Eordaia is a municipality in the Kozani regional unit, Greece. The seat of the municipality is the town Ptolemaida, the municipality has an area of 708.807 km2. The population was 45,592 in 2011 and its territory corresponded with that of the current municipality Eordaia, and a few villages of the municipality Kozani. The history of Eordaia can be found stretching long before 2000 BCE when the first Greeks known as the Aeolians and Arcadians began to inhabit this area, remnants of copper mines exploited from 2700 up until 1200 BCE indicate strongly that the Greeks inhabited Eordaia for thousands of years. Iron mines have exploited in the region. Within a 50-year period and archaeologists have made many discoveries due to the development of the Eordaian countryside. In particular, the fossils of a prehistoric mammoth, a prehistoric elephant. These finds add to knowledge on the variety of animal species and human artifacts in this particular region of western Macedonia
Western Macedonia is one of the thirteen regions of Greece, consisting of the western part of Greek Macedonia. It is divided into the units of Florina, Kastoria. Although it covers a surface of 9,451 km2, it has a total population of 283,689 inhabitants. This is mainly due to the nature of the region. This is reflected in the distribution, as a majority of the population lives in rural areas. The capital of the region is Kozani with 53,880 inhabitants, other main towns are Ptolemaida, Grevena and Kastoria. The Region has one operational Industrial Area in Florina and another one under construction in Kozani, the secondary sector is very important for the Regional economy, mainly due to the mining activities, the production of electric power and the fur-leather sector. The R&D services are at a low level, only 3. Among them, the Technological Educational Institute plays an important role in supporting the regional research, however, an enhanced interaction with SME’s will be a crucial factor, in order to improve the productivity and the added value of products and services generated in the Region of Western Macedonia.
Some of its famous products are marbles, fruits, Florina peppers, local wines, furs. On the other hand, the network is insufficient and the two airports can only serve small passenger planes. The telecommunication network has improved over the last decade, providing the regional population with adequate services. The last years the region is being developed in tourism mainly on winter, the administrative building of Western Macedonia region is located in Zone of Alternate Urban Planning in the city of Kozani. As one of thirteen administrative regions the Western Macedonia region was established in 1987, comprising the prefectures of Kastoria, Kozani, starting with the 2010 local elections, both the regional governor and the regional council have been popularly elected. From 2014 on, the elections are held together with the European Parliament elections for a five-year period, current regional governor is independent politician Theodoros Karypidis who beat incumbent Konstantinos Dakis of the New Democracy party in the 2nd round of the 2014 election.
The region is based at Kozani and is divided into four regional units, along with the neighboring Epirus region it is supervised by the Ioannina-based Decentralized Administration of Epirus and Western Macedonia. The population of Western Macedonia was 283,689 according to the 2011 census, the region has a mixed population of Greeks and Slavophone Greeks. The former are mainly concentrated in the towns Florina, there are around 1,400 Slavophones—approximately 0. 5% of the local population—who profess an ethnic Macedonian identity
Voio is a municipality in the Kozani regional unit, Greece. The seat of the municipality is the town Siatista and it was named after the Voio mountains. The municipality has an area of 1007.629 km2 and its population at the 2011 census was 18,386. Its territory corresponded with that of the current municipality Voio
Prefectures of Greece
They are now defunct, and have been approximately replaced by regional units. They are called departments in ISO 3166-2, GR and by the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names, the prefectures became self-governing entities in 1994, when the first prefectural-level elections took place. The prefects were appointed by the government. In addition, there were three super-prefectures controlling two or more prefectures, with the Kallikratis reform, which entered into force on 1 January 2011, the prefectures were abolished. Many, especially in the mainland, were retained in the form of units within the empowered regions. The current Prefectural Self-Governments were formed in 1994 and replaced the previous prefectures, whose councils, prefectures are governed by a Prefectural Council made up of 21 to 37 members, led by the Prefect and presided by a Council President. Other organs of the prefectures are, The Prefectural Committee, consisted of the Prefect or an assistant appointed by him and 4 to 6 members, the Provincial Council and The Eparchos.
Prefectural councillors are elected via public election every four years, three-fifths of all seats go to the combination winning a majority and two-fifths of the seats go to remaining parties based on a proportional system. Prefect becomes the president of the victorious electoral combination, electoral is a combination which attains more than 42% in the first round of the prefectural elections. Nonetheless, the affairs of state administration belonging to the prefects before 1994 are now exerted by the Presidents of the Regions, the current Prefectural Self-Governments have kept the local affairs of prefectureal level not belonging to the state administration. With certain laws specific affairs of certain ministries were transferred to the Prefectural Self-Governments, unlike the rest mentioned above, the prefecture never broke up into two prefectures, thus being the only one left with a composite appellation. Messenia originally included the half of what is now Elis. Laconia originally included the half of what is now Messinia.
Euboea originally included the Sporades, which now belong to Magnesia, the territory of Phthiotis Prefecture did not originally include the Domokos Province, which was part of Thessaly. Arcadia Prefecture and the Cyclades Prefecture are the only prefectures to have their borders unchanged since independence, the capital of Argolis Prefecture, Nafplion was the first capital of the modern Greek state, before the move of the capital to Athens by King Otto. is Nomarchy
Thessaly is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region of Greece, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name. Before the Greek Dark Ages, Thessaly was known as Aeolia, Thessaly became part of the modern Greek state in 1881, after four and a half centuries of Ottoman rule. Since 1987 it has formed one of the countrys 13 regions and is further sub-divided into 5 regional units and 25 municipalities, the capital of the region is Larissa. Thessaly lies in central Greece and borders the regions of Macedonia on the north, Epirus on the west, Central Greece on the south, the Thessaly region includes the Sporades islands. In Homers epic, the Odyssey, the hero Odysseus visited the kingdom of Aeolus, the Plain of Thessaly, which lies between Mount Oeta/Othrys and Mount Olympus, was the site of the battle between the Titans and the Olympians. According to legend and the Argonauts launched their search for the Golden Fleece from the Magnesia Peninsula, Thessaly was home to extensive Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures around 6000–2500 BC.
Mycenaean settlements have discovered, for example at the sites of Iolcos, Dimini. In Archaic and Classical times, the lowlands of Thessaly became the home of baronial families, in the summer of 480 BC, the Persians invaded Thessaly. The Greek army that guarded the Vale of Tempe evacuated the road before the enemy arrived, not much later, Thessaly surrendered to the Persians. The Thessalian family of Aleuadae joined the Persians subsequently, in the 4th century BC, after the Greco-Persian Wars had long ended, Jason of Pherae transformed the region into a significant military power, recalling the glory of Early Archaic times. Shortly after, Philip II of Macedon was appointed Archon of Thessaly, the Avars had arrived in Europe in the late 550s. They asserted their authority over many Slavs, who were divided into numerous petty tribes, many Slavs were galvanized into an effective infantry force, by the Avars. In the 7th century the Avar-Slav alliance began to raid the Byzantine Empire, laying siege to Thessalonica, relations between the Slavs and Greeks were probably peaceful apart from the initial settlement and intermittent uprisings.
Being agriculturalists, the Slavs probably traded with the Greeks inside towns and it is likely that the re-Hellenization had already begun by way of this contact. This process would be completed by a newly reinvigorated Byzantine Empire, with the abatement of Arab-Byzantine Wars, the Byzantine Empire began to consolidate its power in those areas of mainland Greece occupied by Proto-Slavic tribes. Following the campaigns of the Byzantine general Staurakios in 782–783, the Byzantine Empire recovered Thessaly, apart from military expeditions against Slavs, the re-Hellenization process begun under Nicephorus I involved transfer of peoples. Many Slavs were moved to other parts of the such as Anatolia. In return, many Greeks from Sicily and Asia Minor were brought to the interior of Greece, to increase the number of defenders at the Emperors disposal, even non-Greeks such as Armenians were transferred to the Balkans
Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, historically known as Hellas, is a country in southeastern Europe, with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2015. Athens is the capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is strategically located at the crossroads of Europe, situated on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the northeast. Greece consists of nine regions, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Crete. The Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a vast number of islands, eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as polis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea.
Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming a part of the Roman Empire and its successor. The Greek Orthodox Church shaped modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World, falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence. Greeces rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, among the most in Europe, Greece is a democratic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, and a very high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001. Greeces unique cultural heritage, large industry, prominent shipping sector. It is the largest economy in the Balkans, where it is an important regional investor, the names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, all three stages of the stone age are represented in Greece, for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries and these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, and the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek. The Mycenaeans gradually absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC and this ushered in a period known as the Greek Dark Ages, from which written records are absent. The end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to 776 BC, the Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, in 508 BC, Cleisthenes instituted the worlds first democratic system of government in Athens
The Historical–Folklore and Natural History Museum of Kozani is a museum in Kozani, Greece. The museum belongs to the Kozani Literature and Arts Association and it was founded in 1969 and has been housed in a six-storey building constructed in the traditional West Macedonian style in Kozani town centre since 1987. A new four-storey building was erected nearby in 1993, through the museum, the Association hopes to preserve the monuments and other aspects of Greek heritage in the Kozani area and in Western Macedonia more generally. One showcase displays examples of teratogenesis in the animal world, on the ground floor, which is an interior courtyard, are a traditional oven, a well, and reconstructions of the life of farmers and woodcutters. The history and folklore sections occupy the upper storeys of the museum, on the third and fourth floors are reconstructions of the rural and light industrial occupations of the olden days. The fifth floor displays 58 men’s and women’s traditional costumes of Western Macedonia, on the sixth floor there are reconstructions of a number of rooms from old town houses in Kozani, the ‘Kitchen’, ‘K.
Gertsos’s Room’, ‘G. The museum runs educational programmes for schoolchildren, involving guided tours, official website Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Tourism Municipality of Kozani
Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft brown combustible sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat. It is considered the lowest rank of coal due to its low heat content. It has a carbon content around 60–70 percent and it is mined all around the world and is used almost exclusively as a fuel for steam-electric power generation, but is mined for its germanium content in China. The energy content of lignite ranges from 10 to 20 MJ/kg on a moist, the energy content of lignite consumed in the United States averages 15 MJ/kg, on the as-received basis. The energy content of lignite consumed in Victoria, averages 8.4 MJ/kg, lignite has a high content of volatile matter which makes it easier to convert into gas and liquid petroleum products than higher-ranking coals. Unfortunately, its moisture content and susceptibility to spontaneous combustion can cause problems in transportation. However, removing the moisture increases the cost of the final lignite fuel, because of its low energy density and typically high moisture content, brown coal is inefficient to transport and is not traded extensively on the world market compared with higher coal grades.
It is often burned in power stations near the mines, such as in Australias Latrobe Valley, the operation of traditional brown-coal plants, particularly in combination with strip mining, can be politically contentious due to environmental concerns. An environmentally beneficial use of lignite can be found in its use in cultivation and distribution of biological control microbes that suppress plant disease causing microbes, lignite begins as an accumulation of partially decayed plant material, or peat. Burial by other sediments results in increasing temperature, depending on the geothermal gradient and tectonic setting. This causes compaction of the material and loss of some of the water and this process, called coalification, concentrates the carbon content, and thus the heat content, of the material. Deeper burial and the passage of time result in expulsion of moisture and volatile matter, eventually transforming the material into higher rank coals such as bituminous. Lignite deposits are younger than higher-ranked coals, with the majority of them having formed during the Tertiary period.
The Latrobe Valley in the state of Victoria, contains estimated reserves of some 65 billion tonnes of brown coal, the deposit is equivalent to 25 percent of known world reserves. The coal seams are up to 100 metres thick, with coal seams often giving virtually continuous brown coal thickness of up to 230 metres. Seams are covered by little overburden. Lignite can be separated into two types, the first is xyloid lignite or fossil wood and the second form is the compact lignite or perfect lignite. Although xyloid lignite may sometimes have the tenacity and the appearance of ordinary wood and it is reducible to a fine powder by trituration, and if submitted to the action of a weak solution of potash, it yields a considerable quantity of humic acid
Servia is one of the main towns in the Kozani regional unit, West Macedonia, Greece. It is one of the most historical places in the region, with a 6th-century Byzantine castle, there are a number of 10th century Byzantine cave hermitages and small churches located nearby, which add to the Byzantine atmosphere of the area. Since the local government reform of 2011, it is the seat of the municipality of Servia-Velventos. Prior to 2011, the town was the seat of the Municipality of Servia, Τhe town itself has a population of 3,540 people. The municipal unit Servia has an area of 400.116 km2, parmenion son of Glauceas from Phylacae winner at Doliche. Servia has given its name to the settlement site beside the former bridge across the Haliakmon river to the west. This was first reported by Alan John Bayard Wace and first excavated by the British School at Athens under the direction of Walter Heurtley in 1930. The site is a low mound created by the debris of successive phases of human occupation, the square or rectangular buildings, one or two storeys in height, were framed with massive oak posts and the walls were created with wattle and daub.
The classic red on cream ceramic repertoire of this phase is related to that of Thessaly at such sites as Sesklo. Typical shapes are fruitstands, shallow bowls and beakers and stone tools are frequent while ornaments of stone and sea shell are quite frequent. Occupation continued for a thousand years until the early stages of the Late Neolithic period, characterised by black burnished, after a long interval, occupation resumed in the Early Bronze Age when the ceramic repertoire suggests a cultural orientation towards Central Macedonia rather than Thessaly. During ancient times, Servia served as a fort for the passageway between Macedonia and Thessaly, hence its name, as time passed people settled around the area and the town of Phylacae was created. The Ottomans captured Servia in 1393, from 1864 it was the seat of the Sanjak of Serfiğe in Manastir Vilayet and the town was known as Serfiçe in Ottoman Turkish. Servia was the seat of the Bishop of Servia and Kozani until 1745, the Greek army entered Servia on 10 October 1912, during the First Balkan War, after its victory against the Ottoman army in the Battle of Sarantaporo.
On the same day,117 prominent citizens of Servia were gathered and executed by the Ottomans who were leaving the city, from on the main road of the town leading to the Town Hall is called 117 Εθνομαρτύρων, i. e. Of the 117 National martyrs, in remembrance of this dreadful event, Servia was granted to the Kingdom of Greece by the Treaty of Bucharest in 1913. During the Second World War, on 6 March 1943, German and Italian troops set the town on fire in response to the resistance they were facing in the region. After this fire the town was left in ruins and most of Greek neoclassical architecture was lost apart from 3 houses which remain until today