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William Kolakoski

William George Kolakoski, known as Bill to family and friends, was an American artist and recreational mathematician, most famous for devising and giving his name to the Kolakoski sequence, a self-generating sequence of integers, extensively studied by mathematicians since he first described it in the American Mathematical Monthly in 1965. Kolakoski was born Sept 17, 1944, in Pittsburgh, PA, the son of George Leon Kolakoski and his wife Eleanor, he had many interests as a boy, including art and mathematics, but chose to study fine art at the Carnegie Institute of Technology because he felt that, while he could study mathematics and philosophy independently, he needed the support of others to make a career in art. His fellow students were struck by his sharp intelligence, breadth of knowledge and skills in many different fields, including the ability to play good chess without making a particular study of the game, he graduated from CIT with honors as a Bachelor of Fine Arts in painting in 1967 and worked for a time at United States Steel as a draftsman.

However, because he suffered from schizophrenia and had to take constant medication to avoid psychosis and delusions, he was unable to keep in steady employment or to develop his artistic career as he wanted. He moved to West Virginia, where he met his wife Loretta and found a position as an artist-in-residence in Fairmont. In 1996, he was diagnosed with lung cancer and he died July 26, 1997, at the Fairmont General Hospital; this sequence of integers was first discussed by the professional mathematician Rufus Oldenburger in 1939, but attracted little attention at that time. It consists of an infinite series of 1s and 2s that begins like this: 1,2,2,1,1,2,1,2,2,1,2,2,1,1,2,1,1,2,2,1,2,1,1,2,1,2,2,1,1... Each symbol occurs in a "run" of either one or two consecutive terms and writing down the lengths of these runs gives the same sequence: 1,2,2,1,1,2,1,2,2,1,2,2,1,1,2,1,1,2,2,1,2,1,1,2,1,2,2,1,1,2,1,1,2,1,2,2,1,2,2,1,1,2,1,2,2...1, 2, 2,1,1, 2,1, 2, 2,1, 2, 2,1,1, 2,1,1, 2, 2,1, 2,1,1, 2,1, 2, 2,1,1, 2...

Conversely, one can say that each term of the Kolakoski sequence generates a run of one or two future terms. The first 1 of the sequence generates a run of "1"; this animation illustrates the process: William Kolakoski devised the sequence independently of Oldenburger and introduced it to his fellow students while at the Carnegie Institute of Technology. He submitted it to the American Mathematical Monthly and it was published as "Advanced Problem 5304" in the following form: 5304. Proposed by William Kolakoski, Carnegie Institute of TechnologyDescribe a simple rule for constructing the sequence1 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1... What is the nth term? Is the sequence periodic? It was called the Kolakoski sequence as mathematicians investigated it further. Despite the simplicity with which the sequence can be described and generated, it poses several interesting and complex mathematical problems, some of which remain unsolved after more than fifty years of analysis.

Until the end of his life, Kolakoski himself was not aware of how much attention it had received from professional mathematicians after he had published notice of it in the AMM. However, he received a letter from an architect called William Huff that mentioned the sequence; the letter prompted Loretta Kolakoski to ask her husband's friend Mike Vargo, a writer who had first met him at CIT, to carry out further research when Kolakoski was in hospital during his final illness. Vargo discovered many references to the Kolakoski sequence on the internet and was able to inform his friend before Kolakoski passed away. Vargo felt that Kolakoski had been pleased by the news, feeling that it vindicated his belief in the importance and beauty of the sequence; because he suffered from schizophrenia, Kolakoski was preoccupied with the topics of free will and determinism throughout his life. Despite his high intelligence and ability to master many different skills with little effort, his illness was, in the words of Mike Vargo, "this thing living within him, always threatening to take over his mind and transport it into regions of chaos and delusion."

While wanting to feel himself free, Kolakoski was well aware that he could not control his own brain without pharmaceutical help and was forced to accept determinism. Vargo therefore deduced that his friend searched for a benevolent order in the universe, of which the Kolakoski sequence was one possible expression; the sequence is deterministic, yet behaves in an unpredictable and strangely beautiful way. Kolakoski continued to explore the sequence for many years, creating a corpus of material, now held as the William Kolakoski Collection at Carnegie Mellon University Libraries and overseen by the mathematician Clark Kimberling. William Kolakoski — writing about William Kolakoski by his friend Mike Vargo, including the eulogy delivered at William Kolakoski's funeral, July 29, 1997 The William Kolakoski Collection at Carnegie Mellon University Libraries OEIS sequence A000002 Weisstein, Eric W. "Kolakoski Sequence". MathWorld

Liudas Jakavicius-Grimalauskas

Liudas Jakavičius-Grimalauskas was a famous Lithuanian pianist and theatre director. He was son of the writer and banker and Liudvikas Jakavičius and of Honorata Grimalauskaitė-Jakavičienė, daughter of a Polish-Lithuanian Duke. Liudas Jakavičius-Grimalauskas was the son of Lithuanians, but he was born in Riga, Latvia where his father had all his business; the Jakavičius-Grimalauskas family was one of the most prominent families in Latvia. Liudas Jakavičius-Grimalauskas began studying drama and music with private tutors at the age four and graduated as pianist from the Lithuanian Academy of Music and Theatre, he was a disciple of the noted composer and educator Dmitry Kabalevsky. From 1926 to 1940 he worked as theatre director in the Šiauliai Drama Theatre and as a pianist in radio and with different orchestras and bands, giving concerts throughout Northern Europe, earning recognition as a musician in his home country and abroad. During this period he was pianist of the Kaunas Laisvės Philharmonic, Lithuanian National Opera and Ballet Orchestra, Hofmekleris Orchestra, Concert Capella, Pomerancas Orchestra.

In 1933 he composed the first Lithuanian tango, called "Sutemos tango". With the invasion of Lithuania by Nazi Germany in 1941, he was designated president of the Šiauliai Drama Theatre until the government sent a new permanent president. After his presidency of the Šiauliai Drama Theatre, he worked for the German Army as translator because of his fluency in eight languages. After the end of World War II in Lithuania, annexed by the Soviet Union, he moved to Italy in 1944, where he married Gražina Janavičienė-Jakavičienė, aunt of the Lithuanian businessman Zenonas Janavičius. In 1948 he moved with his wife to Argentina, where he worked as a pianist in various radio stations such as Radio Splendid, Radio El Mundo and Radio Rivadavia, he worked as a pianist in the famous Alvear Palace Hotel. Due to poor health, he formally retired from music in 1967, he died on 3 July 1998 in Argentina. He is survived by his grandson, his daughters are the actress and composer Marcia Bell and the model, fashion designer and writer Carla Rigg.

His grandson is the lawyer and culture promoter Liudvikas Jakavicius-Grimalauskas, son of Carla Rigg who decided to conceive him as single mother. Sutemos Tango on YouTube http://www.draugas.org/09-19-2009%20PRIEDAS%20DRAUGAS.pdf https://web.archive.org/web/20061009211015/http://www.leidykla.vu.lt/inetleid/knygot/37/str16.pdf http://www.uic.edu/classes/lith/lith520/SUB_strp/SUB_2010_Poideno_Gogolio_rec.pdf http://www.literatura.lt/rasytojai/liudvikas-jakavicius/ http://www.anykstenai.lt/asmenys/asm.php?id=127

Żyrafa Group

The Żyrafa Group was a group of military units of Armia Krajowa, which fought during the Warsaw Uprising of 1944 in the Sub district II of Żoliborz, which included the Żoliborz district of Warsaw. Commander - sec. lieutenant Ryszard Wołczyński pseudonym "Tatar", 1st company - commanded by sec. lieutenant Marian Mehrenhole pseudonym "Wiktor", 2nd company - commanded by sec. lieutenant Jan Zaliwski pseudonym "Jan". The group fought in Aleje Wojska Polskiego, in Stołeczna street, in Plac Henkla, in the Monastery of Zmartwychwstanki Sisters in Krasińskiego street, where savage and bloody fights were waged. In the crossing of Krasińkiego and Stołeczna streets there was an access hatch into the sewer, by which communication with the Old Town was kept. Among others, Rajmund Kazimierz Łaszczyński fought in the group. Żubr Group Żmija Group Żaglowiec Group Żniwiarz Group (Polish: Zgrupowanie Żniwiarz Żbik Group Sub-district II of Żoliborz Military description of the Warsaw Uprising

Ehsan Danish

Ehsan Danish, born Ehsan-ul-Haq, was a prominent Urdu poet and scholar from Pakistan. At the beginning of his career his poetry was romantic but he wrote his poems more for the labourers and came to be called "Šhāʿir-e Mazdūr" by his audience, his poetry inspired the common people's feelings and he has been compared with Josh Malihabadi. He holds the unique position as one of the best poets of all times, with fine and revolutionary, but simple style of poetry. Danish was born in a small town in the shamli district of Uttar Pradesh, India, he belonged to a poor family and he could not continue his study due to financial reasons but still learned the Arabic and Persian languages on his own. He migrated to Lahore and settled there permanently, he struggled hard to earn his living. He worked as an ordinary labourer for years in odd jobs becoming a poet of excellence, his autobiography, Jahan-i-Danish, has inspired many people. Danish has written more than 80 books and hundreds of articles about and including poetry, linguistics, philology and the famous interpretation of "Diwan-e-Ghalib".

Much of his literary work is still unpublished. He passed away on 22 March 1982 in Pakistan. Maulvi Saeed talks of the poet, he recalls: "In 1928, when we lived in Mozang I happened to be present at a gathering in the street adjoining ours where a short-statured but a well-built darkish young man recited a naat in a voice which kept the audience spell-bound. The poet was Ehsan-bin-Danish; the poet had come from across the Yamuna in search of employment – and recognition, too. Lahore gave him both. Ehsan was seen in the evening at the mushairas, he has recorded the experiences of his early days in a fascinating autobiography – Jehan-i-Danish. In the realm of poetry, he was not a mere labourer, but a master architect." Sitara-e-Imtiaz, received 22 March 1978 from the government of Pakistan. Jahan-i-Danish, his autobiography. Jahan-i Diger Tazkir-o-Tanis Iblagh-i-Danish Tashrih-i-Ghalib Awaz sy Alfaz tk Fasl-i-Salasil Zanjir-i-Baharan Abr-i-Naisan Miras-i-Momin Urdu Mutaradifaat Derd-i-Zindagi Hadis-i-Adab Lughat-ul-Islah Nafir-i-Fitrat List of Pakistani poets List of Urdu poets The 1st Official website of Ehsan Danish.

Personality, literary works, poetry and much more of Ehsan Danish The e-books of Ehsan Danish available online. An article describing him Govt. of India Link His books google video An article by Dr Rauf Parekh on Ehsan Danish, published in The Dawn Pakistan

Jon Amiel

Jon Amiel is an English director who has worked in film and television in both the UK and the US. After receiving a BAFTA Award nomination for the BBC series The Singing Detective, he went on to direct films, including Sommersby and Entrapment. Amiel was born in London, he attended the William Ellis School in Highgate, before studying English literature at Sidney Sussex College, graduating in 1969. It was while at Cambridge that he became involved with local theatre, after college he went on to direct for the Royal Shakespeare Company. After having worked as a story editor for the BBC, he directed the documentary The Silent Twins, was chosen to direct the Dennis Potter serial The Singing Detective, for which he was BAFTA nominated, he made his feature film debut in 1989 with Queen of Hearts. His most notable film is 1993's romantic drama Sommersby, starring Richard Gere; the film was a commercial success, grossing $140 million worldwide. Amiel lives in Santa Monica with his wife and their two sons and Max.

He has another son, an aspiring screenwriter, called Leo. Queen of Hearts Tune in Tomorrow Sommersby Copycat The Man Who Knew Too Little Entrapment The Core Creation Deliverance Creek The Silent Twins The Singing Detective The Borgias Seven Seconds Carnival Row Proven Innocent - Episode #11 "Shaken" Jon Amiel on IMDb