The Koster Islands situated 10 km west of Strömstad, comprises an archipelago surrounding the two largest islands, South Koster and North Koster. South Koster has an area of 8 km² and North Koster an area of 4 km², the landscape, dominated by smooth bedrock, bears witness to volcanic activity and subsequent wear due to the Ice Age. The rocky coastline is broken by many sandy beaches the largest being Kilesand on South Kosters east side overlooking the 200 meter deep Koster Fjord and North Koster are communities with a permanent population of around 340. There is a school, sports hall, church, both farming and fishing are important, and already during the 1600s Koster exported lobster to Holland. There are several small harbors, popular with sailors from both near and far, rooms can be rented from the Ekenäs Hotel or from private homes or cabins. There is a campsite on North Koster, an electrically driven ferry operates constantly between the two islands, a distance of 58 meters. As one moves inland, farmland and rich vegetation becomes apparent, South Koster has a network of roads and paths, which can be explored by bicycle or in small golf-buggies, both of which can be rented.
On North Koster it is possible to rent small boats. Restrictions regarding the right of access, Allemansrätten, forbid open fires, the Koster Islands have a marine west coast climate that has a narrower range of temperatures than inland and areas on the east coast on similar parallels. Still yet, sleet was recorded on Nordkoster as late as June 12,1981, Koster is a well-established and popular tourist destination, attracting as many as 90000 tourists each year, renowned for being one of Swedens sunniest places offering bathing opportunities. During the summer there are a variety of events and activities, such as a festival, mackerel race. Several pubs and restaurants offer a menu, often based on seafood from local fisherman, such as shrimp, crayfish, crab. Connections to the mainland are good with 16 ferry departures daily from Strömstad, private cars can be parked at the car park just outside the center of Strömstad from where buses run free of charge to the square where the harbor lies. Kosterbladet 2010 Koster, Islands in the Skagerrak Map of Koster Islands
Sponges are the basalmost clade of animals of the phylum Porifera. Sponges have unspecialized cells that can transform into other types and that often migrate between the cell layers and the mesohyl in the process. Sponges do not have nervous, digestive or circulatory systems, most rely on maintaining a constant water flow through their bodies to obtain food and oxygen and to remove wastes. Sponges are similar to animals in that they are multicellular, lack cell walls. Unlike other animals, they lack true tissues and organs, and have no body symmetry, the shapes of their bodies are adapted for maximal efficiency of water flow through the central cavity, where it deposits nutrients, and leaves through a hole called the osculum. Many sponges have internal skeletons of spongin and/or spicules of calcium carbonate or silicon dioxide, all sponges are sessile aquatic animals. Although there are species, the great majority are marine species. A few species of sponge that live in food-poor environments have become carnivores that prey mainly on small crustaceans, most species use sexual reproduction, releasing sperm cells into the water to fertilize ova that in some species are released and in others are retained by the mother.
The fertilized eggs form larvae which swim off in search of places to settle, sponges are known for regenerating from fragments that are broken off, although this only works if the fragments include the right types of cells. A few species reproduce by budding, the mesohyl functions as an endoskeleton in most sponges, and is the only skeleton in soft sponges that encrust hard surfaces such as rocks. More commonly, the mesohyl is stiffened by mineral spicules, by spongin fibers or both, demosponges use spongin, and in many species, silica spicules and in some species, calcium carbonate exoskeletons. Demosponges constitute about 90% of all known species, including all freshwater ones. The fragile glass sponges, with scaffolding of silica spicules, are restricted to polar regions, fossils of all of these types have been found in rocks dated from 580 million years ago. In addition Archaeocyathids, whose fossils are common in rocks from 530 to 490 million years ago, are now regarded as a type of sponge, the single-celled choanoflagellates resemble the choanocyte cells of sponges which are used to drive their water flow systems and capture most of their food.
This along with studies of ribosomal molecules have been used as morphological evidence to suggest sponges are the sister group to the rest of animals. Some studies have shown that sponges do not form a group, in other words do not include all. Recent phylogenetic analyses suggest that comb jellies rather than sponges are the group to the rest of animals. By the 1950s, these had been overfished so heavily that the industry almost collapsed and their microscopic endosymbionts are now being researched as possible sources of medicines for treating a wide range of diseases
L. pertusa reefs are home to a diverse community, however the species is extremely slow growing and may be harmed by destructive fishing practices, or oil exploration and extraction. Lophelia pertusa is a building, deep water coral, which is unusual for its lack of zooxanthellae - the symbiotic algae which lives inside most tropical reef building corals. Lophelia lives between 80 metres and over 3,000 metres depth, but most commonly at depths of 200–1,000 metres, where there is no sunlight, as a coral, it represents a colonial organism, which consists of many individuals. New polyps live and build upon the calcium carbonate skeletal remains of previous generations, living coral ranges in colour from white to orange-red. Unlike most tropical corals, the polyps are not interconnected by living tissue, radiocarbon dating indicates that some Lophelia reefs in the waters off North Carolina may be 40,000 years old, with individual living coral bushes as much as 1,000 years old. The coral reproduces by budding off new polyps and by producing free-living planktonic larvae float in the water until they find a suitable surface to attach to.
Lophelia reefs can grow to 35 m high, the largest recorded Lophelia reef, Røst Reef, measures 3 km ×35 km and lies at a depth of 300–400 m off the Lofoten Islands, Norway. When this is seen in terms of a rate of around 1 mm per year. Polyps at the end of branches feed by extending their tentacles, the spring bloom of phytoplankton and subsequent zooplankton blooms, provide the main source of nutrient input to the deep sea. This rain of dead plankton is visible on photographs of the seabed and stimulates a seasonal cycle of growth and this cycle is recorded in patterns of growth, and can be studied to investigate climatic variation in the recent past. L. CITES is technically a means of restricting trade in endangered species. The OSPAR Commission for the protection of the environment of the North-East Atlantic have recognised Lophelia pertusa reefs as a threatened habitat in need of protection. Main threats come from destruction of reefs by heavy deep-sea trawl nets, because the rate of growth is so slow, it is unlikely that this practice will prove to be sustainable.
Scientists estimate that trawling has damaged or destroyed 30%–50% of the Norwegian shelf coral area, in 1999, the Norwegian Ministry of Fisheries closed an area of 1,000 square kilometres at Sula, including the large reef, to bottom trawling. In 2000, an area closed, covering about 600 square kilometres. An area of about 300 square kilometres enclosing the Røst Reef closed to bottom trawling in 2002, Lophelia beds create a specialised habitat favoured by some species of deep water fishes. Surveys have recorded conger eels, sharks and hake, the invertebrate community consists of brittle stars, molluscs and crabs. High densities of fish such as hatchetfish and lanternfish have been recorded in the waters over Lophelia beds
Tanum Municipality is a municipality in Västra Götaland County in western Sweden. Its seat is located in the town of Tanumshede, with 1,600 inhabitants, the present municipality was formed in 1971 through the amalgamation of three former units. Before the subdivision reform of 1952 there were seven entities in the area, the parish is named after the old farm Tanum, since the first church was built there. The first element is tún country courtyard, the last element is heimr homestead, the rock carvings at Tanum have been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The heritage area is located around the seat of Tanumshede, covering an area of 18 km2, most carvings show men, and ships. Several show animals such as oxen and horses, Tanum Municipality has made its rock carving the subject of its coat of arms. The Greby grave field, the largest grave field in Bohuslän, Tanum is one of the first municipalities to require urine-separation toilets to help combat the looming global shortage of phosphorus.
Urine is the most concentrated source of phosphorus according to Associate Professor Cynthia Mitchell, of the Institute for Sustainable Futures at the University of Technology, Grebbestad Fjällbacka Hamburgsund Kämpersvik Rabbalshede Tanumshede Tanum Municipality - Official site Tanums Hällristningsmuseum Underslös - Underslös Museum and Rock Art Research Centre
The Arctic tern is a seabird of the tern family Sternidae. This bird has a circumpolar breeding distribution covering the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of Europe and North America. Recent studies have shown average annual roundtrip lengths of about 70,900 km for birds nesting in Iceland and Greenland and these are by far the longest migrations known in the animal kingdom. The Arctic tern flies as well as glides through the air and it nests once every one to three years, once it has finished nesting it takes to the sky for another long southern migration. They have a length of 28–39 cm and a wingspan of 65–75 cm and they are mainly grey and white plumaged, with a red/orangish beak and feet, white forehead, a black nape and crown, and white cheeks. The grey mantle is 305 mm, and the scapulae are fringed brown, the upper wing is grey with a white leading edge, and the collar is completely white, as is the rump. The deeply forked tail is whitish, with outer webs. Arctic terns are long-lived birds, with many reaching fifteen to thirty years of age and they eat mainly fish and small marine invertebrates.
The species is abundant, with a one million individuals. While the trend in the number of individuals in the species as a whole is not known, the Arctic tern was known as sea swallow describing their slender shape as they swoop over the water. The genus name Sterna is derived from Old English stearn, the specific paradisaea is from Late Latin paradisus, paradise. The Scots names picktarnie and their variants are believed to be onomatopoeic. Due to the difficulty in distinguishing the two species, all the common names are shared with the common tern. The Arctic tern has a continuous worldwide circumpolar breeding distribution, there are no recognized subspecies and it can be found in coastal regions in cooler temperate parts of North America and Eurasia during the northern summer. During the southern summer, it can be found at sea, the Arctic tern is famous for its migration, it flies from its Arctic breeding grounds to the Antarctic and back again each year, the shortest distance between these areas being 19,000 km.
The long journey ensures that this bird sees two summers per year and more daylight than any other creature on the planet, another example is that of a chick ringed in Labrador, Canada, on 23 July 1928. It was found in South Africa four months later, a 2010 study using tracking devices attached to the birds showed that the above examples are not unusual for the species. In fact, it turned out, previous research had seriously underestimated the annual distances travelled by the Arctic tern, eleven birds that bred in Greenland or Iceland covered 70,900 km on average in a year, with a maximum of 81,600 km
Celsius, known as centigrade, is a metric scale and unit of measurement for temperature. As an SI derived unit, it is used by most countries in the world and it is named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius, who developed a similar temperature scale. The degree Celsius can refer to a temperature on the Celsius scale as well as a unit to indicate a temperature interval. Before being renamed to honour Anders Celsius in 1948, the unit was called centigrade, from the Latin centum, which means 100, and gradus, which means steps. The scale is based on 0° for the point of water. This scale is widely taught in schools today, by international agreement the unit degree Celsius and the Celsius scale are currently defined by two different temperatures, absolute zero, and the triple point of VSMOW. This definition precisely relates the Celsius scale to the Kelvin scale, absolute zero, the lowest temperature possible, is defined as being precisely 0 K and −273.15 °C. The temperature of the point of water is defined as precisely 273.16 K at 611.657 pascals pressure.
This definition fixes the magnitude of both the degree Celsius and the kelvin as precisely 1 part in 273.16 of the difference between absolute zero and the point of water. Thus, it sets the magnitude of one degree Celsius and that of one kelvin as exactly the same, additionally, it establishes the difference between the two scales null points as being precisely 273.15 degrees. In his paper Observations of two persistent degrees on a thermometer, he recounted his experiments showing that the point of ice is essentially unaffected by pressure. He determined with precision how the boiling point of water varied as a function of atmospheric pressure. He proposed that the point of his temperature scale, being the boiling point. This pressure is known as one standard atmosphere, the BIPMs 10th General Conference on Weights and Measures defined one standard atmosphere to equal precisely 1013250dynes per square centimetre. On 19 May 1743 he published the design of a mercury thermometer, in 1744, coincident with the death of Anders Celsius, the Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus reversed Celsiuss scale.
In it, Linnaeus recounted the temperatures inside the orangery at the University of Uppsala Botanical Garden, since the 19th century, the scientific and thermometry communities worldwide referred to this scale as the centigrade scale. Temperatures on the scale were often reported simply as degrees or. More properly, what was defined as centigrade would now be hectograde.2 gradians, for scientific use, Celsius is the term usually used, with centigrade otherwise continuing to be in common but decreasing use, especially in informal contexts in English-speaking countries
Abisko National Park
Abisko National Park is a National Park in Sweden, established in 1909. Abisko is situated in the Swedish province of Lapland near the Norwegian border and it begins at the shores of Torneträsk, one of Swedens largest lakes where the village of Abisko is located, and extends some 15 km to the south-west. It is situated about 195 km. north of the Arctic Circle, the purpose of the Abisko National Park was to preserve an area with northern Nordic fell nature in its original condition and as a reminiscence for scientific research. The region has proved to be of scientific interest, as is shown by the Abisko Scientific Research Station which exists to study the area. Furthermore, the park was intended to be a prominent tourist attraction. Abisko is home to the Abisko Scientific Research Station, first established in 1903 approximately 31 km west of Abisko in Vassijaura, after a fire in 1910 a new station was built in its present location in Abisko in 1912 and opening in 1913. The research station was incorporated within the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1935 and it is used primarily for biological, ecological and geological research and contains on-site laboratories as well as off-site field research stations.
The 440 km long Kungsleden hiking trail, which follows the Scandinavian mountain range, starts at the Abisko Turiststation, the Nordkalottruta uses trails of the park as part of its longer passage. The national park is known for its Cross-country skiing opportunities, snowshoeing, as its location is 195 km north of the Arctic Circle, summer hikers enjoy the midnight sun, while winter visitors may find the light pollution-free location ideal for viewing the aurora borealis. Daily passenger electric trains run by SJ AB connect Stockholm with the Norwegian city of Narvik, additional regional trains provide links within the Kiruna-Narvik stretch. Abisko is reachable by car via the highway E10 which links Kiruna, other local forms of local transportation include hiking and dog-sledding in winter. A chair-lift provides access to the summit of nearby Mt. Nuolja, there are many species of birds in the park. Of the mammals, smaller ones like the marten, squirrel, the fell lemming and similar are common parts of the fauna
Cod is the common name for the genus Gadus of demersal fishes, belonging to the family Gadidae. Cod is used as part of the name for a number of other fish species. Gadus morhua was named by Linnaeus in 1758, Cod is popular as a food with a mild flavour and a dense, white flesh. Cod livers are processed to make cod liver oil, an important source of vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, young Atlantic cod or haddock prepared in strips for cooking is called scrod. In the United Kingdom, Atlantic cod is one of the most common ingredients in fish and chips, along with haddock, at various times in the past, taxonomists included many species in the genus Gadus. Most of these are now classified in other genera, or have been recognized as simply forms of one of three species. All these species have a number of names, most of them ending with the word cod, whereas other species. However, many other, unrelated species have names ending with cod. The usage often changes with different localities and at different times, three species in the Gadus genus are currently called cod, Cod forms part of the common name of many other fish no longer classified in the genus Gadus.
The tadpole cod family has now placed in Gadidae. Gadiformes include, Some fish have common names derived from cod, such as codling, Some fish commonly known as cod are unrelated to Gadus. Part of this confusion is market-driven. Severely shrunken Atlantic cod stocks have led to the marketing of cod replacements using culinary names of the form x cod, the common names for the following species have become well established, note that all inhabit the Southern Hemisphere. Most are better known as groupers, and belong to the family Serranidae, Some fish that do not have cod in their names are sometimes sold as cod. Haddock and whiting belong to the family, the Gadidae. Haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus Whiting Merlangius merlangus Cods of the genus Gadus have three rounded dorsal and two anal fins, the pelvic fins are small, with the first ray extended, and are set under the gill cover, in front of the pectoral fins. The upper jaw extends over the jaw, which has a well-developed chin barbel. The eyes are medium-sized, approximately the same as the length of the chin barbel, Cod have a distinct white lateral line running from the gill slit above the pectoral fin, to the base of the caudal or tail fin