Gorodishchensky District, Volgograd Oblast
Gorodishchensky District is an administrative district, one of the thirty-three in Volgograd Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Gorodishchensky Municipal District, it is located in the southern central part of the oblast. The area of the district is 2,450 square kilometers, its administrative center is the urban locality of Gorodishche. Population: 60,188 ; the population of Gorodishche accounts for 35.5% of the district's total population. The economy of the district is predominantly agricultural. Soldiers' Field Memorial is located in the district. Волгоградская областная Дума. Закон №139-ОД от 7 октября 1997 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Волгоградской области», в ред. Закона №107-ОД от 10 июля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Волгоградской области в связи с приведением их в соответствие с Уставом Волгоградской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Волгоградская правда", №207, 1 ноября 1997 г..
Волгоградская областная Дума. Закон №1058-ОД от 14 мая 2005 г. «Об установлении границ и наделении статусом Городищенского района и муниципальных образований в его составе», в ред. Закона №1333-ОД от 30 ноября 2006 г «О внесении изменений в Закон Волгоградской области от 14 мая 2005 г. №1058-ОД "Об установлении границ и наделении статусом Городищенского района и муниципальных образований в его составе"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Волгоградская правда", №92, 25 мая 2005 г
Volgograd Oblast is a federal subject of Russia, located in the Volga region of Southern Russia. Its administrative center is Volgograd; the population of the oblast was 2,610,161 in the 2010 Census. Known as Stalingrad Oblast, it was given its present name in 1961, when the city of Stalingrad was renamed Volgograd as part of de-Stalinization. Volgograd Oblast borders Rostov Oblast in the southwest, Voronezh Oblast in the northwest, Saratov Oblast in the north, Astrakhan Oblast and the Republic of Kalmykia in the southeast, has an international border with Kazakhstan in the east; the two main rivers in European Russia, the Don and the Volga, run through the oblast and are connected by the Volga–Don Canal. Volgograd Oblast's strategic waterways have made it a popular route for shipping and for the generation of hydroelectricity. Volgograd Oblast is best known as the primary site of the Battle of Stalingrad during World War II regarded as one of the single largest and bloodiest battles in the history of warfare.
Borders length: 2,221.9 kilometers Volgograd Oblast borders with Saratov, Rostov and Voronezh Oblasts, as well as with Kalmykia of Russia and with Kazakhstan. Volgograd streams; the major ones include: The Volga River The Don River The Medveditsa River The Khopyor River Stalingrad Oblast was established on December 5, 1936 on the territory of former Stalingrad Krai. The oblast was given its present name on November 10, 1961. During the Soviet period, three people exercised oblast-level authority: the first secretary of the Volgograd CPSU Committee the chairman of the oblast Soviet the chairman of the oblast Executive Committee In 1991 the CPSU lost de facto power, the head of the Oblast administration, the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament; the Charter of Volgograd Oblast provides the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Volgograd Oblast is the province's standing legislative body; the Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it.
The highest executive body, the Oblast Government, includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations and commissions that facilitate development and run the day-to-day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor, the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia. Population: 2,610,161 . Vital statistics for 2012Births: 30,252 Deaths: 35,021 Total fertility rate:2009 - 1.46 | 2010 - 1.45 | 2011 - 1.44 | 2012 - 1.54 | 2013 - 1.53 | 2014 - 1.57 | 2015 1.59 | 2016 1.57 44,541 people were registered from administrative databases, could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group. According to a 2012 survey 54.5% of the population of Volgograd Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 4% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 2% are Orthodox Christian believers who don't belong to any church or are members of non-Russian Orthodox churches, 3% are Muslims.
In addition, 18% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 12% is atheist, 6.5% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question. Governor of Volgograd Oblast is Anatoliy Brovko Both the flag and the coat of arms of Volgograd Oblast include an image of The Motherland Calls, an 85 meter tall statue located in Volgograd. Primary branches of economics are agriculture, food production, heavy industry and petroleum refining; the Volga Hydroelectric Station operates on the Volga River. The largest companies in the region include Volzhsky Pipe Plant, Volgogradenergosbyt, OJSC Kaustik, Volzhsky Orgsintez. List of Chairmen of the Volgograd Oblast Duma Volgograd floating landing Волгоградская областная Дума. №1-ОД 24 февраля 2012 г. «Устав Волгоградской области», в ред. Закона №90-ОД от 10 июля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в статью 2 Устава Волгоградской области от 24 февраля 2012 г. №1-ОД». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней после дня официального опубликования.
Опубликован: "Волгоградская правда", №35, 29 февраля 2012 г.. Исполнительный комитет Волгоградского областного Совета депутатов трудящихся. "Волгоградская область. Административно-территориальное деление на 1 июля 1968 года". Нижне-Волжское книжное издательство. Волгоград, 1969. Official website of Volgograd Oblast Central Eurasian Information Resource: Images of Volgograd Oblast - University of Washington Digital Collections
Russian is an East Slavic language, official in the Russian Federation, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia. Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages, one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages, part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch. Written examples of Old East Slavonic are attested from the 10th century onward. Russian is the largest native language in Europe and the most geographically widespread language in Eurasia, it is the most spoken of the Slavic languages, with 144 million speakers in Russia and Belarus. Russian is the eighth most spoken language in the world by number of native speakers and the seventh by total number of speakers.
The language is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Russian is the second most widespread language on the Internet after English respectively. Russian distinguishes between consonant phonemes with palatal secondary articulation and those without, the so-called soft and hard sounds; every consonant has a hard or a soft counterpart, the distinction is a prominent feature of the language. Another important aspect is the reduction of unstressed vowels. Stress, unpredictable, is not indicated orthographically though an optional acute accent may be used to mark stress, such as to distinguish between homographic words, for example замо́к and за́мок, or to indicate the proper pronunciation of uncommon words or names. Russian is an East Slavic language of the wider Indo-European family, it is a lineal descendant of the language used in Kievan Rus', a loose conglomerate of East Slavic tribes from the late 9th to the mid 13th centuries. From the point of view of spoken language, its closest relatives are Ukrainian and Rusyn, the other three languages in the East Slavic languages.
In many places in eastern and southern Ukraine and throughout Belarus, these languages are spoken interchangeably, in certain areas traditional bilingualism resulted in language mixtures such as Surzhyk in eastern Ukraine and Trasianka in Belarus. An East Slavic Old Novgorod dialect, although vanished during the 15th or 16th century, is sometimes considered to have played a significant role in the formation of modern Russian. Russian has notable lexical similarities with Bulgarian due to a common Church Slavonic influence on both languages, as well as because of interaction in the 19th and 20th centuries, although Bulgarian grammar differs markedly from Russian. In the 19th century, the language was called "Great Russian" to distinguish it from Belarusian called "White Russian" and Ukrainian called "Little Russian"; the vocabulary, principles of word formations, and, to some extent and literary style of Russian have been influenced by Church Slavonic, a developed and russified form of the South Slavic Old Church Slavonic language used by the Russian Orthodox Church.
However, the East Slavic forms have tended to be used in the various dialects that are experiencing a rapid decline. In some cases, both the East Slavic and the Church Slavonic forms are in use, with many different meanings. For details, see Russian phonology and History of the Russian language. Over the course of centuries, the vocabulary and literary style of Russian have been influenced by Western and Central European languages such as Greek, Polish, German, French and English, to a lesser extent the languages to the south and the east: Uralic, Turkic and Arabic, as well as Hebrew. According to the Defense Language Institute in Monterey, Russian is classified as a level III language in terms of learning difficulty for native English speakers, requiring 1,100 hours of immersion instruction to achieve intermediate fluency, it is regarded by the United States Intelligence Community as a "hard target" language, due to both its difficulty to master for English speakers and its critical role in U.
S. world policy. Feudal divisions and conflicts as well as other obstacles to the exchange of goods and ideas that ancient Russian principalities have suffered from before and during the Mongol yoke strengthened dialectical differences and for a while prevented the emergence of the standardized national language; the formation of the unified and centralized Russian state in 15th and 16th centuries and the gradual emergence of a common political and cultural space have created the need for a common standard language. The initial impulse for the standardization came from the government bureacracy for the lack of a reliable tool of communication in administrative and judicial affairs became an obvious practical problem; the earliest attempts at standardizing Russian were made based on the so-called Moscow official or chancery language. Since the underlying logic of language reforms in Russia reflected the considerations of standardizing and streamlining language norms and rules in order to ensure the Russian language's role as a practical tool of communication and administration.
The current standard form of Russian is regarded as the modern Russian literary language. It arose in the beginning of the 18th century with the modernizat
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Districts of Russia
A district is an administrative and municipal division of a federal subject of Russia. As of 2014, excluding Moscow, St. Petersburg, Sevastopol, there are 1,873 administrative districts and 1,823 municipal districts in Russia. All these districts have an administrative center, the same locality for both the administrative and municipal entity. In modern Russia, division into administrative districts remained unchanged after the dissolution of the Soviet Union; the term "district" is used to refer to an administrative division of a federal subject or to a district of a big city. In two federal subjects, the terminology was changed to reflect national specifics: in the Sakha Republic, where they are known as ulus, in Tyva Republic, where they are known as kozhuun. Within the framework of administrative divisions, the administrative districts are on the same level of hierarchy as the cities of federal subject significance and may be further subdivided into towns of district significance, urban-type settlements of district significance, selsoviets, although the exact terms for these entities vary from one federal subject to another.
Within the framework of municipal divisions, the municipal districts are on the same level of hierarchy as urban okrugs and are further subdivided into urban settlements, rural settlements, or both. Municipal districts are formed within the boundaries of existing administrative districts, although in practice there are some exceptions to this rule. A municipal district is a type of municipal formation which comprises a group of urban and/or rural settlements, as well as inter-settlement territories, sharing a common territory; the concept of the municipal districts was introduced in the early 2000s and codified on the federal level during the 2004 municipal reform. Municipal districts are formed within the boundaries of existing administrative districts, although in practice there are some exceptions to this rule—Sortavalsky Municipal District in the Republic of Karelia, for example, is formed around the town of Sortavala, which neither has a status of nor is a part of any administrative district.
Many major cities in Russia are divided into city districts. Such city districts are considered to be administrative divisions of the city and prior to 2014 could not be a separate municipal formation. Examples of such city districts are Sovetsky City District in Nizhny Novgorod and Adlersky City District in Sochi; the Republic of Crimea is a federal subject of Russia formed on the territory of the Crimean Peninsula, disputed between Russia and Ukraine. Within the Russian legal framework, the districts of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea continue to be in use and are included in the tables below; the federal city of Sevastopol is located on the peninsula, with its districts having a status similar to that of the districts of Moscow and St. Petersburg. List of districts in Russia
A time zone is a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal and social purposes. Time zones tend to follow the boundaries of countries and their subdivisions because it is convenient for areas in close commercial or other communication to keep the same time. Most of the time zones on land are offset from Coordinated Universal Time by a whole number of hours, but a few zones are offset by 30 or 45 minutes; some higher latitude and temperate zone countries use daylight saving time for part of the year by adjusting local clock time by an hour. Many land time zones are skewed toward the west of the corresponding nautical time zones; this creates a permanent daylight saving time effect. Before clocks were first invented, it was common practice to mark the time of day with apparent solar time – for example, the time on a sundial –, different for every location and dependent on longitude; when well-regulated mechanical clocks became widespread in the early 19th century, each city began to use some local mean solar time.
Apparent and mean solar time can differ by up to around 15 minutes because of the elliptical shape of the Earth's orbit around the Sun and the tilt of the Earth's axis. Mean solar time has days of equal length, the difference between the two sums to zero after a year. Greenwich Mean Time was established in 1675, when the Royal Observatory was built, as an aid to mariners to determine longitude at sea, providing a standard reference time while each city in England kept a different local time. Local solar time became inconvenient as rail transport and telecommunications improved, because clocks differed between places by amounts corresponding to the differences in their geographical longitudes, which varied by four minutes of time for every degree of longitude. For example, Bristol is about 2.5 degrees west of Greenwich, so when it is solar noon in Bristol, it is about 10 minutes past solar noon in London. The use of time zones accumulates these differences into longer units hours, so that nearby places can share a common standard for timekeeping.
The first adoption of a standard time was on December 1, 1847, in Great Britain by railway companies using GMT kept by portable chronometers. The first of these companies to adopt standard time was the Great Western Railway in November 1840; this became known as Railway Time. About August 23, 1852, time signals were first transmitted by telegraph from the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. Though 98% of Great Britain's public clocks were using GMT by 1855, it was not made Britain's legal time until August 2, 1880; some British clocks from this period have two minute hands—one for the local time, one for GMT. Improvements in worldwide communication further increased the need for interacting parties to communicate mutually comprehensible time references to one another; the problem of differing local times could be solved across larger areas by synchronizing clocks worldwide, but in many places that adopted time would differ markedly from the solar time to which people were accustomed. On November 2, 1868, the British colony of New Zealand adopted a standard time to be observed throughout the colony, was the first country to do so.
It was based on the longitude 172°30′ East of Greenwich, 11 hours 30 minutes ahead of GMT. This standard was known as New Zealand Mean Time. Timekeeping on the American railroads in the mid-19th century was somewhat confused; each railroad used its own standard time based on the local time of its headquarters or most important terminus, the railroad's train schedules were published using its own time. Some junctions served by several railroads had a clock for each railroad, each showing a different time. Charles F. Dowd proposed a system of one-hour standard time zones for American railroads about 1863, although he published nothing on the matter at that time and did not consult railroad officials until 1869. In 1870 he proposed four ideal time zones, the first centered on Washington, D. C. but by 1872 the first was centered with geographic borders. Dowd's system was never accepted by American railroads. Instead, U. S. and Canadian railroads implemented a version proposed by William F. Allen, the editor of the Traveler's Official Railway Guide.
The borders of its time zones ran through railroad stations in major cities. For example, the border between its Eastern and Central time zones ran through Detroit, Pittsburgh and Charleston, it was inaugurated on Sunday, November 18, 1883 called "The Day of Two Noons", when each railroad station clock was reset as standard-time noon was reached within each time zone. The zones were named Intercolonial, Central and Pacific. Within a year 85% of all cities with populations over 10,000, about 200 cities, were using standard time. A notable exception was Detroit which kept local time until 1900 tried Central Standard Time, local mean time, Eastern Standard Time before a May 1915 ordinance settled on EST and was ratified by popular vote in August 1916; the confusion of times came to an end when Standard zone time was formally adopted by the U. S. Congress in the Standard Time Act of March 19, 1918; the first known person to conceive of a worldwide system of time zones was the Italian mathematician