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The Tongva are Native Americans who inhabited the Los Angeles Basin and the Southern Channel Islands, an area covering 4,000 square miles. The Tongva are known as the Gabrieleño and Fernandeño, names derived from the Spanish missions built on their territory: Mission San Gabriel Arcángel and Mission San Fernando Rey de España. Along with the neighboring Chumash, the Tongva were the most powerful indigenous people to inhabit Southern California. At the time of European contact, they may have numbered 5,000 to 10,000. Many lines of evidence suggest that the Tongva are descended of Uto-Aztecan-speaking peoples from Nevada who moved southwest into coastal Southern California 3,500 years ago; these migrants either pushed out the Hokan-speaking peoples in the region. By 500 AD, the Tongva had come to occupy all the lands now associated with them. A hunter-gatherer society, the Tongva traded with neighboring peoples. Over time, scattered communities came to speak distinct dialects of the Tongva language, part of the Takic subgroup of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
There may have been five or more such dialects. The Tongva language became extinct in the twentieth century, but a reconstructed form continues to be spoken today. Initial Spanish exploration of the Los Angeles area occurred in 1542, but sustained contact with the Tongva came only after Mission San Gabriel Arcángel was constructed in 1771; this marked the beginning of an era of forced relocation and exposure to Old World diseases, leading to the rapid collapse of the Tongva population. At times the Tongva violently resisted Spanish rule, such as the 1785 rebellion led by the female chief Toypurina. In 1821, Mexico gained its independence from Spain and the government sold mission lands to ranchers, forcing the Tongva to culturally assimilate. Three decades California was ceded to the United States following the Mexican–American War; the US government signed treaties with the Tongva, promising 8.5 million acres of land for reservations, but these treaties were never ratified. By the turn of the 20th century, the Island Tongva had disappeared and the mainland communities were nearing extinction.
The endonym Tongva was recorded by American ethnographer C. Hart Merriam in 1903 and has been adopted by scholars and descendants, although some prefer the endonym Kizh. Since 2006, there have been four organizations claiming to represent the Tongva Nation: the Gabrielino-Tongva Tribe, known as the "hyphen" group from the hyphen in their name. Two of the groups are the result of a hostile split over the question of building an Indian casino. In 1994, the state of California recognized the Tongva "as the aboriginal tribe of the Los Angeles Basin," but no group representing the Tongva has attained recognition by the federal government. In 2008, more than 1,700 people claimed partial ancestry; the first record of an endonym for the Tongva people was Kizh, from 1846. Although subsequent authors equated this with the word for "house", Hale gives the word for house as kītç in a list where the language was called "Kīj", suggesting that the words were distinct; the term Kizh was used at that time to designate the language, the first comprehensive publication on the language used it.
In 1875, Yarrow indicated. He reported that the natives called themselves Tobikhar, meaning "settlers", spoke exclusively Spanish. In 1885, Hoffman referred to the natives as Tobikhar; the word Tongva was recorded by Merriam in 1903 from a single informant. Merriam could not pronounce the village name Toviscangna He ( abbreviated or spelled it Tong-vā; the name Tongva has become preferred as a self-designation since the 1990s, although either "Gabrieleño" or "Gabrielino" is part of every official name. The territory which in historical times was occupied by the kizh People of the willow houses had been inhabited for more than 10,000 years. A prehistoric milling area estimated to be 8,000 years old was discovered in 2006 at the base of the San Gabriel Mountains near Azusa, California; the find yielded arrowheads and stone slabs used to grind seeds as well as tools and implements, but no human or animal bones. The Chowigna site in Palos Verdes, excavated in the 1930s, dates back 7,100 years or more.
In 2007 and early 2008, over 174 ancient American Indian remains were unearthed by archaeologists at a development site of Brightwater Hearthside Homes in the Bolsa Chica Mesa area in Huntington Beach, California. This land was once shared by the Acjachemem tribes; the site was in legal limbo for years before Hearthside was given permission to start construction of over 300 homes. The Tongva and Acjachemem Indians are in dispute over the remains; as speakers of a language of the Uto-Aztecan family, the remote ancestors of the Tongva coalesced as a people in the Sonoran Desert, between 3,000 and 5,000 years ago. This was a center of that language family; the diversity within the Takic group is "moderately deep". The division of the Tongva-Serrano group into the separate Tongva and Serrano peoples is more recent, may have been influenced by
The Maidu are a Native American people of northern California. They reside in the watershed area of the Feather and American rivers, they reside in Humbug Valley. In Maiduan languages, Maidu means "man." The Maidu people are geographically dispersed into many subgroups or bands, who live and identify with separate valleys and mountains in Northeastern Central California. There are three subcategories of Maidu: The Nisenan or Southern Maidu occupied the whole of the American and Yuba River drainages, they live in lands that were home to the Martis. The Northeastern or Mountain Maidu known as Yamani Maidu, lived on the upper North and Middle forks of the Feather River; the Konkow came out of a valley between Cherokee, Pulga, along the north fork of the Feather River and its tributaries. The Mechupda live in the area of California. Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. Alfred L. Kroeber estimated the 1770 population of the Maidu as 9,000.
Sherburne F. Cook raised this figure to 9,500. Kroeber reported the population of the Maidu in 1910 as 1,100; the 1930 census counted 93, following decimation by social disruption. As of 1995, the Maidu population had recovered to an estimated 3,500; the Maidu were gatherers. The Maidu women were exemplary basket weavers, weaving detailed and useful baskets in sizes ranging from thimble-sized to huge ones ten or more feet in diameter; the weaving on some of these baskets is so fine that a magnifying glass is needed to see the strands. In addition to making woven, watertight baskets for cooking, they made large storage baskets, shallow trays, cradles and seed beaters. To make these baskets, they used dozens of different kinds of wild plant stems, barks and leaves; some of the more common were fern roots, red bark of the redbud, white willow twigs and tule roots, hazel twigs, yucca leaves, brown marsh grass roots and sedge roots. By combining these different kinds of plants, the women made geometric designs on their baskets in red, white, brown or tan.
Maidu elder Marie Potts explains, "The coiled and twining systems were both used, the products were sometimes handsomely decorated according to the inventiveness and skill of the weaver and the materials available, such as feathers of brightly plumaged birds, quills, seeds or beads- anything that could be attached." Like many other California tribes, the Maidu were hunters and gatherers and did not farm. They practiced grooming of their gathering grounds, with fire as a primary tool for this purpose, they tended local groves of oak trees to maximize production of acorns, which were their principal dietary staple after being processed and prepared. According to Maidu elder Marie Potts: Preparing acorns as food was a long and tedious process, undertaken by the women and children; the acorns had to be shelled and ground into meal. This was done by pounding them with a pestle on a hard surface a hollowed-out stone; the tannic acid in the acorns was leached out by spreading the meal smoothly on a bed of pine needles laid over sand.
Cedar or fir boughs were placed across the meal and warm water was poured all over, a process which took several hours, with the boughs distributing the water evenly and flavoring the meal. The Maidu used the abundance of acorns to store large quantities for harder times. Above-ground acorn granaries were created by the weavers. Besides acorns, which provided dietary starch and fat, the Maidu supplemented their acorn diet with edible roots or tubers, other plants and tubers; the women and children collected seeds from the many flowering plants, corms from wild flowers were gathered and processed as part of their diet. The men hunted deer, elk and smaller game, within a spiritual system that respected the animals; the men captured fish from rivers, as they were a prime source of protein. Salmon were collected. Higher in the hills and the mountains, the Maidu built their dwellings semi-underground, to gain protection from the cold; these houses were sizable, circular structures twelve to 18 feet in diameter, with floors dug as much as three feet below ground level.
Once the floor of the house was dug, a pole framework was built. It was covered by pine bark slabs. A sturdy layer of earth was placed along the base of the structure. A central fire was prepared in the house at ground level, it had a stone-lined bedrock mortar to hold heat for food preparation. For summer dwelling, a different structure was built from cut branches tied together and fastened to sapling posts covered with brush and dirt; the summer shelters were built with the principal opening facing east to catch the rising sun, to avoid the heat of afternoon sun. Maidu lived in small bands with no centralized political organization. Leaders were selected from the pool of men who headed the local Kuksu cult, they did not exercise day-to-day authority, but were responsible for settling internal disputes, negotiating over matters arising between villages. The primary religious tradition was known as the Kuksu cult; this central California religious system was based on a male secret society. It was characterized by "big head" dances.
The Shastan peoples are a group of linguistically related indigenous from the Klamath Mountains. They traditionally inhabited portions of several regional waterways, including the Klamath, Sacramento and McCloud rivers. Shastan lands presently form portions of the Siskiyou and Jackson counties. Scholars have divided the Shastan peoples into four languages, although arguments in favor of more or less existing have been made. Speakers of Shasta proper, Konomihu and New River Shasta resided in settlements near a water source, their villages had only either one or two families. Larger villages had additional buildings utilised by the community; the California Gold Rush drew in an influx of outsiders into California in the late 1840s eager to gain mineral wealth. For the Shasta, this was a devastating process as their lands soon had thousands of miners operating along various waterways. Conflicts arose as the outsiders didn't respect their homeland. Introduction to new diseases and fighting against invading Americans reduced the number of Shasta.
The Shasta residents of Bear Creek were active in Rogue River Wars and assisted the Takelma until they were forcibly removed to the Grande Ronde and Siletz Reservations in Oregon. In the late 1850s the Shastan peoples of California were forcibly removed from their territories and sent to the same two distant reservations. By the early years of the 20th century only 100 Shasta individual existed; some Shasta descendants still reside at the Grand Ronde and Siletz Reservations, while others are in Siskiyou county at the Quartz Valley Indian Reservation or Yreka. Many former members of the Shasta tribe have been inducted into the Karuk and Alturas tribes. Prior to contact with European descendants the term Shasta wasn't used by the Shastan peoples themselves. Among the Shasta proper they called themselves "Kahosadi" or "plain speakers". Variations of Shasta used by whites include Chasta, Tsashtl and Saste. Dixon noted that the Shastan peoples didn't use "Shasta" as a place name and wasn't a word at all in their languages.
In interviews with Shasta informants Dixon was informed of a prominent man of Scott Valley that lived up until the 1850s with the name of Susti or Sustika. This was the probable origin of the term according to Dixon, an interpretation that Kroeber agreed with. Merriam reviewed information from Albert Samuel Gatschet and fur trader Peter Skene Ogden, concluding that while the Shastan peoples didn't refer to themselves as Shasta traditionally. Scholars have accepted Dixon's etymology for Shasta. Renfro questions its validity however as Ogden used a variation of the term before Sustika was prominent. In 1814, near the Willamette Trading Post a meeting occurred between North West Company officer Alexander Henry and an assembled Sahaptin congregation of Cayuse and Walla Walla, in addition to a third group of people, named Shatasla. Maloney argued. Something Garth conjectured as well; this interpretation has been contested by other scholars based on linguistic and historical evidence. Previous to Maloney's assertion, Frederick Hodge in 1910 noted the word Shatalsa as being related to word Sahaptin.
This older etymology was defended by Stern against Maloney's interpretation, in addition to being accepted by Clark as well. The Shasta were the numerically largest of the Shastan speakers, their territories spread from around modern Ashland in the north, Jenny Creek and Mt. Shasta to the east, southward to the Scott Mountains, westward to modern Seiad Valley and the Salmon and Marble Mountains; this area had four important waterways. These were the Klamath River and two of its tributaries, the Shasta River and Scott River, along with the Bear Creek in the Rogue Valley. Four bands of Shasta existed with variations in custom and differing dialects; each band had names derived from nearby waterways. In this way people from Shasta River or Ahotidae were the "Ahotireitsu", those from the Upper Rogue Valley or Ikiruk were the "Ikirukatsu", inhabitants of Scott River or Iraui were the "Irauitsu". Shasta families located directly along the Klamath River were referred to by the Ikirukatsu as "Wasudigwatsu" after their particular words for the Klamath River and gulch.
The Irauistu knew them as "Wiruwhikwatsu" and the Ahotireitsu called them "Wiruwhitsu", terms derived from "down river" and "up river" respectively. Shasta settlements only contained a single family. In larger villages headmen held sway; the responsibilities of this position were varied. They were expected "to exhort the people to live in peace, do good, have kind hearts, be industrious." A common requirement to hold the position was. This came from the expectation for them to use their property in negotiations to settles disputes between members of their village or with other settlements. In raids on enemies the headman did not participate but negotiated with enemy headmen to establish peaceable relations; each of the four Shasta bands had individual headmen as well. While only the Ikirukatsu were reported to have had hereditary succession to the position it is thought the other three bands had some form hereditarian succession as well. While each of the four band headmen were considered equal, in trying disputes the Ikirukatsu headman would negotiate an end to the issue.
Three related groups of Shastan speakers resided adjacent to the Shasta proper. These were the Okwanuchu of the upper Sacramento and McCloud rivers, the Salmon River based Konomihu and New River Shasta. There is little recorded informat
Hupa are a Native American people of the Athabaskan-speaking ethnolinguistic group in northwestern California. Their endonym is Natinixwe spelled Natinook-wa, meaning "People of the Place Where the Trails Return"; the majority of the tribe is enrolled in the Federally recognized Hoopa Valley Tribe. The Hupa people migrated from the north into northern California around 1000 CE and settled in Hoopa Valley, California, their heritage language is Hupa, a member of the Athabaskan language family. Their land stretched from the South Fork of the Trinity River to Hoopa Valley, to the Klamath River in California, their red cedar-planked houses, dugout canoes, basket hats, many elements of their oral literature identify them with their northern origin. Hupa people had limited contact with non-native peoples until the 1849 Gold Rush brought an influx of miners onto their lands. In 1864, the United States government signed a treaty that recognized the Hupa tribe's sovereignty to their land; the United States called the reservation the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation, where the Hupa now reside, one of few California tribes not forced from their homeland.
The reservation is next to the territory of the Yurok at the connection of the Klamath and Trinity Rivers in northeastern Humboldt County. The reservation has a land area of 141.087 square miles. Hupa people have traditionally excelled at basketry, elk horn carving, since the 17th century, petroglyphs; the Hupa use the acorns of Notholithocarpus densiflorus to make meal, from which they would make mush, biscuits and cakes. They roast the acorns and eat them, they use the dyed fronds of Woodwardia radicans for basketry. They use Xerophyllum tenax to create a border pattern in baskets; the Hupa, like many tribes in the area, fish for salmon in the Trinity rivers. One of the methods they once used to capture fish was the fish weir, which tribal members would maintain; the Hupa share many of their fishing practices with the neighboring Yurok Tribe. Hupa tribal fishers and their families rely on the Fall Chinook Salmon runs. Acorns, once abundant, were a main staple; because the Hupa were not located as close to the sea as their neighboring Yurok Tribe, they traded supplies with them, such as salt in exchange for baskets, or acorns for canoes.
The Hupa are involved in the talks to remove hydroelectric dams along the Klamath and Trinity rivers, were a party to a lawsuit against the Bureau of Reclamation and the National Marine Fisheries Service. On February 8, 2017 the federal district court judge ruled in favor of the Hoopa Valley Tribe, the three other Klamath River fishing tribes, other stakeholders; the judge agreed to plans designed by the Tribes' scientists to reduce outbreaks of a deadly fish disease that had infected 90% of juvenile salmon in 2014 and 2015. Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. Alfred L. Kroeber thought that the 1770 population of the Hupa was 1,000 and that the Chilula and Whilkut accounted for another 1,000. Kroeber estimated the population of the Hupa in 1910 as 500. In 1943, Sherburne F. Cook proposed an aboriginal population of 1,000 for the Hupa and 600 for the Chilula, he subsequently suggested a population for the Hupa alone of 2,900.
William J. Wallace felt that the latter estimate was "much too high", allowed 1,000 for the Hupa, 500–600 for the Chilula, 500 for the Whilkut; the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has a resident population of 2,633 persons according to the 2000 census. Hoopa, California—the name for the town in the Hupa Valley; the name was changed at various times related to the post office. Cook, Sherburne F.. The Aboriginal Population of the North Coast of California. Anthropological Records. 16. Berkeley, California: University of California, Berkeley. Pp. 81–130. Cook, Sherburne F.. The Conflict between the California Indian and White Civilization. Berkeley: University of California Press. Goddard, Pliny Earle. Life and Culture of the Hupa. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology. 1. The University Press. Pp. 1–88. Retrieved 24 August 2012. Kroeber, A. L.. Handbook of the Indians of California. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin. Washington, D. C. Merriam, C. Hart. Ethnographic Notes on California Indian Tribes.
Berkeley, California: University of California Archaeological Research Facility. P. 200. Murphey, Edith Van Allen. Indian Uses of Native Plants. Glenwood, Illinois: Meyerbooks. Pritzker, Barry M.. A Native American Encyclopedia: History and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. Wallace, William J.. Heizer, Robert F.. Hupa and Whilkut. In California. Handbook of North American Indians. 8. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution. Pp. 91–98. Hupa Bibliography, from California Indian Library Collections Project Hoopa Valley Tribe, official website San Francisco State University - Hupa
The indigenous peoples of California are the indigenous inhabitants who have lived or live in the geographic area within the current boundaries of California before and after the arrival of Europeans. With over forty groups seeking to be federally recognized tribes, California has the second largest Native American population in the United States; the California cultural area does not conform to the state of California's boundaries. Many tribes on the eastern border with Nevada are classified as Great Basin tribes, some tribes on the Oregon border are classified as Plateau tribes. Tribes in Baja California who do not cross into California are classified as indigenous peoples of Mexico. Before European contact, native Californians spoke over 300 dialects of 100 distinct languages; the large number of languages has been related to the ecological diversity of California, to a sociopolitical organization into small tribelets with a shared "ideology that defined language boundaries as unalterable natural features inherent in the land"."The majority of California Indian languages belong either to localized language families with two or three members or are language isolates."
Of the remainder, most are Athapaskan languages. Larger groupings have been proposed; the Hokan superstock has been most difficult to demonstrate. There is evidence suggestive that speakers of the Chumashan languages and Yukian languages, languages of southern Baja California such as Waikuri, were in California prior to the arrival of Penutian languages from the north and Uto-Aztecan from the east predating the Hokan languages. Wiyot and Yurok are distantly related to Algonquian languages in a larger grouping called Algic; the several Athapaskan languages are recent arrivals, no more recent than about 2000 years ago. Evidence of human occupation of California dates from at least 19,000 years ago. Prior to European contact, California Indians had 500 distinct sub-tribes or groups, each consisting of 50 to 500 individual members; the size of California tribes today are small compared to tribes in other regions of the United States. Prior to contact with Europeans, the California region contained the highest Native American population density north of what is now Mexico.
Because of the temperate climate and easy access to food sources one-third of all Native Americans in the United States were living in the area of California. Early Native Californians were hunter-gatherers, with seed collection becoming widespread around 9,000 BC. Due to the local abundance of food, tribes tilled the soil. Two early southern California cultural traditions include the La Jolla Complex and the Pauma Complex, both dating from ca. 6050—1000 BC. From 3000 to 2000 BC, regional diversity developed, with the peoples making fine-tuned adaptations to local environments. Traits recognizable to historic tribes were developed by 500 BC; the indigenous people practiced various forms of sophisticated forest gardening in the forests, mixed woodlands, wetlands to ensure availability of food and medicine plants. They controlled fire on a regional scale to create a low-intensity fire ecology. By burning underbrush and grass, the natives revitalized patches of land and provided fresh shoots to attract food animals.
A form of fire-stick farming was used to clear areas of old growth to encourage new in a repeated cycle. Different tribes encountered non-native European explorers and settlers at different times; the southern and central coastal tribes encountered Spanish and British explorers in the mid-16th century. Tribes such as the Quechan or Yuman Indians in present-day southeast California and southwest Arizona first encountered Spanish explorers in the 1760s and 1770s. Tribes on the coast of northwest California, like the Miwok and Yokut, had contact with Russian explorers and seafarers in the late 18th century. In remote interior regions, some tribes did not meet non-natives until the mid-19th century; the Spanish began their long-term occupation in California in 1769 with the founding of Mission San Diego de Alcalá in San Diego. The Spanish built 20 additional missions in California, their introduction of European invasive plant species and non-native diseases resulted in unintended havoc and high fatalities for the Native Californian tribes.
The population of Native California was reduced by 90% during the 19th century—from more than 200,000 in the early 19th century to 15,000 at the end of the century due to disease. Epidemics swept through California Indian Country, such as the 1833 malaria epidemic. Early to mid 19th Century, coastal tribes of northwest California had multiple contacts with Russian explorers due to Russian colonization of the Americas. At that time period, Russian exploration of California and contacts with local population were associated with the activity of the Russian-American Company. A Russian explorer, Baron Ferdinand von Wrangell, visited California in 1818, 1833, 1835. Looking for a potential site for a new outpost of the company in California in place of Fort Ross, Wrangell’s expedition encountered the Indians north of San Francisco Bay and visited their village. In his notes Wrangell remarked that local women, used to physical labor, seemed to be of stronger constitution than men, whose main activity was hunting.
Local provision consisted of fish and products made of seeds and grains: usually
The San Fernando Valley is an urbanized valley in Los Angeles County, California in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, defined by the mountains of the Transverse Ranges circling it. Home to 1.77 million people, it is north of the more populous Los Angeles Basin. Nearly two thirds of the valley's land area is part of the city of Los Angeles; the other incorporated cities in the valley are Glendale, San Fernando, Hidden Hills, Calabasas. The San Fernando Valley is about 260 square miles bound by the Santa Susana Mountains to the northwest, the Simi Hills to the west, the Santa Monica Mountains and Chalk Hills to the south, the Verdugo Mountains to the east, the San Gabriel Mountains to the northeast; the northern Sierra Pelona Mountains, northwestern Topatopa Mountains, southern Santa Ana Mountains, Downtown Los Angeles skyscrapers can be seen from higher neighborhoods and parks in the San Fernando Valley. The Los Angeles River begins at the confluence of Calabasas Creek and Bell Creek, between Canoga Park High School and Owensmouth Ave. in Canoga Park.
These creeks' headwaters are in the Santa Monica Calabasas foothills, the Simi Hills' Hidden Hills, Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Santa Susana Pass Park lands. The river flows eastward along the southern regions of the Valley. One of the river's two unpaved sections can be found at the Sepulveda Basin. A seasonal river, the Tujunga Wash, drains much of the western facing San Gabriel Mountains and passes into and through the Hansen Dam Recreation Center in Lake View Terrace, it flows south along the Verdugo Mountains through the eastern communities of the valley to join the Los Angeles River in Studio City. Other notable tributaries of the river include Dayton Creek, Caballero Creek, Bull Creek, Pacoima Wash, Verdugo Wash; the elevation of the floor of the valley varies from about 600 ft to 1,200 ft above sea level. Most of the San Fernando Valley is within the jurisdiction of the city of Los Angeles, although a few other incorporated cities are located within the valley as well: Burbank and Glendale are in the southeastern corner of the valley, Hidden Hills and Calabasas are in the southwestern corner, San Fernando, surrounded by Los Angeles, is in the northeastern valley.
Universal City, an enclave in the southern part of the valley, is unincorporated land housing the Universal Studios filming lot and theme park. Mulholland Drive, which runs along the ridgeline of the Santa Monica Mountains, marks the boundary between the valley and the communities of Hollywood and the Los Angeles Westside; the valley's natural habitat is a "temperate grasslands and shrublands biome" of grassland, oak savanna, chaparral shrub forest types of plant community habitats, along with lush riparian plants along the river and springs. In this Mediterranean climate, post-1790s European agriculture for the mission's support consisted of grapes, figs and general garden crops; the San Fernando Valley contains five incorporated cities—Glendale, San Fernando, Hidden Hills, Calabasas—and part of a sixth, Los Angeles, which governs a majority of the valley. The unincorporated communities are governed by the County of Los Angeles; the Los Angeles city section of the valley is divided into seven city council districts: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 12.
Of the 95 neighborhood councils in the city, 34 are in the valley. The valley is represented in the California State Legislature by seven members of the State Assembly and five members of the State Senate; the valley falls into four congressional districts: the 28th, 29th, 30th, 33rd, represented by Adam Schiff, Tony Cárdenas, Brad Sherman, Ted Lieu. In the Los Angeles County board of supervisors, it is represented by two supervisorial districts, with the western portion represented by Sheila Kuehl and the eastern portion by Kathryn Barger; the San Fernando Valley, for the most part, tends to support Democrats in state and national elections. This is true in the southern areas, which include Sherman Oaks and the city of Burbank; the Los Angeles satellite administrative center for the valley, The Civic Center Van Nuys, is in Van Nuys. The area in and around the Van Nuys branch of Los Angeles City Hall is home to a police station and superior courts and Los Angeles city and county administrative offices.
Northridge is home to Northridge. Many branches of the Los Angeles Public Library are located in the valley. For independent libraries see "Incorporated Cities" in the "Municipalities and districts" list below. Los Angeles Police Department, Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, independent valley city departments. Los Angeles Fire Department, Los Angeles County Fire Department, Burbank Police Department, independent valley city departments. City of Los Angeles neighborhood councils The Tongva known as the Gabrieleño Mission Indians after colonization, the Tataviam to the north and Chumash to the west, had lived and thrived in the valley and its arroyos for over 8,000 years, they had numerous settlements, trading and hunting camps, before the Spanish arrived in 1769 to settle in the Valley. The first Spanish land grant in the San Fernando Valley was called "Rancho Encino", in the northern part of the San Fernando Valley. Juan Francisco Reyes built an adobe dwelling beside a Tongva village or rancheria at natural springs, but the land was soon taken from him so that a mission could be built there
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were