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Kosovo Vilayet

The Vilayet of Kosovo was a first-level administrative division of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkan Peninsula which included the current territory of Kosovo and the western part of the Republic of North Macedonia. The areas today comprising Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, although de jure under Ottoman control, were in fact under Austro- Hungarian occupation from 1878 until 1909, as provided under Article 25 of the Treaty of Berlin. Uskub functioned as the capital of the province and the mid way point between Istanbul and its European provinces. Uskub's population of 32,000 made it the largest city in the province, followed by Prizren numbering at 30,000; the Vilayet stood as a microcosm of Ottoman society. The province was renowned for its craftsmen and important cities such as İpek, where distinct Ottoman architecture and public baths were erected, some of which can still be seen today; the birthplace of the Albanian national identity was first articulated in Prizren, by the League of Prizren members in 1878.

As a result, firstly of the Treaty of San Stefano in 1878 of the modified Treaty of Berlin the same year which split the Ottoman Empire, Kosovo became the first line of defense for the Ottoman Empire, with large garrisons of Ottoman troops being stationed in the province. Before the First Balkan War in 1912, the province's shape and location denied Serbia and Montenegro a common land border. After the war, the major part of the vilayet was divided between Serbia; these borders were all ratified at the Treaty of London in 1913. The Ottoman Empire recognised the new borders following a peace deal with the Kingdom of Serbia on 14 March 1914. Sanjaks of the Vilayet: Sanjak of Üsküp Sanjak of Priştine Sanjak of İpek Sanjak of Prizren Sanjak of Novi Pazar, Sanjak of Pljevlja, created in 1880 Sanjak of Sjenica, created in 1902 Üsküp was the administrative capital of the vilayet and other important towns included Priştine, İpek, Mitroviçe and Prizren. Kosovo vilayet encompassed the Sandžak region cutting into present-day Central Serbia and Montenegro along with the Kukës municipality and surrounding region in present-day northern Albania.

Between 1881 and 1912, it was internally expanded to include other regions of present-day Republic of North acedonia, including larger urban settlements such as Štip and Kratovo. The Vilayet of Kosovo was created in 1877, consisted of a much larger area than modern Kosovo, as it included the Sanjak of Novi Pazar, the Sanjak of Niş, the region around Plav and Gusinje as well as the Dibra region; these regions had belonged to the former Eyalet of Niş, the Eyalet of Üsküb and, after 1865, the Danube Vilayet. In 1868 the Vilayet of Prizren was created with the sanjaks of Prizren, Dibra and Nis, but it ceased to exist in 1877. During and after the Serbian–Ottoman War of 1876–78, between 30,000 and 70,000 Muslims Albanians, were expelled by the Serb army from the Sanjak of Niș and fled to the Kosovo Vilayet. In 1878, the League of Prizren was created by Albanians from four vilayets including the Vilayet of Kosovo; the League's purpose was to resist Ottoman rule and incursions by the newly emerging Balkan nations.

The Kumanovo Uprising took place in early 1878 organized by an assembly of chiefs of the districts of Kumanovo, Kriva Palanka and Kratovo in the Vilayet of Kosovo seeking to liberate the region from the hands of the Ottoman Empire and unify it with the Principality of Serbia, at war with the Ottomans at that time. With the Serbian Army's liberation of Niš and Vranje, the rebellion had been activated during the latter event with guerrilla fighting; the rebels received secret aid from the Serbian government, though the uprising only lasted four months, until its suppression by the Ottomans. The province's boundaries shifted as the Ottoman Empire lost territory to neighboring states in the Treaty of Berlin following the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 and parts were internally transferred to Monastir Vilayet and from Salonica Vilayet. In 1879, western parts of the Sanjak of Novi Pazar, fell under Austro-Hungarian occupation in accord with the Berlin treaty which allowed the Austro-Hungarian occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Two major administrative changes happened in 1880 and 1902. In order to counter Austro-Hungarian military presence in western parts of the Sanjak of Novi Pazar, a new province was created in 1880: the Sanjak of Pljevlja with kazas: Pljevlja and Priboj. In 1902, kazas of Mitrovica and Novi Pazar were transferred to Sanjak of Pristina, kazas of Berane and Rožaje to

Frederick Pirani

Frederick Pirani was a New Zealand politician. He was Member of the House of Representatives for Palmerston from 1893 to 1902, first as a Liberal as an Independent, he was part of the Liberal Party's "left" wing. Pirani was born in Melbourne and his family emigrated to New Zealand in 1864, his father was a journalist, owner of the Manawatu Evening Standard. Pirani served his apprenticeship as a printer under John Ballance on the Wanganui Herald in the late 1870s, became a journalist. In 1884 he moved to Palmerston North, he was elected as councillor of Palmerston North Borough in 1888–1889, again in 1901. He established a local chapter of the Knights of Labour, in 1890 stood for Parliament as a Labour candidate, losing by only 61 votes, he was persuaded to stand again by John Ballance, was elected as a Liberal in 1893. He would hold the seat until 1902, but the change in the Liberal platform under Richard Seddon led him to break with the party. In 1896 he was associated with the Radical Party, stood as an "independent liberal".

In 1898 he voted against the government on a confidence motion becoming part of the opposition. He was re-elected as an independent in 1899, he was defeated by Thomas Wilford. While he stood again as an independent in Palmerston in 1905, Wanganui in 1914, Wellington Central in 1919, he came second each time and never regained elected office. Pirani died in Wellington on 26 October 1926. Symondson, B. Frederick Pirani, MHR Palmerston North, 1893-1902: a study of his political career. MA thesis, Massey, 1977

Kudi Chin

Kudi Chin or Kadi Chin spelled "Kudee Jeen" or "Kudichin", is a historic neighbourhood in Bangkok. It is in Wat Kanlaya Sub-district, Thon Buri District, on the west bank of the Chao Phraya River, south of Bangkok Yai Canal; the neighbourhood, dating to the Ayutthaya period, includes communities of several faiths living in close proximity. It can be divided into a total of six communities, which consists of people of various races including Thai, Chinese and Islamic. For the Portuguese, they received the plot of land from the King Taksin in this area, they emigrated from Ayutthaya. In 1769, there was a construction of a Catholic church called Santa Cruz Church as it appears today, their land is considered a land under the administration of Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bangkok from the past. Therefore do not resell or transfer ownership to third parties. There are three types of land and church like this in Bangkok Metropolitan Region, in addition to the Kudi Chin, including Holy Rosary Church in Talat Noi, Immaculate Conception Church in Sam Sen, Immaculate Heart of Mary Church in Phra Pradaeng, Samut Prakan.

Today, it is best known for the Catholic community around Santa Cruz Church, but the wider neighbourhood includes the areas around Wat Kanlayanamit, Kudi Khao Mosque, the Chinese Kuan An Keng Shrine. All walking pathway along the Chao Phraya River. Conservation and revitalization efforts beginning in 2008 have made the neighbourhood a cultural tourism destination; the symbol of this community is rooster, adapted from Rooster of Barcelos, or Galo de Barcelos in Portuguese, the national emblem of Portugal to indicate the roots of the community people. Its name "Kudi Chin" or "Kadi Chin" meaning "Chinese monk's dwelling", refers to Santa Cruz Church known as Kudi Chin. However, it has an explanation that should refer to the Chinese temple on the Chao Phraya River, built since the Ayuthaya period; until the time passed to Thonburi and Rattanakosin periods, it has deteriorated. Therefore being rebuilt as the current Kuan An Keng Shrine. Beside church and temples, Kudi Chin has many interesting things: Baan Kudichin Museum, the three-story renovated wooden house of community leader is a learning center stories about the history of community, the ground floor is café and souvenir shop for visitors.

While the second and third floors exhibits objects used in the past, the way of life and faith, Portugal–Thailand relations, Thai loanwords from Portuguese language, the origin of the Siamese–Portuguese, as well as old photographs of the community. One interesting thing on the third floor of this house is the doll that represents Phi Hua Phrik or Phi Nu Liap, a lonely naughty imp in form of little boy, it is a common belief of community people since the past, there is a said when the church bell on the belfry rings at 06.00 pm of each day, signalling the home time. The children who are playing in various area of the community need to return home promptly. If anyone violates will be kidnapped by Phi Nu Liap and keeping them as its playmates until it is bored or contented and releases them to free without doing any harm. Said that it was subtle and clever means implemented by the elders in order to set up a curfew for the young children to them safety. Moreover, on the roof top is used as a viewing point and taking photos of the surrounding scenery community and panoramic views of Chao Phraya River.

The museum open for free admission on Tuesday–Sunday from 09.00 am to 06.00 pm. Baan Sakunthong, the homey, reservation-only eatery that serves many traditional Thai dishes that are rare and influenced by Portuguese cuisine, it is available by reservation only. Open on weekends, it accommodates three 10-seat tables at a time and bookings must be made at least two days in advance. Windsor House, an antique house on the Chao Phraya River behind community, the original owner was Louis Windsor, a wealthy British merchant who owned Windsor Shop on Charoen Krung Road. Noted for its elegant decay and detailed fretwork, the gingerbread house was built in a style popular in its time. Baan Phattayakosl, the Phattayakosol family is a well-known clan that have contributed much to Thai traditional music since the early Rattanakosin period; the family composed and taught music. Over many generations, they have amassed a treasure trove of Thai traditional instruments and have it displayed in this museum. Jantanaphap Thai House, a Thai house, Victoria aged over 120 years built in the reign of King Chulalongkorn, made of all teak.

This house brought it to build in Kudi Chin. Interior with Victoria style cabinets. Carved Chinese design on windows and doors. A glass window shows signs of bullet from the Manhattan Rebellion in 1951; the highlight of this community is khanom farang kudi chin, a rare traditional Thai snack, influenced by Portuguese sweets since the Ayutthaya period. It is dubbed "Sino-Portuguese snack" or "first Thai cake" and there is a saying that if you has eaten this type of snack as if you had eaten history. There are only three households that still cook and sell this type of homemade snacks

Diplomacy (1916 film)

Diplomacy is a 1916 silent film drama produced by the Famous Players Film Company and distributed by Paramount Pictures. It is based on the 19th Century stage play Diplomacy by Victorien Sardou, which had enjoyed revivals and road shows for decades; this film stars Doro reprising her Broadway role. The film is now lost with 1 reel, remaining at the Library of Congress; the story was filmed again in 1926 as Diplomacy by Paramount with Blanche Sweet starring and her husband Marshall Neilan directing. Marie Doro - Dora Elliott Dexter - Julian Beauclerc Edith Campbell - Comtesse Zicka George Majeroni - Count Orloff Frank Losee - Henri Beauclerc Russell Bassett - Baron Stein Ruth Rose - Mion Diplomacy on IMDb Diplomacy synopsis at AllMovie still photo from Diplomacy Diplomacy website dedicated to Sidney Olcott

Ari Atoll

Ari Atoll is one of the natural atolls of the Maldives. It is located in the west of the archipelago; the rectangular alignment spreads the islands over an area of about 89 by 3 kilometres. It has been divided in two sections for administrative purposes, Northern Ari Atoll and Southern Ari Atoll consisting of 105 islands. Ari Atoll is part of the zone designated for tourist development in the Maldives, it is a 30-minute seaplane flight away from the Capital Malé. There are more than 20 islands in the Atoll designated for tourist resorts; each island resort is self-contained with accommodation and recreational facilities such as tennis court. Scuba diving is the most popular tourist activity in the Maldives; the diving in Ari Atoll is extensive and is defined by location within the atoll, either North or South. The main tourist resorts were Ari Beach, Maayyafushi, Twin Islands Resort, Dhoni Mighilli Ari Atoll informative site

ATP-binding domain of ABC transporters

In molecular biology, ATP-binding domain of ABC transporters is a water-soluble domain of transmembrane ABC transporters. ABC transporters belong to the ATP-Binding Cassette superfamily, which uses the hydrolysis of ATP to translocate a variety of compounds across biological membranes. ABC transporters are minimally constituted of two conserved regions: a conserved ATP binding cassette and a less conserved transmembrane domain; these regions can be found on two different ones. Most ABC transporters function as a dimer and therefore are constituted of four domains, two ABC modules and two TMDs. ABC transporters are involved in the export or import of a wide variety of substrates ranging from small ions to macromolecules; the major function of ABC import systems is to provide essential nutrients to bacteria. They are found only in prokaryotes and their four constitutive domains are encoded by independent polypeptides. Prokaryotic importers require additional extracytoplasmic binding proteins for function.

In contrast, export systems are involved in the extrusion of noxious substances, the export of extracellular toxins and the targeting of membrane components. They are found in all living organisms and in general the TMD is fused to the ABC module in a variety of combinations; some eukaryotic exporters encode the four domains on the same polypeptide chain. The ABC module is known to bind and hydrolyze ATP, thereby coupling transport to ATP hydrolysis in a large number of biological processes; the cassette is duplicated in several subfamilies. Its primary sequence is conserved, displaying a typical phosphate-binding loop: Walker A, a magnesium binding site: Walker B. Besides these two regions, three other conserved motifs are present in the ABC cassette: the switch region which contains a histidine loop, postulated to polarize the attacking water molecule for hydrolysis, the signature conserved motif specific to the ABC transporter, the Q-motif, which interacts with the gamma phosphate through a water bond.

The Walker A, Walker B, Q-loop and switch region form the nucleotide binding site. The 3D structure of a monomeric ABC module adopts a stubby L-shape with two distinct arms. ArmI contains Walker A and Walker B; the important residues for ATP hydrolysis and/or binding are located in the P-loop. The ATP-binding pocket is located at the extremity of armI; the perpendicular armII contains the alpha helical subdomain with the signature motif. It only seems to be required for structural integrity of the ABC module. ArmII is in direct contact with the TMD; the hinge between armI and armII contains both the histidine loop and the Q-loop, making contact with the gamma phosphate of the ATP molecule. ATP hydrolysis leads to a conformational change. In the dimer the two ABC cassettes contact each other through hydrophobic interactions at the antiparallel beta-sheet of armI by a two-fold axis. ABCA1. "Homology between proteins controlling Streptomyces fradiae tylosin resistance and ATP-binding transport". Gene.

102: 27–32. Doi:10.1016/0378-111990533-h. PMID 1864505. Blight, M. A.. B.. "Structure and function of haemolysin B,P-glycoprotein and other members of a novel family of membrane translocators". Molecular Microbiology. 4: 873–880. Doi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.1990.tb00660.x. PMID 1977073. Higgins, C. F.. "Binding protein-dependent transport systems". Journal of bioenergetics and biomembranes. 22: 571–592. Doi:10.1007/BF00762962. PMID 2229036