Jarijari were a historically significant Indigenous Australian people whose traditional territory was located in the Mallee region of Victoria. The tribe were one of two tribes speaking the now extinct Keramin language, though there is confusion over names. Jarijari was the word for no. It was used to name the tribe because of the frequency of its use in the language. Tindale notes that the Jari Jari traditional lands were from Western bank of Murray River from above Chalka Creek to Annuello, south to Lake Korong and Pine Plains, northwest to near Redcliffs. Neighbouring tribes were the Wergaia language group tribes to the south, the Latjilatji to the west, accounts of the life of the Jari Jari people were some of the most early documented by explorers and early settlers of the Murray Darling basin. The Jarijari appear to have been in the Murray River valley for at least 40000years, major Thomas Mitchell passed through the tribes territory between June 2 and June 10,1836, during his Third Expedition.
He encountered the remains of a camp of up to 400 natives with temporary structures. In his journals he writes of having heard and being pursued by local natives, the Blandowski Expedition was one of the first documented European encounters with the people. Blandowski engaged the people to document local species and included in his journals the used by the people for two local species of fish - the Murray cod and Trout cod, “Yaturr” and “Barnta”. Blandowski described the Yarree as his good friends, notably one of William Blandowskis 1857 illustrations depicted traditional Jari Jari recreation. Blandowski and Peter Beveridge, in his 1889 account The Aborigines of Victoria, a local Mildura newspaper reports that the last of the tribe, John Mack, died in June,1918
Prior to European settlement, they lived as all people of the Kulin nation lived, on the land, predominantly as hunters and gatherers, for tens of thousands of years. Seasonal changes in the weather, availability of foods and other factors would determine where campsites were located, many near the Birrarung, Wurundjeri people spoke the Woiwurrung language. Wurundjeri refers to the people who occupy one tribal territory, while Woiwurrung refers to the group shared by the other tribal territory groups. Some tribes in this territory are Gunung william Balluk, Kurung Jang Balluk, Marin Balluk, the Woi Wurrung peoples territory extended from north of the Great Dividing Range, east to Mount Baw Baw, south to Mordialloc Creek and west to Werribee River. Their lands bordered the Gunai/Kurnai people to the east in Gippsland, the Bunurong people to the south on the Mornington Peninsula, Wurundjeri people take their name from the word wurun meaning Manna Gum which is common along Birrarung, and djeri, a grub found in the tree.
The Wurundjeri Tribe Land and Compensation Cultural Heritage Council was established in 1985 by descendants of the Wurundjeri people, the Wurundjeri have lived in the Woi Wurrung area for up to 40,000 years, according to Gary Presland. At the Keilor Archaeological Site a human hearth excavated in 1971 was radiocarbon-dated to about 31,000 years BP, a cranium found at the site has been dated at between 12,000 and 14,700 years BP. Tasmania and the Bass Strait islands became separated from mainland Australia around 12,000 BP, port Phillip was flooded by post-glacial rising sea levels between 8,000 and 6,000 years ago. Oral history and creation stories from the Wada wurrung, hobsons Bay was once a kangaroo hunting ground. Creation stories describe how Bunjil was responsible for the formation of the bay, the mine provided a complex network of trading for economic and social exchange among the different Aboriginal nations in Victoria. The Quarry had been in use for more than 1,500 years, in February 2008 the site was placed on the Australian National Heritage List for its cultural importance and archeological value.
William Buckley, a convict, escaped from this abortive settlement and this would have impacted the economic and social ties binding the Woi Wurrung and Bunwurrung peoples. Broome puts forward that two epidemics of smallpox decimated the population of the Kulin tribes by perhaps killing half each time in the 1790s, any plague is supposed to be brought on by the Mindye or some of its little ones. On 6 June 1835 John Batman met with eight elders of the Woi Wurrung people including Bebejan and Billibellary, the meeting took place on the bank of a small stream, likely to be the Merri Creek and treaty documents were signed along with exchanges of goods by both sides. The total value of the goods has been estimated at about GBP100 in the value of the day, in return the Woiwurrung offered woven baskets of examples of their weaponry and two Possum-skin cloaks, a highly treasured item. After the treaty signing, a celebration took place with the Parramatta Aborigines with Batmans party dancing a corroboree, the treaty was significant as it was the first and only documented time when European settlers negotiated their presence and occupation of Aboriginal lands.
The Treaty was immediately repudiated by the government in Sydney. Derrimut, an arweet of the Bunurong informed the early European settlers in October 1835 of an attack by up-country people
The territory was bordered by the Djab wurrung and Wada wurrung in the north, the Dhauwurd wurrung in the west, and the Djargurd Wurrung and Gadubanud in the east. The Framlingham Aboriginal Reserve was established in Girai wurrung territory bordering the Gunditjmara people, the Girai wurrung people had 21 clans with a patriarchal hierarchy and a matrilineally based descent system based on the Gabadj and Guragidj moieties. The clans gathered with the Djab wurrung, Dhauwurd wurrung and Wada wurrung peoples to harvest eels at Lake Bolac and they met at Mirraewuae swamp near Hexham to hunt emus and other game and to conduct business. European settlement of the began in 1838 and in the early 1840s the Girai wurrung engaged in a sustained guerilla war with the encroaching pastoralists. Dispossession from their land led to starvation and the theft of sheep resulted in murderous reprisals, assistant Aboriginal Protector Charles Sievwright was successful in bringing charges against G. S. This decision was made despite the nature of the squatters licence by the Government to allow for Aboriginal access for hunting.
Gunditjmara from Portland and Lake Condah refused to settle at Framlingham, historian Ian Clark asserts that from 1868 the history of the Girai wurrung becomes the history of Framlingham
Natural History Museum, London
The Natural History Museum in London is a museum of natural history that exhibits a vast range of specimens from various segments of natural history. It is one of three major museums on Exhibition Road in South Kensington, the others being the Science Museum, the Natural History Museums main frontage, however, is on Cromwell Road. The museum is home to life and earth science specimens comprising some 80 million items within five main collections, the museum is a world-renowned centre of research specialising in taxonomy and conservation. Given the age of the institution, many of the collections have great historical as well as scientific value, the museum is recognised as the pre-eminent centre of natural history and research of related fields in the world. Although commonly referred to as the Natural History Museum, it was known as British Museum until 1992. Originating from collections within the British Museum, the landmark Alfred Waterhouse building was built and opened by 1881, the Darwin Centre is a more recent addition, partly designed as a modern facility for storing the valuable collections.
Like other publicly funded museums in the United Kingdom, the Natural History Museum does not charge an admission fee. The museum is a charity and a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media. Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge is a patron of the museum, there are approximately 850 staff at the Museum. The two largest strategic groups are the Public Engagement Group and Science Group and this purchase was funded by a lottery. Sloanes collection, which included dried plants, and animal and human skeletons, was housed in Montagu House, Bloomsbury, in 1756. Most of the Sloane collection had disappeared by the decades of the nineteenth century. Dr George Shaw sold many specimens to the Royal College of Surgeons and had periodic cremations of material in the grounds of the museum and his successors applied to the trustees for permission to destroy decayed specimens. In 1833 the Annual Report states that, of the 5,500 insects listed in the Sloane catalogue, the inability of the natural history departments to conserve its specimens became notorious, the Treasury refused to entrust it with specimens collected at the governments expense.
The huge collection of the conchologist Hugh Cuming was acquired by the museum and that collection is said never to have recovered. The Principal Librarian at the time was Antonio Panizzi, his contempt for the history departments. The general public was not encouraged to visit the Museums natural history exhibits, in 1835 to a Select Committee of Parliament, Sir Henry Ellis said this policy was fully approved by the Principal Librarian and his senior colleagues. Many of these faults were corrected by the palaeontologist Richard Owen and his changes led Bill Bryson to write that by making the Natural History Museum an institution for everyone, Owen transformed our expectations of what museums are for
Wergaia or Werrigia is an indigenous Australian language group in the Wimmera region of north-Western Victoria. Twenty clans made up the Wergaia language, which consisted of four dialects, Wudjubalug/Wotjobaluk. The various groups within the Wergaia speak dialects of Wemba-Wemba, a member of the Kulinic branch of Pama–Nyungan, stately trees and majestic mountains adorned the ever-varying scenery of this region, the most southern of all Australia and the best. It was he added, a sheet for future development. For the natives, it was rich in kumpung, the bulrush whose rhizomes formed the staple of their diet, as well as in lahoor, the water lily. Rivers were trawled for freshwater mussels and crayfish, bushland was carefully kept in order by selected firing. Around February and March, a Festival of Laap attracted many tribes to congregate in order to socialize, settle disputes and enjoy a sweet potion, called laap. Laap was harvested over a period of 6 to eight weeks and it was confected from the sugary excretions of a species of psylla deposited on the leaves of the walkerie mallee gumtree.
The aboriginal people of this go back at least 1,600 generations. There is evidence of occupation in Gariwerd going back to 30-20,000 years ago, predating the end of the last ice age. As the earlier warm, rainy era of the Holocene changed, the Maligundidj people were divided into 20 clans each with their particular territory. The first question they would ask an outsider was, ngaia yauarin, meaning what was your place within the system of moieties and totemic skin relations that governed aboriginal identity. They were a society divided into two moieties and grugidj ), with the moiety to which one belonged called a mir. Intermarriage occurred often with the Jardwadjali and Dja Dja Wurrung clans, and meetings and ceremonies were attended with the Dadidadi, stanbridges exposition showed that the Wergaia connected the rising and setting of particular stars with seasonal events and dreamtime mythology. A few examples illustrate the intimate correlation they established between the movements of bodies and the cycles of natural phenomena in their native habitat.
The northern rise of Arcturus, known as Marpeankuurk signaled that it was time to harvest the larvae of a species of Carpenter ant, when Vega sets just after duskfall, it indicated that malleefowl eggs were ready to be collected. When the Beehive Cluster in the constellation of Cancer set, it marked the onset of autumn, pupperimbul hurled an emu egg into the firmament, whereupon it burst and shed light over the sky. The celestial pattern of the near stars reflected kinship patterns, Gnowees sister was Venus and it killed large numbers of people, and disfigured many more with pock-marked faces, and tribal elders said it came down the Murray River sent by malevolent sorcerers to the north
The Yorta Yorta comprises a number of separate family groups, which include the Bangerang, Wollithiga, Ulupna, Kwat Kwat, Yalaba Yalaba, and Ngurai-illiam-wurrung. Their language is the Yorta Yorta language, the Appeal was dismissed in a majority 2 to 1 decision. The case was taken on appeal to the High Court of Australia, ultimate decision making responsibility was retained by the Environment Minister Adam Briggs, hip-hop artist. William Cooper, helped establish the Australian Aborigines League in 1935 and he led the first Aboriginal deputation to a Commonwealth minister, and another to protest the treatment of German Jews in 1938. His daughter, Amy Charles, was the matron of the first Aboriginal hostel established in Melbourne, in August 2010, the Yad VaShem Holocaust museum in Israel announced they would honor William for his protests on behalf of Jews after Kristallnacht. Yad Vashem plans to endow a small garden at its entrance in Coopers honor, Jimmy Little was a musician whose career has spanned over six decades.
His was the first song written and recorded by indigenous Australians in 1958 and he was the first indigenous Australian entertainer to appear on television, Jimmy Little in 1999, ARIA inducted Little into its Hall of Fame. In 1935, he became the first indigenous Australian to be selected in the Victorian interstate Australian rules team, Burnum Burnum was an activist and author. Eric Onus played a role both politically and socially among Victorian aboriginal people. He was a member of the Australian Aboriginal League established by William Cooper in the mid-1930s. William Townsend Onus, known as Bill Onus, was an Aboriginal Australian political activist, William McLintock Onus Jr was born Lin Burralung McLintock Onus, his father was a political activist and businessman, Bill Onus. Onus was a largely self-taught urban artist who began as a mechanic before making artifacts for the tourist market with his fathers business. John Thomas Patten, known as Jack Patten, was a boxer, civil rights activist, war veteran.
John Trevor Patten, Australian bantamweight boxing champion between 1958 and 1962, wes Patten, television host, and former NRL player with the South Sydney Rabbitohs, St. George Dragons, Balmain Tigers and Gold Coast Chargers. Roles in television and film include playing opposite Cate Blanchett in Heartland, other roles include stints on A Country Practice, Wills & Burke, and G. P. She was a musician who sung at social occasions raising funds for war efforts, David Wirrpanda, former AFL player with the West Coast Eagles, known for his community work in helping to improve the lives of young indigenous Australians. The David Wirrpanda Foundation was launched in 2005 and he was named the 9th most influential Aboriginal Australian by The Bulletin magazine on 30 November 2007. Margaret Wirrpanda, an activist, niece of Margaret Tucker, mother to David Wirrpanda, andrew Walker, a current AFL player with the Carlton Football Club
They were part of the Kulin alliance of tribes. There were 16 clans, which adhered to a patrilineal system, like the other Kulin peoples there were two moieties, Bunjil the eagle and Waa the crow. The Dja Dja Wurrung were bound to their land by their belief system deriving from the Dreaming, when mythic beings had created the world. They were part of established trade networks which allowed goods and information to flow over substantial distances, the Tachylite deposits near Spring Hill and the Coliban River may have been important trade goods as stone artefacts from this material have been found around Victoria. There is evidence that smallpox swept through the Dja Dja Wurrung in 1789 and 1825, the epidemics were incorporated into aboriginal mythology as a giant snake, the Mindye, sent by Bunjil, to blow magic dust over people to punish them for being bad. The trade networks would have carried news of the white men settling on the Eora land in the early 1790s. Thomas Mitchell was probably the first white man to be seen in Dja Dja Wurrung country when he explored and surveyed central Victoria in 1836, the settlement of the Goulburn and Loddon Districts began the following year by squatters eager to carve out a station and run.
On 7 February 1841 Munangabum was shot and wounded by settlers while his companion Gondiurmin died at Far Creek Station, three settlers were apprehended and tried on 18 May 1841 but were acquitted for want of evidence as aborigines could not give evidence in courts of law. He was murdered in 1846 by a rival clan-head from the south, an important source of frontier conflict was sexual relations between European settlers and aboriginal women. Abduction and rape of women was relatively common, often leading to violent interactions. Parker expressed in 1842 the firm conviction and that nine out of ten outrages committed by the blacks derived either directly or indirectly from sexual relations. The Dja Dja wurrung peoples experienced two waves of settlement and dispossession, from the south from 1837 and from the north from 1845, very few of these reports were acted upon to bring the settlers to court. On the few occasions when this did happen, the cases were dismissed as aborigines were denied the right to give evidence in courts of law.
The incidents listed below are just the cases that have been reported and he arrived in Melbourne in January 1839 with Robinson appointing Parker to the northwest or Loddon District in March. He did not start his protectorate until September 1839, the Protectors duties included to safeguard aborigines from encroachments on their property, and from acts of cruelty, of oppression or injustice and a longer term goal of civilising the natives. Parker initially established his base at Jacksons Creek near Sunbury, which was not close enough to the nations of his protectorate. The Governor of NSW, Sir George Gipps and stations or reserves for each protector were approved in 1840. Parkers original choice for a reserve in September 1840 was a site, known as Neereman by the Dja Dja Wurrung, on Bet Bet Creek a tributary of the Loddon River
The Jardwadjali people are Indigenous Australians who occupy the lands in the upper Wimmera River watershed east to Gariwerd and west to Lake Bringalbert. The towns of Horsham, Coleraine, Minyip, there were 37 Jardwadjali clans who formed an alliance with the neighboring Djab wurrung people through intermarriage, shared culture and moiety system. The Jardwadjali language shares 90 percent common vocabulary with Djab wurrung, sub-dialects include Jagwadjali and Nundadjali. The Jardwadjali people have lived in the area for up to 30,000 to 40,000 years, one site in the Victoria Range has been dated from 22,000 years ago. In 1836 the squatter Edward Henty was exploring Jardwadjali land from the south, a further wave of European occupation occurred from the north in 1840 with Lieutenant Robert Briggs squatting near Lake Lonsdale. The Jardwadjali called these mountains Gariwerd with Gar meaning ‘pointed mountain’, i meaning ‘the’, Jardwadjali people formed the nucleus of the Australian Aboriginal cricket team in England in 1868, although efforts were made by the Central Board for the Protection of Aborigines to stop the tour.
The team played 47 matches, winning 14, losing 14, settlement was marked by resistance to the invasion often by driving off or stealing sheep which resulted in conflict and sometimes a massacre of aboriginal people. Very few of these reports were acted upon to bring the settlers to court, after the massacre at Fighting Hills, John Whyte travelled to Melbourne to inform Governor La Trobe in person of the massacre. The depositions of the Aboriginal Protector Charles Sievwright who had investigated the massacre were disallowed. At the time aborigines were denied the right to give evidence in courts of law, the incidents listed below are just the cases that have been reported, it is likely other incidents occurred that were never reported and not documented officially. There was much opposition to this proposal by European descendants, the Brambuk centre, representing five aboriginal communities, advocated a dual name for the main area, Gariwerd/Grampians. The indigenous peoples of the Wimmera won native title recognition on 13 December 2005 after a legal process.
It was the first successful native title claim in south-eastern Australia and in Victoria, determined by Justice Ron Merkel involving Wotjobaluk, Jardwadjali, unamurriman, better known in cricket circles as Johnny Mullagh was born around 1843
Radiocarbon dating is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon. The method was developed by Willard Libby in the late 1940s, Libby received the Nobel Prize for his work in 1960. The radiocarbon dating method is based on the fact that radiocarbon is constantly being created in the atmosphere by the interaction of cosmic rays with atmospheric nitrogen. The resulting radiocarbon combines with oxygen to form radioactive carbon dioxide. When the animal or plant dies, it stops exchanging carbon with its environment, and from that point onwards the amount of 14C it contains begins to decrease as the 14C undergoes radioactive decay. Measuring the amount of 14C in a sample from a plant or animal such as a piece of wood or a fragment of bone provides information that can be used to calculate when the animal or plant died. The idea behind radiocarbon dating is straightforward, but years of work were required to develop the technique to the point where accurate dates could be obtained.
Research has been ongoing since the 1960s to determine what the proportion of 14C in the atmosphere has been over the past fifty thousand years. The resulting data, in the form of a curve, is now used to convert a given measurement of radiocarbon in a sample into an estimate of the samples calendar age. Other corrections must be made to account for the proportion of 14C in different types of organisms, additional complications come from the burning of fossil fuels such as coal and oil, and from the above-ground nuclear tests done in the 1950s and 1960s. Conversely, nuclear testing increased the amount of 14C in the atmosphere, measurement of radiocarbon was originally done by beta-counting devices, which counted the amount of beta radiation emitted by decaying 14C atoms in a sample. The development of dating has had a profound impact on archaeology. In addition to permitting more accurate dating within archaeological sites than previous methods, histories of archaeology often refer to its impact as the radiocarbon revolution.
Radiocarbon dating has allowed key transitions in prehistory to be dated, such as the end of the last ice age, and they synthesized 14C using the laboratorys cyclotron accelerator and soon discovered that the atoms half-life was far longer than had been previously thought. This was followed by a prediction by Serge A. Korff, employed at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia and it had previously been thought that 14C would be more likely to be created by deuterons interacting with 13C. At some time during World War II, Willard Libby, who was at Berkeley, learned of Korffs research, in 1945, Libby moved to the University of Chicago where he began his work on radiocarbon dating. He published a paper in 1946 in which he proposed that the carbon in living matter might include 14C as well as non-radioactive carbon, by contrast, methane created from petroleum showed no radiocarbon activity because of its age. The results were summarized in a paper in Science in 1947, Libby and James Arnold proceeded to test the radiocarbon dating theory by analyzing samples with known ages
Multiregional origin of modern humans
Multiregional evolution holds that the human species first arose around two million years ago and subsequent human evolution has been within a single, continuous human species. This species encompasses all archaic human forms such as H. erectus and Neanderthals as well as modern forms, proponents of multiregionalism point to fossil and genomic data and continuity of archaeological cultures as support for their hypothesis. The multiregional hypothesis was first proposed in 1984, and revised in 2003, in its revised form, it is similar to the Assimilation Model. The Multiregional hypothesis was proposed in 1984 by Milford H. Wolpoff, Alan Thorne and we believe it comes from the confusion of Weidenreichs ideas, and ultimately of our own, with Coons. Through the influence of Howells, many anthropologists and biologists have confused multiregionalism with polygenism i. e. separate or multiple origins for different populations. Despite this, multiregionalism is still confused with polygenism, or Coons model of origins, from which Wolpoff.
Wolpoff has defended Wiedenreichs Polycentric hypothesis from being labeled polyphyletic, weidenreich himself in 1949 wrote, I may run the risk of being misunderstood, namely that I believe in polyphyletic evolution of man. In 1998, Wu founded a China-specific Multiregional model called Continuity with Hybridization, Wus variant only applies the Multiregional hypothesis to the East Asian fossil record which is popular among Chinese scientists. However, James Leibold a political historian of modern China has argued the support for Wus model is rooted in Chinese nationalism. Outside of China, the Multiregional hypothesis has limited support, held only by a number of paleoanthropologists. Stringer distinguishes the original or classic Multiregional model as having existed from 1984 until 2003, in general, three major regions are recognized, Europe and Indonesia. According to Wolpoff and Thorne, We do not regard a morphological clade as a unique lineage, combinations of features are unique in the sense of being found in only one region, or more weakly limited to one region at high frequency.
Wolpoff stresses that regional continuity works in conjunction with genetic exchanges between populations, for example, in 2001 Wolpoff and colleagues published an analysis of character traits of the skulls of early modern human fossils in Australia and central Europe. Thorne held that there was continuity in Indonesia and Australia for a morphological clade. This sequence is said to consist of the earliest fossils from Sangiran, Java, in 1991, Andrew Kramer tested 17 proposed morphological clade features. Dr. Phillip Habgood discovered that the said to be unique to the Australasian region by Thorne are plesiomorphic. it is evident that all of the characters proposed. To be clade features linking Indonesian Homo erectus material with Australian Aboriginal crania are retained primitive features present on Homo erectus and this combination, Habgood says, has a certain Australianness about it. Baba et al. who newly restored the face of Sangiran 17 concluded, regional continuity in Australasia is far less evident than Thorne, Xinzhi Wu has argued for a morphological clade in China spanning the Pleistocene, characterized by a combination of 10 features