Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term "Kashmir" denoted only the Kashmir Valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal Range. Today, it denotes a larger area that includes the Indian-administered territory of Jammu and Kashmir, the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan, Chinese-administered territories of Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract. In the first half of the 1st millennium, the Kashmir region became an important centre of Hinduism and of Buddhism. In 1339, Shah Mir became the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir, inaugurating the Salatin-i-Kashmir or Shah Mir dynasty. Kashmir was part of the Mughal Empire from 1586 to 1751, thereafter, until 1820, of the Afghan Durrani Empire; that year, the Sikhs, under Ranjit Singh, annexed Kashmir. In 1846, after the Sikh defeat in the First Anglo-Sikh War, upon the purchase of the region from the British under the Treaty of Amritsar, the Raja of Jammu, Gulab Singh, became the new ruler of Kashmir.
The rule of his descendants, under the paramountcy of the British Crown, lasted until the partition of India in 1947, when the former princely state of the British Indian Empire became a disputed territory, now administered by three countries: India and China. The word Kashmir was referred to as káśmīra; the Nilamata Purana describes the Valley's origin from the waters, a lake called Sati-saras. A popular, but uncertain, local etymology of Kashmira is. An alternative, but uncertain, etymology derives the name from the name of the Hindu sage Kashyapa, believed to have settled people in this land. Accordingly, Kashmir would be derived from either kashyapa-meru; the word has been referenced to in a Hindu scripture mantra worshipping the Hindu goddess Sharada and is mentioned to have resided in the land of kashmira,or which might have been a reference to the Sharada Peeth. The Ancient Greeks called the region Kasperia, identified with Kaspapyros of Hecataeus of Miletus and Kaspatyros of Herodotus.
Kashmir is believed to be the country meant by Ptolemy's Kaspeiria. The earliest text which directly mentions the name Kashmir is in Ashtadhyayi written by a Sanskrit grammarian Pāṇini during 5th century BC. Pāṇini called the people of Kashmir as Kashmirikas; some other early references to Kashmir can be be found in Mahabharata in Sabha Parva and in puranas like Matsya Purana, Vayu Purana, Padma Purana and Vishnu Purana and Vishnudharmottara Purana. Huientsang, the Buddhist scholar and Chinese traveller called Kashmir as kia-shi-milo, while some other Chinese accounts referred Kashmir as ki-pin and ache-pin. Cashmere is an archaic spelling of present-Kashmir, in some countries it is still spelled this way. In the Kashmiri language, Kashmir itself is known as Kasheer. During ancient and medieval period, Kashmir has been an important centre for the development of a Hindu-Buddhist syncretism, in which Madhyamaka and Yogachara were blended with Shaivism and Advaita Vedanta; the Buddhist Mauryan emperor Ashoka is credited with having founded the old capital of Kashmir, now ruins on the outskirts of modern Srinagar.
Kashmir was long to be a stronghold of Buddhism. As a Buddhist seat of learning, the Sarvastivada school influenced Kashmir. East and Central Asian Buddhist monks are recorded as having visited the kingdom. In the late 4th century CE, the famous Kuchanese monk Kumārajīva, born to an Indian noble family, studied Dīrghāgama and Madhyāgama in Kashmir under Bandhudatta, he became a prolific translator who helped take Buddhism to China. His mother Jīva is thought to have retired to Kashmir. Vimalākṣa, a Sarvāstivādan Buddhist monk, travelled from Kashmir to Kucha and there instructed Kumārajīva in the Vinayapiṭaka. Karkoṭa Empire was a powerful Hindu empire, it was founded by Durlabhvardhana during the lifetime of Harsha. The dynasty marked the rise of Kashmir as a power in South Asia. Avanti Varman ascended the throne of Kashmir on 855 CE, establishing the Utpala dynasty and ending the rule of Karkoṭa dynasty. According to tradition, Adi Shankara visited the pre-existing Sarvajñapīṭha in Kashmir in the late 8th century or early 9th century CE.
The Madhaviya Shankaravijayam states this temple had four doors for scholars from the four cardinal directions. The southern door of Sarvajna Pitha was opened by Adi Shankara. According to tradition, Adi Shankara opened the southern door by defeating in debate all the scholars there in all the various scholastic disciplines such as Mīmāṃsā, Vedanta and other branches of Hindu philosophy. Abhinavagupta was one of India's greatest philosophers and aestheticians, he was considered an important musician, dramatist, exegete and logician – a polymathic personality who exercised strong influences on Indian culture. He was born in the Kashmir Valley in a family of scholars and mystics and studied all the schools of philosophy and art of his time under the guidance of as many as fifteen teachers and gurus. In his long life he completed over 35 works, the largest and most famous of, Tantrāloka, an encyclopaedic treatise on all the philosophical and practical aspects of Trika and Kaula. Another one of his important contributions was in the field of philosophy of
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs; the primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, the teachings and normative example of Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith, revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran in its original Arabic to be the final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, following Islamic law, which touches on every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment.
The cities of Mecca and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam. Aside from the theological narrative, Islam is believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca, by the 8th century the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east; the Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the Muslim world was experiencing a scientific and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates, such as the Ottoman Empire and conversion to Islam by missionary activities. Most Muslims are of one of two denominations. About 13 % of Muslims live in the largest Muslim-majority country. Sizeable Muslim communities are found in the Americas, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Russia. Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world. Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M which forms a large class of words relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace.
In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God". Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, means "submission" or "surrender". Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, means "submitter" or "one who surrenders"; the word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam." Other verses connect Islam and religion together: "Today, I have perfected your religion for you. Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, ihsān. Islam was called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies; this term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Buddha in Buddhism.
Some authors, continue to use the term Muhammadanism as a technical term for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system. Faith in the Islamic creed is represented as the six articles of faith, notably spelled out in the Hadith of Gabriel. Islam is seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions, its most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawḥīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Quran as: "He is God, the One and Only. Muslims repudiate polytheism and idolatry, called Shirk, reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful". Muslims believe that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's sheer command, "Be, it is" and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.
He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in distress calls him. There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, "I am nearer to him than jugular vein." God consciousness is referred to as Taqwa. Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to reference God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general. Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish, "Khodā" in Persian or "Ḵẖudā" in Urdu. Belief in angels is fundamental
The Sayyid dynasty was the fourth dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate, with four rulers ruling from 1414 to 1451. Founded by Khizr Khan a former governor of Multan, they succeeded the Tughlaq dynasty and ruled the sultanate until they were displaced by the Lodi dynasty. Members of the dynasty derived their title, Sayyid, or the descendants of the Islamic prophet, based on the claim that they belonged to his lineage through his daughter Fatima, son-in-law and cousin Ali. Following the 1398 Sack of Delhi, Amir Timur appointed the Sayyids as the governors of Delhi, their dynasty was established by Sayyid Khizr Khan, deputised by Timur to be the governor of Multan. Khizr Khan captured Delhi on 28 May 1414 thereby establishing the Sayyid dynasty. Khizr Khan did not take up the title of Sultan and nominally, continued to be a Rayat-i-Ala of the Timurids - that of Timur, his grandson Shah Rukh. Khizr Khan was succeeded by his son Sayyid Mubarak Shah after his death on 20 May 1421. Mubarak Shah referred to himself as Muizz-ud-Din Mubarak Shah on his coins.
A detailed account of his reign is available in the Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shahi written by Yahya-bin-Ahmad Sirhindi. After the death of Mubarak Shah, his nephew, Muhammad Shah ascended the throne and styled himself as Sultan Muhammad Shah. Just before his death, he called his son Sayyid Ala-ud-Din Shah from Badaun, nominated him as successor; the last ruler of the Sayyids, Ala-ud-Din, voluntarily abdicated the throne of the Delhi Sultanate in favour of Bahlul Khan Lodi on 19 April 1451, left for Badaun, where he died in 1478. Khizr Khan was the governor of Multan under Firuz Shah Tughlaq; when Timur invaded India, Khizr Khan a sayyid from Multan joined him. Timur appointed him the governor of Lahore, he conquered the city of Delhi and started the rule of the Sayyids in 1414. He was ruling in name of Timur, he could not assume an independent position in all respects. As a mark of recognition of the suzerainty of the Mongols, the name of the Mongol ruler was recited in the khutba but as an interesting innovation, the name of Khizr Khan was attached to it.
But strangely enough the name of Mongol ruler was not inscribed on the coins and the name of old Tughlaq sultan continued on the currency. No coins are known in the name of Khizr Khan. Mubarak Shah was the son of Khizr Khan, he came to the throne in 1421. He was a man of great vision. Muhammad Shah was a nephew of Mubarak Shah, he ruled from 1434-1445. Muhammad Shah acceded to the throne with the help of Sarwar ul Mulk. After that Shah wanted to free himself from the domination of Sarwar ul Mulk with the help of his faithful vizeir Kamal ul Mulk; some time he suffered the invasion of Ibrahim Sharki, the sultan of Jonpur, into the eastern part of the Delhi Sultanate so he accepted help from the Afghani subedar, Bahalol Lodi. List of Sunni Muslim dynasties Persianate states Saadat-e-Bara Sadaat-e-Bilgram Encyclopædia Britannica - Sayyid Dynasty Coin Gallery - Sayyid Dynasty
The Lohara dynasty were Kashmiri Hindu rulers of Kashmir, in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, between 1003 and 1320 CE. The early history of the dynasty was described in the Rajatarangini, a work written by Kalhana in the mid-12th century and upon which many and all studies of the first 150 years of the dynasty depend. Subsequent accounts, which provide information up to and beyond the end of the dynasty come from Jonarāja and Śrīvara; the rulers of the dynasty were weak: internecine fighting and corruption was endemic during this period, with only brief years of respite, this gave rise to the growth of Islamic onslaughts in the region. The seat of the Lohara dynasty was a hill-fortress called Loharakotta, the precise location of, the subject of academic debate over a prolonged period. Stein, a translator of Kalhana, has discussed some of these theories and concludes that it lay in the Pir Panjal range of mountains, on a trade route between western Punjab and Kashmir; as such, it was not itself in Kashmir but in the kingdom of Lohara, centred around a group of large villages collectively known as Lohrin, which itself was a name shared by the valley in which they were situated and a river that ran through it.
The Lohara kingdom extended into neighbouring valleys. Didda, a daughter of the king of Lohara called Simharāja, had married the king of Kashmir, thus uniting the two areas. Compared to other societies of the period, women in Kashmir were held in high regard and when Ksemgupta died in 958, Didda assumed power as Regent for her young son, Abhimanyu II. Upon the death of Abhimanyu in 972 she performed the same office for his sons, Nandigupta and Bhimagupta, respectively, she killed each of these grandchildren in turn. As Regent she had sole power over the kingdom, with the killing by torture of Bhimagupta in 980 she became ruler in her own right. Didda subsequently adopted a nephew, Samgrāmarāja, to be her heir in Kashmir but left the rule of Lohara to Vigraharāja, either another nephew or one of her brothers. From this decision arose the Lohara dynasty of Kashmir, although Vigraharāja during her lifetime made attempts to assert his right to that area as well as Lohara. What was to follow was around three centuries of "endless rebellions and other internal troubles".
Samgrāmarāja is considered as the founder of the Lohara dynasty. Samgrāmarāja was able to repulse several attacks of Mahmud of Ghazni against Kashmir, he supported ruler Sahi Trilocanapala against Muslim attacks; the reign of Samgrāmarāja between 1003 and June or July 1028 was characterised by the actions of those in his court, who preyed on his subjects to satisfy their own greed, by the role of the prime minister, Tunga. The latter was a former herdsman, her prime minister, he had wielded much power in working with Didda to assert her dominance over the kingdom and he continued to use that power after her death. Samgrāmarāja was afraid for many years allowed him to have his way. Indeed, it was Tunga who appointed many of the corrupt officials who proceeded to extract significant amounts of wealth from the kingdom's subjects; these appointees, their actions, made Tunga unpopular, his age may well have contributed to his increasing inability to deal with challenges from opponents within and without the court.
Samgrāmarāja supported the plots to remove the minister, Tunga was murdered. Samgrāmarāja's son, Harirāja, succeeded him but reigned for only 22 days before dying and being succeeded in turn by another son, Ananta, it is possible that Harirāja was killed by his mother, Shrilakhā, who may have been desirous of holding power herself but was thwarted in that scheme by those protecting her children. It was around this time that Vigraharāja attempted once more to take control of Kashmir, taking an army to do battle near to the capital at Srinagar and being killed in defeat; the period of rule by Ananta was characterised by royal profligacy. She was able to settle the debts incurred by her husband by use of her own resources and she oversaw the appointment of ministers with ability in order to stabilise the government. In 1063, she forced Ananta to abdicate in favour of Kalaśa; this was in order to preserve the dynasty but the strategy proved not to be successful because of Kalaśa's own unsuitability.
It was arranged that Ananta was effective king though his son held the title. Kalaśa was king until 1089. Another weak-willed man, who involved himself in an incestuous relationship with his daughter, Kalaśa was dominated by those surrounding him at court and spent little time on matters of government until his years, he freed himself from the effective rule of his father in 1076, causing Ananta to leave the capital along with many loyal courtiers and laying siege to them in their new abode at Vijayesvara. On the verge of being pushed into exile, faced with a wife who at this stage doted on her son, Ananta committed suicide in 1081, it was after this that Kalaśa reformed his licentious ways and began to govern responsibly, as well as operating a foreign policy that improved the influence which the dynasty held over surrounding hill tribes. Kalaśa experienced difficulties with his oldest son, who felt that the allowance granted by his father was insufficient f
Ladakh is a region in the Indian administered state of Jammu and Kashmir that extends from the Siachen Glacier in the Karakoram range to the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people of Indo-Aryan and Tibetan descent. It is one of the most sparsely populated regions in Jammu and Kashmir and its culture and history are related to that of Tibet. Ladakh is renowned for culture; the region included the Baltistan valleys, the entire upper Indus Valley, the remote Zanskar and Spiti to the south, much of Ngari including the Rudok region and Guge in the east, Aksai Chin in the northeast, the Nubra Valley to the north over Khardong La in the Ladakh Range. Contemporary Ladakh borders Tibet to the east, the Lahaul and Spiti regions to the south, the Vale of Kashmir and Baltiyul regions to the west, the southwest corner of Xinjiang across the Karakoram Pass in the far north. Aksai Chin is one of the disputed border areas between India, it is administered by China as part of Hotan County but is claimed by India as a part of the Ladakh region of the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
In 1962, China and India fought a brief war over Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh, but in 1993 and 1996 the two countries signed agreements to respect the Line of Actual Control. In the past Ladakh gained importance from its strategic location at the crossroads of important trade routes, but since the Chinese authorities closed the borders with Tibet and Central Asia in the 1960s, international trade has dwindled except for tourism. Since 1974, the Government of India has encouraged tourism in Ladakh. Since Ladakh is a part of strategically important Jammu and Kashmir, the Indian military maintains a strong presence in the region; the largest town in Ladakh is Leh, followed by Kargil. The government of Jammu and Kashmir created a separate administrative division from Kashmir division with headquarters on rotational basis 6month in kargil and 6month in leh Tibetan Buddhists and Hindus collectively represent the majority of the population while a plurality of Ladakhis are Muslims. Other religious groups include Sikhs etc.
Some activists from Leh have in recent times called for Ladakh to be constituted as a union territory because of perceived unfair treatment by Kashmir and Ladakh's cultural differences with predominantly Muslim Kashmir while people of Kargil oppose UT status for Ladakh. The Tibetan name La-dvags means "land of high passes". Ladakh is its pronunciation in several Tibetan districts, a transliteration of the Persian spelling. Rock carvings found in many parts of Ladakh indicate that the area has been inhabited from Neolithic times. Ladakh's earliest inhabitants consisted of a mixed Indo-Aryan population of Mons and Dards, who find mention in the works of Herodotus, Megasthenes, Pliny and the geographical lists of the Puranas. Around the 1st century, Ladakh was a part of the Kushan Empire. Buddhism spread into western Ladakh from Kashmir in the 2nd century when much of eastern Ladakh and western Tibet was still practicing the Bon religion; the 7th century Buddhist traveler Xuanzang describes the region in his accounts.
According to Rolf Alfred Stein, author of Tibetan Civilization, the area of Zhangzhung was not a part of Tibet and was a distinctly foreign territory to the Tibetans. According to Stein, "... Further west, The Tibetans encountered a distinctly foreign nation—Shangshung, with its capital at Khyunglung. Mt. Kailāśa and Lake Manasarovar formed part of this country, whose language has come down to us through early documents. Though still unidentified, it seems to be Indo-European.... Geographically the country was open to India, both through Nepal and by way of Kashmir and Ladakh. Kailāśa is a holy place for the Indians. No one knows how long they have done so, but the cult may well go back to the times when Shangshung was still independent of Tibet. How far Zhangzhung stretched to the north and west is a mystery... We have had an occasion to remark that Shangshung, embracing Kailāśa sacred Mount of the Hindus, may once have had a religion borrowed from Hinduism; the situation may have lasted for quite a long time.
In fact, about 950, the Hindu King of Kabul had a statue of Viṣṇu, of the Kashmiri type, which he claimed had been given him by the king of the Bhota who, in turn had obtained it from Kailāśa." A chronicle of Ladakh compiled in the 17th century called the La dvags royal rabs, meaning the Royal Chronicle of the Kings of Ladakh recorded that this boundary was traditional and well-known. The first part of the Chronicle was written in the years 1610–1640 and the second half towards the end of the 17th century; the work has been translated into English by A. H. Francke and published in 1926 in Calcutta titled the Antiquities of Indian Tibet. In volume 2, the Ladakhi Chronicle describes the partition by King Skyid-lde-ngima-gon of his kingdom between his three sons, the chronicle described the extent of territory secured by that son; the following quotation is from page 94 of this book: He gave to each of his sons a separate kingdom, viz. to the eldest Dpal-gyi-gon, Maryul of Mngah-ris, the inhabitants using black bows.
From a perusal of the aforesaid work, It is evident. After the family partition, Rudok continued to be part
Hindus are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism. The term has been used as a geographical and religious identifier for people indigenous to the Indian subcontinent; the historical meaning of the term Hindu has evolved with time. Starting with the Persian and Greek references to the land of the Indus in the 1st millennium BCE through the texts of the medieval era, the term Hindu implied a geographic, ethnic or cultural identifier for people living in the Indian subcontinent around or beyond the Sindhu river. By the 16th century, the term began to refer to residents of the subcontinent who were not Turkic or Muslims; the historical development of Hindu self-identity within the local South Asian population, in a religious or cultural sense, is unclear. Competing theories state that Hindu identity developed in the British colonial era, or that it developed post-8th century CE after the Islamic invasion and medieval Hindu-Muslim wars.
A sense of Hindu identity and the term Hindu appears in some texts dated between the 13th and 18th century in Sanskrit and regional languages. The 14th- and 18th-century Indian poets such as Vidyapati and Eknath used the phrase Hindu dharma and contrasted it with Turaka dharma; the Christian friar Sebastiao Manrique used the term'Hindu' in religious context in 1649. In the 18th century, the European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus, in contrast to Mohamedans for Mughals and Arabs following Islam. By the mid-19th century, colonial orientalist texts further distinguished Hindus from Buddhists and Jains, but the colonial laws continued to consider all of them to be within the scope of the term Hindu until about mid-20th century. Scholars state that the custom of distinguishing between Hindus, Buddhists and Sikhs is a modern phenomenon. Hindoo is an archaic spelling variant. At more than 1.03 billion, Hindus are the world's third largest group after Muslims.
The vast majority of Hindus 966 million, live in India, according to India's 2011 census. After India, the next 9 countries with the largest Hindu populations are, in decreasing order: Nepal, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, United States, United Kingdom and Myanmar; these together accounted for 99% of the world's Hindu population, the remaining nations of the world together had about 6 million Hindus in 2010. The word Hindu is derived from the Indo-Aryan and Sanskrit word Sindhu, which means "a large body of water", covering "river, ocean", it was used as the name of the Indus river and referred to its tributaries. The actual term'hindu' first occurs, states Gavin Flood, as "a Persian geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus", more in the 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I; the Punjab region, called Sapta Sindhu in the Vedas, is called Hapta Hindu in Zend Avesta. The 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I mentions the province of Hidush, referring to northwestern India; the people of India were referred to as Hinduvān and hindavī was used as the adjective for Indian in the 8th century text Chachnama.
The term'Hindu' in these ancient records is an ethno-geographical term and did not refer to a religion. The Arabic equivalent Al-Hind referred to the country of India. Among the earliest known records of'Hindu' with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by the Buddhist scholar Xuanzang. Xuanzang uses the transliterated term In-tu whose "connotation overflows in the religious" according to Arvind Sharma. While Xuanzang suggested that the term refers to the country named after the moon, another Buddhist scholar I-tsing contradicted the conclusion saying that In-tu was not a common name for the country. Al-Biruni's 11th-century text Tarikh Al-Hind, the texts of the Delhi Sultanate period use the term'Hindu', where it includes all non-Islamic people such as Buddhists, retains the ambiguity of being "a region or a religion". The'Hindu' community occurs as the amorphous'Other' of the Muslim community in the court chronicles, according to Romila Thapar.
Wilfred Cantwell Smith notes that'Hindu' retained its geographical reference initially:'Indian','indigenous, local', virtually'native'. The Indian groups themselves started using the term, differentiating themselves and their "traditional ways" from those of the invaders; the text Prithviraj Raso, by Chanda Baradai, about the 1192 CE defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan at the hands of Muhammad Ghori, is full of references to "Hindus" and "Turks", at one stage, says "both the religions have drawn their curved swords. In Islamic literature,'Abd al-Malik Isami's Persian work, Futuhu's-salatin, composed in the Deccan in 1350, uses the word'hindi' to mean Indian in the ethno-geographical sense and the word'hindu' to mean'Hindu' in the sense of a follower of the Hindu religion"; the poet Vidyapati's poem Kirtilata contrasts the cultures of Hindus and Turks in a city and concludes "The Hindus and the Turks live close together. One of the earliest uses of word'Hindu' in religious context in a European language, was the publication in 1649 by Sebastiao Manrique.
Other prominent mentions of'Hindu' include the epigraphical inscriptions from Andhra Pradesh kingdoms who battled military expansion of Muslim dynasties in the 14th century, where the word'Hindu' implies a religious identity in contrast to'Turks' or Islam
Sadruddin Shah known as Rinchan was the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir. He was instrumental in establishing Islam in Kashmir, he was directly Influenced by Bulbul Shah He is known by different versions of his names: Rinchana, Rinchan Shah, Rinchan Malik, Malik Rinchan. Rinchan, whose full name was Lhachan Gualbu Rinchana, was a Buddhist Prince from Ladakh, the son of the Ladakh chief, Lhachan Ngos-gruba, who ruled Ladakh from 1290 to 1320, he was defeated and fled to Kashmir. Raja Suhadeva appointed Rinchan as a minister. A Muslim from Swat named Shah Mir was appointed as a minister in Kashmir by Suhadeva and he became good friend of Rinchan. Mongols under their leader Dulchoo, invaded Kashmir with 70,000 soldiers and defeated Suhadeva, who fled to Tibet. After the departure of Mongols, his prime minister, took advantage of the anarchy and occupied the throne, he appointed Rinchan as an administrator. Rinchan became ambitious, he sent a force in the fort in the guise of merchants. Ramachandra was killed and his family were taken prisoners.
Hazraat Rinchan Shah became the ruler of Kashmir. In view of his Ladakhi origin, Rinchan found it crucial to gain support to legitimize his rule. To this end, he won over the son of Ramachandra, to his side, he gave him the title of Raina and Ladakh and Lar as his jagir. He married Kota Rani, Ramachandra's daughter and agreed to convert to Hinduism, he approached the head guru of the Brahmin Pandits Devaswami for this purpose. However his request was spurned by the Shaivite guru who refused to accept him into the Hindu fold due to his hand in killing Ramachandra; the Sufi missionaries from the Middle East and Central Asia had settled in Kashmir and had converted some Kashmiris to Islam. There was conflict between Buddhism and Hinduism in the court of Rinchan. Rinchan adopted the title of Sultan Sadruddin Shah. 10,000 of his subjects, including his brother-in-law Ravanachandra, converted along with him. After conversion, he renamed Srinagar as Rinchanpora and built a mosque known as "Bud Masheed", on the site of a Buddhist temple.
This was the first mosque to be built in Kashmir. The original structure was burnt and replaced with a smaller structure, he built another mosque at Ali Kadal. He built a khanqah in honor of his spiritual mentor Bulbul Shah. Attached to the khanqah was a langarkhana known as Bulbul Lankar, where the poor were fed free-of-cost twice a day, he had a son, Haidar Khan, by his queen Kota Rani, whom he entrusted to the care of his trusted minister Shah Mir. Rinchan was attacked by rebels and was badly wounded and died in 1323. Shah Mir wanted to marry Kota Rani. Kota Rani fought bravely, but lost as her kingdom was weakened by the Mongol attacks, she committed suicide after losing the battle. In 1909, Rinchan's grave was discovered near Bud Masheed by A. H. Francke. Buddhist Western Himalaya: A politico-religious history By O. C. Handa, Omacanda Hāṇḍā