The Yukon River is a major watercourse of northwestern North America. The river's source is in British Columbia, from which it flows through the Canadian Yukon Territory; the lower half of the river lies in the U. S. state of Alaska. The river empties into the Bering Sea at the Yukon -- Kuskokwim Delta; the average flow is 6,430 m3/s. The total drainage area is 832,700 km2; the total area is more than 25 % larger than Alberta. The longest river in Alaska and Yukon, it was one of the principal means of transportation during the 1896–1903 Klondike Gold Rush. A portion of the river in Yukon—"The Thirty Mile" section, from Lake Laberge to the Teslin River—is a national heritage river and a unit of Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park. Paddle-wheel riverboats continued to ply the river until the 1950s, when the Klondike Highway was completed. After the purchase of Alaska by the United States in 1867, the Alaska Commercial Company acquired the assets of the Russian-American Company and constructed several posts at various locations on the Yukon River.
The Yukon River has had a history of pollution from military installations, dumps and other sources. However, the Environmental Protection Agency does not list the Yukon River among its impaired watersheds, water quality data from the U. S. Geological Survey shows good levels of turbidity and dissolved oxygen; the Yukon and Mackenzie rivers have much higher suspended sediment concentrations than the great Siberian Arctic rivers. The Yukon River Inter-Tribal Watershed Council, a cooperative effort of 70 First Nations and tribes in Alaska and Canada, has the goal of making the river and its tributaries safe to drink from again by supplementing and scrutinizing government data; the name Yukon, or ųųg han, is a contraction of the words in the Gwich'in phrase chųų gąįį han, which means white water river and refers to "the pale colour" of glacial runoff in the Yukon River. The contraction is Ųųg Han, if the /ųų/ remains nasalized, or Yuk Han, if there is no vowel nasalization. In 1843, the Holikachuks had told the Russian-American Company that their name for the river was Yukkhana and that this name meant big river.
However, Yukkhana does not correspond to a Holikachuk phrase that means big river. Two years the Gwich'ins told the Hudson's Bay Company that their name for the river was Yukon and that the name meant white water river. White water river in fact corresponds to Gwich ` in words; because the Holikachuks had been trading with both the Gwich'ins and the Yup'iks, the Holikachuks had been in a position to borrow the Gwich'in contraction and to conflate its meaning with the meaning of Kuigpak, the Yup'ik name for the same river. For that reason, the documentary evidence reflects that the Holikachuks had borrowed the contraction Ųųg Han from Gwich'in, erroneously assumed that this contraction had the same literal meaning as the corresponding Yup'ik name Kuigpak; the Lewes River is the former name of the upper course of the Yukon, from Marsh Lake to the confluence of the Pelly River at Fort Selkirk. The accepted source of the Yukon River is the Llewellyn Glacier at the southern end of Atlin Lake in British Columbia.
Others suggest. Either way, Atlin Lake flows into Tagish Lake, as does Lake Lindeman after flowing into Bennett Lake. Tagish Lake flows into Marsh Lake; the Yukon River proper starts at the northern end of Marsh Lake, just south of Whitehorse. Some argue that the source of the Yukon River should be Teslin Lake and the Teslin River, which has a larger flow when it reaches the Yukon at Hootalinqua; the upper end of the Yukon River was known as the Lewes River until it was established that it was the Yukon. North of Whitehorse, the Yukon River widens into Lake Laberge, made famous by Robert W. Service's "The Cremation of Sam McGee". Other large lakes that are part of the Yukon River system include Kluane Lake; the river passes through the communities of Whitehorse and Dawson City in Yukon, crossing Alaska into Eagle, Fort Yukon, Stevens Village, Tanana, Galena, Grayling, Holy Cross, Russian Mission, Pilot Station, St. Marys, Mountain Village. After Mountain Village, the main Yukon channel frays into many channels.
There are a number of communities after the "head of passes," as the channel division is called locally: Nunum Iqua, Alakanuk and Kotlik. Of those delta communities, Emmonak is the largest with 760 people in the 2000 census. Emmonak's gravel airstrip is the regional hub for flights. Navigational obstacles on the Yukon River are the Five Finger Rapids and Rink Rapids downstream from Carmacks. Despite its length, there are only four vehicle-carrying bridges across the river: The Lewes Bridge, north of Marsh Lake on the Alaska Highway. A car ferry crosses the river at Dawson City in the summer. Plans to build a permanent bridge were announced in March 2004, alth
Neal Winston Foster is a member of the Alaska House of Representatives, representing the 39th District, centered on Nome, Alaska. He has served in the House since November 15, 2009, he was appointed to the House to replace his father, Richard Foster, who had died in office the previous month. In the 27th Alaska State Legislature, Foster joined along with the other three Democrats from Western Alaska, Bryce Edgmon, Bob Herron and Reggie Joule, as members in the Republican-led majority caucus in the House. Neal Foster, as was Cathy Muñoz, is a third-generation member of the Alaska Legislature. Foster's grandfather named Neal W. Foster and nicknamed "Willie," served one term in the Territorial legislature during the 1950s and in the State Senate in the 1960s. List of Native American politicians Official legislative page Caucus member page Neal Foster at 100 Years of Alaska's Legislature
The Nowitna River is a 250-mile tributary of the Yukon River in the U. S. state of Alaska. The river flows northeast from the Kuskokwim Mountains through Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge and enters the larger river 38 miles northeast of Ruby and southwest of Tanana. Major tributaries include the Titna, Big Mud, Little Mud and Sulatna rivers. In 1980, the 225 miles of the river within the wildlife refuge were designated "wild" and added to the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System; the designation means that most of the Nowitna is unpolluted, free-flowing, inaccessible except by trail. It is possible to run the Nowitna in many kinds of boats, including hard-shell, folding, or inflatable canoes and kayaks or inflatable rafts. Most of the river is slow-moving and meandering, rated Class I on the International Scale of River Difficulty; the exception occurs in Nowitna Canyon between Mastodon Creek and Big Mud River along the middle reaches of the Nowitna. This segment includes. Dangers include black bears as well as rapids.
Navigating can be difficult at times because of upriver winds on the lower reaches. List of National Wild and Scenic Rivers List of rivers of Alaska Media related to Nowitna River at Wikimedia Commons Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge – U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Innoko National Wildlife Refuge
The Innoko National Wildlife Refuge is a national wildlife refuge of the United States located in western Alaska. It consists of 3,850,481 acres, it is the fifth-largest national wildlife refuge in the United States. The refuge is administered from offices in Galena; the refuge was established in 1980 by the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. The northern part of the refuge, called Kaiyuh Flats, is adjacent to the Yukon River southwest of Galena, it contains 751,000 acres. The southern part contains 3,099,000 acres of land surrounding the Innoko River; the land is swampy and is the nesting area for hundreds of thousands of birds including ospreys, northern hawk-owls, trumpeter swans, bald eagles, common ravens, short-eared owls, red-tailed hawks. Mammalian species that habitat this refuge are brown and black bears, wolf packs, Canadian lynx, porcupine, caribou, river otter, red fox, wolverine and mink; the refuge contains no roads. Air access can be arranged in McGrath. Official website
The Kobuk River is a river located in the Arctic region of northwestern Alaska in the United States. It is 280 miles long. Draining a basin with an area of 12,300 square miles, the Kobuk River is among the largest rivers in northwest Alaska with widths of up to 1500 feet and flow at a speed of 3–5 miles per hour in its lower and middle reaches; the average elevation for the Kobuk River Basin is 1,300 feet above sea level, ranging from near sea level to 11,400 feet. Topography includes low, rolling mountains and lowlands, moderately high rugged mountainous land, some sloped plateaus and highlands; the river contains an exceptional population of sheefish, a large predatory whitefish within the salmon family, found throughout the Arctic that spawns in the river's upper reaches during the autumn. A portion of the vast Western Arctic Caribou Herd utilize the Kobuk river valley as winter range, it is assumed that the Kobuk River issues from Walker Lake. However, the headwaters of the river are to the east of Walker Lake in the Endicott Mountains within the Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve, just north of the Arctic Circle.
It flows south, descending from the mountains through two spectacular canyons flows west along the southern flank of the western Brooks Range in a broad wetlands valley. In the valley it passes a connected community of inland native villages, including Kobuk and Ambler, where it receives the Ambler River. In the river's lower reaches, where it passes between the Baird and Waring mountains, it traverses Kobuk Valley National Park, the location of the 25 square miles Kobuk Sand Dunes, it passes Kiana. The river enters its broad delta 10 miles southwest of Kiana; the delta is located in The Hotham Inlet of the Kotzebue Sound 30 miles southeast of Kotzebue. The Kobuk's Inuit name means "big river", it was first transcribed by John Simpson in 1850 as "Kowuk." Explored by Lt. G. M. Stoney, USN, in 1883-1886, who wrote the name "Ku-buck," but proposed that it be called "Putnam" in honor of Master Charles Putnam, USN, officer of the Rodgers, carried to sea on the ice and lost in 1880. Lt. J. C. Cantwell, USRCS explored the river in 1884 and 1885 and spelled the name "Koowak" on his map and "Kowak" in his text.
Ivan Petroff spelled the river name "Kooak" in 1880, W. H. Dall spelled it "Kowk" in 1870. Lt. H. T. Allen, USA, obtained the Koyukon Indian name in 1885 which he spelled "Holooatna" and "Holoatna."Native peoples have hunted and lived along the Kobuk for at least 12,500 years and it has long been an important transportation route for inland peoples. In 1898 the river was the scene of a brief gold rush called the Kobuk River Stampede, which involved about 2,000 prospectors in total. Hearing of gold along the Kobuk and its tributaries, miners set out from Seattle and San Francisco on ships to reach the mouth of the Kobuk. Upon arrival they were informed by native people that it was a scam, only about 800 traveled upriver; the result was that little or no gold was found, only on a few tributaries of the river. In 1980 the United States Congress designated 110 miles of the river downstream from Walker Lake as the Kobuk Wild and Scenic River as part of the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System; the river is considered an outstanding destination for recreational floating.
The Kobuk River Basin has a continental climate. The summers are warm, while winters are long and cold; the mean annual temperature in the middle and upper portions of the Kobuk Valley is -6 °C, the mean temperature in July is 15 °C. An average of 21 inches of precipitation falls in the basin. However, actual precipitation can range from 15-40 inches with greater amounts falling in the upper reaches of the river basin; the Kobuk River Basin is sensitive to changes in climate. Arctic climates have warmed at twice the global rate in the last several decades. Records of air-temperature from 1961 to 1990 logged at the latitudes of the Kobuk River, show a warming trend of about 1.4 °F per decade. The warming has been the strongest in the spring months. Climate change is presently considered the most severe environmental stress in the Kobuk River Basin and throughout Alaska; as a specific example, climate change will cause widespread thawing of permafrost in the discontinuous zone and significant changes in the continuous zone.
Thawing permafrost can lead to a landscape of irregular depressions due to subsiding soils. This can alter drainage patterns and change the course of streams. In addition, slope stability will decrease and permafrost degradation could lead to erosion of river banks resulting in an increase in sediment transport by the rivers; these physical changes will impact nutrient cycling and biological processes within the basin as well. Permafrost regions along the Kobuk River are shown in the accompanying figure; the Kobuk River is a periglacial river, fed by a remnant glacial lake and mountain snowmelt in the Brooks Range. It cuts a channel through a landscape otherwise dominated by permafrost; the Kobuk's current form and structure is a direct result of several stages of erosion and channel formation following the last glacial retreat. As the glacier first retreated and melted, large amounts of erodible, fine-grained sediment dropped out in high mountain valleys; the availability of this fine-grained, loose sediment combined with a hig
The Alaska Senate is the upper house in the Alaska Legislature, the state legislature of the U. S. state of Alaska. It convenes in the Alaska State Capitol in Juneau, Alaska and is responsible for making laws and confirming or rejecting gubernatorial appointments to the state cabinet and boards. With just twenty members, the Alaska Senate is the smallest state upper house legislative chamber in the United States, its members serve four-year terms and each represent an equal number of districts with populations of 35,512 people, per 2010 Census figures. They are not subject to term limits; the Alaska Senate shares the responsibility for making laws in the state of Alaska. Bills are developed by staff from information from the bill's sponsor. Bills undergo four readings during the legislative process. After the first reading, they are assigned to committee. Committees can hold legislation and prevent it from reaching the Senate floor. Once a committee has weighed in on a piece of legislation, the bill returns to the floor for second hearing and a third hearing, which happens just before the floor vote on it.
Once passed by the Senate, a bill is sent to the opposite legislative house for consideration. If approved, without amendment, it is sent to the governor. If there is amendment, the Senate may either reconsider the bill with amendments or ask for the establishment of a conference committee to work out differences in the versions of the bill passed by each chamber. Once a piece of legislation approved by both houses is forwarded to the governor, it may either be signed or vetoed. If it is signed, it takes effect on the effective date of the legislation. If it is vetoed, lawmakers in a joint session may override the veto with a two-thirds majority vote; the Alaska Senate has the sole responsibility in the state's legislative branch for confirming gubernatorial appointees to positions that require confirmation. Current committees include: Past partisan compositions can be found on Political party strength in Alaska. Senators must be a qualified voter and resident of Alaska for no less than three years, a resident of the district from which elected for one year preceding filing for office.
A senator must be at least 25 years old at the time. Senators may expel a member with the concurrence of two-thirds of the membership of the body; this has happened only once in Senate history. On February 5, 1982, the Senate of the 12th Legislature expelled Bethel senator George Hohman from the body. Hohman was convicted of bribery in conjunction with his legislative duties on December 24, 1981, had defiantly refused to resign from his seat. Expulsion was not a consideration during the 2003–2010 Alaska political corruption probe, as Ben Stevens and John Cowdery were the only Senators who were subjects of the probe and neither sought reelection in 2008. Legislative terms begin on the second Monday in January following a presidential election year and on the third Tuesday in January following a gubernatorial election; the term of senators is four years and half of the senators are up for election every two years. The President of the Senate presides over the body, appointing members to all of the Senate's committees and joint committees, may create other committees and subcommittees if desired.
Unlike many other states, the Lieutenant Governor of Alaska does not preside over the Senate. Instead, the Lieutenant Governor oversees the Alaska Division of Elections, fulfilling the role of Secretary of State. Only two other states and Utah, have similar constitutional arrangements for their lieutenant governors; the other partisan Senate leadership positions, such as the Majority and Minority leaders, are elected by their respective party caucuses to head their parties in the chamber. ↑: Senator was appointed^a: Caucuses with the Republican-led majority Alaska House of Representatives Alaska State Capitol List of Alaska State Legislatures Alaska State Senate official government website Project Vote Smart – State Senate of Alaska