Monarch, SMS Wien, SMS Budapest, they outgunned the Montenegrins, who put up a fight for several weeks, with artillery duels daily.
With the entry of France into the war, the French realised that the capture of Cattaro might well be beneficial to their own navy and so they landed an artillery detachment of four 15 cm and four 12 cm naval guns under the command of Capitaine de frégate Grellier, at Antivari, on 18-19 September. It took Grellier a month to move his guns inland but his batteries were set up and positioned in fortifications on the south side of Mount Lovćen. On 19 October the French guns opened fire on the Austro-Hungarian positions; the Austro-Hungarians called for reinforcements and on 21 October Admiral Anton Haus despatched the modern semi-dreadnought battleship SMS Radetzky. With a broadside of four 30.5 cm guns and four 24 cm guns, the Radetzky would tip the balance of the battle in the favour of the Austro-Hungarians. Naval seaplanes had been busy taking photographs and mapping accurate positions, at 16:27, on 22 October all of the battleships opened fire on these position. Radetzky made a number of direct hits on the guns and fortified positions on the mountain and on 24 October one of the French 12 cm guns was knocked out.
On 26 October the Radetzky opened fire before sunrise, catching the French and Montenegrins off guard, a number of batteries and fortifications were destroyed during what was a heavy bombardment, including another French 12 cm gun. By 10:00, Allied firing from Mount Lovćen had ceased; the following day the Radetzky repositioned closer to the shore and blasted the Allied positions further. Grellier pulled out his remaining saveable guns; the Montenegrins abandoned their fortifications. By November, the French High Command decided to give up its campaign to neutralize and capture Cattaro, the Radetzky returned to Pola on December 16. On 8 January 1916 a new attack against Montenegrin forces on Mt. Lovćen began with a massive artillery bombardment followed by an Austro-Hungarian army offensive into Montenegro; the Austrian's coastal battleship Budapest was again used to assist the troops against Lovćen's renewed defences to such good effect that on the 10th, the Austro-Hungarian troops took the Lovćen Pass and the adjacent heights, where the French guns had been.
The two heavy bombardments of Mount Lovćen played a decisive role in breaking the morale of the defenders of the mountain, by 11 January, Mount Lovćen was in Austrian hands. In the meantime, two independent brigades under Feldmarschalleutnant Braun advanced towards Nikšić, covering the left flank and threatening to cut off the Montenegrins from the north-east. Braun, how
Battle of Kolubara
The Battle of Kolubara was a campaign fought between Austria-Hungary and Serbia in November and December 1914, during the Serbian Campaign of World War I. It commenced on 16 November, when the Austro-Hungarians under the command of Oskar Potiorek reached the Kolubara River during their third invasion of Serbia that year, having captured the strategic town of Valjevo and forced the Serbian Army to undertake a series of retreats; the Serbs withdrew from Belgrade on 29–30 November, the city soon fell under Austro-Hungarian control. On 2 December, the Serbian Army launched a surprise counter-attack all along the front. Valjevo and Užice were retaken by the Serbs on 8 December and the Austro-Hungarians retreated to Belgrade, which 5th Army commander Liborius Ritter von Frank deemed to be untenable; the Austro-Hungarians abandoned the city between 14 and 15 December and retreated back into Austria-Hungary, allowing the Serbs to retake their capital the following day. Both the Austro-Hungarians and the Serbs suffered heavy casualties, with more than 20,000 dead on each side.
The defeat humiliated Austria-Hungary, which had hoped to occupy Serbia by the end of 1914. On 22 December and von Frank were relieved of their respective commands, the 5th and 6th armies were merged into a single 5th Army of 95,000 men. On 28 June 1914, Bosnian Serb student Gavrilo Princip assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo; the assassination precipitated the July Crisis, which led Austria-Hungary to issue an ultimatum to Serbia on 23 July on suspicion that the assassination had been planned in Belgrade. The Austro-Hungarian government made the ultimatum intentionally unacceptable to Serbia, it was indeed rejected; the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia on 28 July and that same day the Serbs destroyed all bridges on the Sava and Danube rivers in order to prevent the Austro-Hungarians from using them during any future invasion. Belgrade was shelled the following day, marking the beginning of World War I. Fighting in Eastern Europe began with the first Austro-Hungarian invasion of Serbia in early August 1914, under the command of Oskar Potiorek.
The number of Austro-Hungarian troops assigned to the invasion was far smaller than the 308,000-strong force intended when war was declared. This was because a large portion of the Austro-Hungarian 2nd Army had moved to the Russian Front, reducing the number of troops involved in the initial stages of the invasion to 200,000. On the other hand, the Serbs could muster some 450,000 men to oppose the Austro-Hungarians upon full mobilization; the main elements to face the Austro-Hungarians were the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and Užice armies, with a combined strength of 180,000 men. The Serbian Army was commanded by Crown Prince Alexander, with the chief of the Serbian general staff, Radomir Putnik, as his deputy and de facto military leader. Petar Bojović, Stepa Stepanović, Pavle Jurišić Šturm and Miloš Božanović commanded the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and Užice armies, respectively; the Balkan Wars had only just concluded and Serbia was still recovering. Over 36,000 Serbian soldiers had been killed and 55,000 wounded. Few recruits had been gained from the newly acquired territories, the Serbian Army had been stretched by the need to garrison them against Albanian insurgents and the threat of Bulgarian attack.
To compound matters, the Serbs were dangerously short of artillery, had only just begun to replenish their ammunition stocks. Their supply problems extended to more basic items. Many soldiers lacked any uniform other than a standard issue greatcoat and a traditional Serbian cap known as a šajkača. Rifles were in critically short supply, it was estimated that full mobilization would see some 50,000 Serbian soldiers with no equipment at all. The Austro-Hungarians, on the other hand, possessed an abundance of modern rifles and had twice as many machine guns and field guns as the Serbs, they had better stocks of munitions, as well as much better transport and industrial infrastructure behind them. The Serbs had a slight advantage over the Austro-Hungarians as many of their soldiers were experienced veterans of the Balkan Wars and better trained than their Austro-Hungarian counterparts. Serb soldiers were highly motivated, which compensated in part for their lack of weaponry; the Serbs beat back an Austro-Hungarian invasion in August, at the Battle of Cer.
It marked the first Allied victory over the Central Powers in World War I. Potiorek was determined to resume the assault against the Serbs, he was given permission in September to launch another invasion of Serbia provided that he " risk anything that might lead to a further fiasco." Under pressure from the Russians to launch their own offensive and keep as many Austro-Hungarian troops as possible away from the Eastern Front, the Serbs invaded Bosnia in September with the help of Chetnik irregulars but were repulsed after a month of fighting in what came to be known as the Battle of the Drina. Bojović was wounded during the battle and was replaced by Živojin Mišić as commander of the Serbian 1st Army; the Armeeoberkommando acknowledged that an undefeated Serbia severed Austria-Hungary's connection to the Ottoman Empire and prevented the completion of the Berlin–Baghdad railway. The AOK realized that the Austro-Hungarian army's inability to defeat Serbia would discourage neutral countries—such as Bulgaria and Greece—from joining the Central Powers and would tempt Italy to open up a third front against Austria-Hungary.
The AOK was hesitant to authorize a third invasion of Serbia. This changed in September 1914, when Austro-Hungarian troops discovered a map in an abandoned Semlin bookshop, titled The
Field Marshal Radomir Putnik was the first Serbian Field Marshal and Chief of the General Staff of the Serbian army in the Balkan Wars and in the First World War. He took part in all of the wars in which Serbia took part between 1876 to 1917; the Putnik family was from Kosovo, but fled the region to the Habsburg Monarchy during the Great Serb Migration of 1690. The family decided to return from exile to the Principality of Serbia, the first modern Serbian polity independent of Ottoman rule in the mid-19th century. Putnik's father, was a teacher in Kragujevac, Radomir completed his basic schooling there, he attended the Artillery School in Belgrade, where he graduated in 1863, placing eighth in his class. In 1879, he married Ljubica Bojović, the sister of Radivoje Bojović, who became Minister of Military Affairs and daughter of Colonel Todor Bojević and Jelena Tadić, with whom he had seven children. Contemporaries describe Putnik as an ascetic, introverted man, a heavy smoker, he proved himself on the battlefield during Serbia's wars against the Ottomans fought between 1876 and 1877.
It was a military force under his command that took Gnjilane and Gračanica from the Ottomans in Kosovo, during the closing stages of the second Serbo-Ottoman War (1877-1878. The Serbian troops, under Major Putnik, were obliged to pull back to Merdare in order to meet a stipulation in the general armistice between Russian and the Ottomans. Putnik was noted for being a self-righteous and demanding officer prone to defending his point of view. Putnik became a professor in the Military Academy, holding that position from 1886 to 1895. In 1889, he was appointed as the Deputy Chief of the General Staff. However, he soon came into conflict with King Milan I for not allowing a protégé of the king to pass an examination. Political intrigue and latent conflict with King Milan Obrenović and his successor, King Alexander I, would hinder his advancement throughout this part of his career. In 1895 he was forced to retire by the king, under suspicion of sympathy for the Radical party of Nikola Pašić. Putnik was rehabilitated following the coup d'etat against Alexander I Obrenović in 1903.
Under the new king of Serbia, Peter I Karadjordjević, he was promoted to the rank of general and appointed as the Chief of the General Staff. He proceeded to reorganize the Serbian army by retiring old and promoting new officers, updating outdated war plans. Putnik was Serbian Minister of War three times: 1904, 1906-1908, 1912. Putnik appointed General Živojin Mišić as his deputy. Despite occasional personality clashes, the two men had deep respect for each other. Putnik was the first officer to be appointed to the highest rank of Field Marshal. In 1912, he led the Serbian Army into spectacular victories in the First Balkan War against the Ottomans and the Second Balkan War against Bulgaria. Field-Marshal Putnik, expecting Bulgarian attack, had deployed his troops on the most important strategic points near the river Bregalnica, essential for a quick victory after the sudden, unannounced Bulgarian attack. Caught in Budapest when Austria-Hungary declared war upon his country, Field Marshal Putnik was allowed safe passage back to Serbia in a chivalrous and self-defeating gesture by the Austro-Hungarian emperor Franz Josef.
After a troublesome trip, Putnik returned to Serbia and offered his resignation to King Peter I of Serbia on the grounds of age and ill health. It was rejected, the king insisting that Field Marshal Putnik take command over the army, if only in a strategic sense, while younger generals, such as Stepa Stepanović, Živojin Mišić and Petar Bojović would take over operational duties. Putnik had to spend most of his time in a well-heated room. However, his impaired health did not prevent him from organizing the campaign. Serbia defeated the Austro-Hungarian Army's offensives in August and September 1914, driving it out of Serbia by December 1914; the Serbian front remained quiet until autumn 1915, when joint Austro-Hungarian and Bulgarian forces, led by German Field Marshal August von Mackensen, began a large offensive against Serbia with more than 300,000 soldiers. Before the joint attack, Putnik warned the Serbian government that Bulgaria was concentrating her troops at the eastern Serbian borders and that a preventive attack on Bulgaria was the only chance for Serbia to avoid fighting on two fronts.
His demand was rejected due to the wishes of the Allies, who were still hoping to isolate Bulgaria from joining the Triple Alliance. Despite heroic resistance, the Serbian troops were obliged to retreat towards Kosovo. On 31 October Putnik ordered a general retreat onto Kragujevac, attempting to keep his exhausted army together as it sought to escape into friendly territory. Many of Putnik's soldiers were farmers, who slipped away from the retiring army to resume their rural lives. Putnik's declining forces continued their withdrawal towards Albania during the first week of November 1915, a process aided by the fact that the Germans and Austro-Hungarians were reluctant to pursue Serbian troops through the highlands of Albania; the Germans felt that the war against Serbia was won, with most of the nation under the control of the Central Powers. Regarding the Russian Empire as the main threat in the East, Mackensen was eager to move his forces back to the Russian front; the Bulgarians wer
Pavle Jurišić Šturm
Pavle Jurišić Šturm KCMG, was a Serbian general, best known for commanding the Serbian 3rd Army in World War I. Paulus Sturm was born in Görlitz, Prussian Silesia, of ethnic Sorb origin, he moved with his brother to Serbia and joined the Serbian army. Šturm became one of the most important commanders in the Serbian army in World War I during its first two years, the time when his 3rd army was main support either for the 2nd army during the battle of Cer, or for the 1st army during the battle of Kolubara. He and his brother Eugene graduated from the royal Prussian military academy in Breslau, participated in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871, they resigned their commissions and moved to the Principality of Serbia, prior to the Serbian–Ottoman War, in order to lecture at the Serbian Military Academy in Belgrade. With the outbreak of the war, the two brothers joined the Serbian Army as volunteers, he fought in the Serbo-Bulgarian War as commander of a regiment. He fell in love with Serbia and married a Serbian woman.
In order to become naturalized, he changed his name into Pavle Jurišić-Šturm in 1876. Pavle being a cognate of Paulus, Jurišić being derived from a modulated translation of the word "charge", he kept his German last name as an alias. In the Balkan Wars he was the General of the Drina Division, which distinguished itself at the Battle of Kumanovo; as commander of the Third Serbian Army, he participated in all major battles in the Serbian theater in World War I, from Cer and Kolubara retreated over frozen Albania, the participation of the Serbian Army on the Salonika Front. Here, his army fought in the Battle of Kajmakcalan. After this battle Sturm was replaced at the head of the Third Army by Miloš Vasić in October 1916, he was sent to Russia to assist the commander of the Serbian Volunteer Corps. In early 1917, he returned via Japan to Thessaloniki, where he was appointed Chancellor of the Order of the Crown, a job he held until the end of the war. After years of peace that followed, Šturm stayed in Serbia and remained in its army with the rank of general.
He died in 1922 at his home in Belgrade. BooksAleksandar Jovanović. Sedam ratova generala Pavla Jurišića Šturma. Litera. News articlesRajs, Arčibald. "Srpska duša generala Šturma". Večernje novosti. Retrieved 21 December 2014. Milatović, Petar. "Сви јуриши браће Штурм". Politikin Zabavnik. Archived from the original on 21 December 2014. Retrieved 21 December 2014. "Од пруског водника до српског генерала". Radio Television of Serbia. 12 October 2014. Archived from the original on 17 October 2014. Retrieved 21 December 2014. "Šturm ponovo dobija bistu". Vesti Online. 12 March 2014. Retrieved 21 December 2014