Hardenberg Wilthen AG is a distillery in Nörten-Hardenberg and Wilthen, Germany. It produces a number of other liquors; the company ranks as Germany's second largest liquor producer. Hardenberg Wilthen has been owned and managed by the Hardenberg family since 1700; the ancestral home of the knights of Hardenberg is Hardenberg Castle at Nörten-Hardenberg, which the family acquired in 1287 and owns to this day. They were created barons and, in 1778, counts; the company is made up of three divisions: The Schwartzhog Grain Distillery "Graflich von Hardenberg's sche Kornbrennerei", at Hardenberg. The wine distillery, "Wilthener Weinbrennerei", founded at Wilthen in 1843 and acquired by Hardenberg in 1992; the ancient liquor producing plant "Der Lachs". The company's most important product is Wilthener Goldkrone, its most traditional product is Hardenberg Weizenkorn, furthermore Schwartzhog, Helios, Milder Wacholder, Kleiner Keiler, Wilthener Gebirgskräuter, Danziger Goldwasser and Miamee; as of 2011, the turnover is reported to be 97 million Euros.
Schwartzhog is a brand name of "Kräuterlikör". Traditionally it is consumed as a digestif liqueur, its ingredients include herbs and roots such as wormwood, ginger and “Sauwurz”. " comforts the heart and preserves it against faintings and swoonings." Nicholas Culpepper, Complete Herbal Sauwurz, is a member of the Gentian family and is found across central and southern Europe, at high altitudes. Its inclusion in the original Schwartzhog recipe, would have been for its digestive qualities, for the belief that it strengthened the body's inner systems. While Sauwurz's digestive properties were recognised by herbalists over 3000 years ago and old wives tales attributed other, less scientific qualities to this variety of the gentian root, it was said that wild boar in the Black Forest were drawn to it for its aphrodisiac qualities, hence the name "Sauwurz" or Hogroot. There is no scientific basis to this myth, nor any indication that Hogroot has any such effect on humans; the hog or wild boar in the family coat-of-arms dates back to the 14th century, when Germany was made up of rival kingdoms and principalities.
Hardenberg castle was built by the Electors of Mainz to defend their property in the region against feuds by neighbouring chieftains, the knights of Hardenberg served as their Burgmanns. On one particular night, a group of warriors from Plesse Castle approached Hardenberg Castle under cover of darkness, to take the Hardenbergs by surprise. Before the invaders could take positions, a wild boar began to squeal loudly, warning the Hardenberg army in time to see off the attack and prevent a siege. From that day, a black wild boar - or Schwartz Hog - has been the family crest of the Hardenberg family, of their business and its products
Various unique terminology is used in bartending. In bartending, the term "straight up" refers to an alcoholic drink, shaken or stirred with ice and strained and served without ice in a stemmed glass. There is substantial confusion in the usage of "neat", or "straight up", "straight", "up". In the context of describing ways of serving a drink, all of these mean "served without ice", but only "neat" implies serving the drink at room temperature; some bar patrons and bartenders use the terms inconsistently. The terms "straight" and "straight up" can be ambiguous, as they are sometimes used to mean "neat". However, "straight" is often used to refer to a spirit, in an unmixed state in general, in addition to being used to describe a way of serving it. For example, many bourbons are identified as "Kentucky straight bourbon whiskey" on their bottling labels, U. S. Federal law contains a legal definition of the term "straight whiskey". So sometimes "straight" may be used to mean either "straight up" or "neat", clarification may be needed to determine the exact manner for serving it.
A drink served "neat" is a single, unmixed liquor served without being chilled and without any water, ice, or other mixer. Neat drinks are served in a rocks glass, shot glass, Glencairn glass, or copita. "On the rocks" refers to liquor poured over ice cubes, a "rocks drink" is a drink served on the rocks. Rocks drinks are served in a rocks glass, highball glass, or Collins glass, all of which refer to a straight-walled, flat-bottomed glass. "With a twist" signals the bartender to add a "twist" of the zest of a citrus fruit to the cocktail. The bartender will hang the rind of the citrus on the glass as a garnish. Cocktails are served chilled, although some may be served either with or without ice, this must be specified. Cocktails can be served "frozen", with crushed ice instead of cubes. Unmixed liquors may be served either up, or on the rocks, with differing conventions. High-quality whisky and other aged liquor are most served neat, while lower-quality whisky is served with a mixer or on the rocks.
Vodka can be stored as a liquid well below the freezing point of water because of its high proof and low particulate content, cocktails made with sub-freezing vodka are sometimes requested to minimize the amount of added water from melted ice during shaking. A shot of whisky, tequila, or vodka, when served neat in a shot glass, is accompanied by a "chaser" or a "water back"; these terms commingle as well. A drink may be ordered "no chaser" as well. A "chaser" in the UK however refers to a shot taken after a pint of beer or similar. Drinks establishments will have a lower-priced category of drinks, known as "well drinks" or "rail drinks", a higher-priced category known as "top-shelf" or "call" drinks, will use upselling by offering the higher-priced category when taking orders; the terms come from the relative positions of the bottles of spirit used for the drinks. A "pony" is slang for one US fluid ounce of spirit, while the standard-size "shot" of alcohol is a 1.5-US-fluid-ounce "jigger", with a "double" being three US fluid ounces.
Rather than use measuring equipment, professional bartenders use a pour spout inserted into the mouth of the bottle, which restricts the flow of liquid to a standard rate allowing reasonably accurate time-based pours. For instance, a "6-count" is a common analogue for a 1.5oz jigger, which can be trained to by having the bartender upend the bottle and counting to 6 out loud as as the words can be said clearly. This method breaks down into convenient sub-measures; this system is not perfect because liquids of different viscosities will pour at different rates through the same spout, but it does allow consistent pours from drink to drink for a consistent result from each bartender, while being much faster than using a thimble measure or similar spirit measure. Distilled beverage List of cocktails
In general use, herbs are plants with savory or aromatic properties that are used for flavoring and garnishing food, medicinal purposes, or for fragrances. Culinary use distinguishes herbs from spices. Herbs refers to the leafy green or flowering parts of a plant, while spices are dried and produced from other parts of the plant, including seeds, bark and fruits. Herbs have a variety of uses including culinary, in some cases, spiritual. General usage of the term "herb" differs between medicinal herbs; the word "herb" is pronounced in Commonwealth English, but is common among North American English speakers and those from other regions where h-dropping occurs. In botany, the word "herb" is used as a synonym for "herbaceous plant". In botany, the term herb refers to a herbaceous plant, defined as a small, seed-bearing plant without a woody stem in which all aerial parts die back to the ground at the end of each growing season; the term refers to perennials, although herbaceous plants can be annuals, or biennials.
This term is in contrast to trees which possess a woody stem. Shrubs and trees are defined in terms of size, where shrubs are less than 10 meters tall, trees may grow over 10 meters; the word herbaceous is derived from Latin herbāceus meaning "grassy", from herba "grass, herb". Another sense of the term herb can refer to a much larger range of plants, with culinary, therapeutic or other uses. For example, some of the most described herbs such as Sage and Lavender would be excluded from the botanical definition of a herb as they do not die down each year, they possess woody stems. In the wider sense, herbs may be herbaceous perennials but trees, shrubs, lianas, mosses, algae and fungi. Herbalism can utilize not just stems and leaves but fruit, roots and gums; therefore one suggested definition of a herb is a plant, of use to humans, although this definition is problematic since it could cover a great many plants that are not described as herbs. Ancient Greek philosopher Theophrastus divided the plant world into trees and herbs.
Herbs came to be considered in namely pot herbs, sweet herbs and salad herbs. During the seventeenth century as selective breeding changed the plants size and flavor away from the wild plant, pot herbs began to be referred to as vegetables as they were no longer considered only suitable for the pot. Culinary herbs are distinguished from vegetables in that, like spices, they are used in small amounts and provide flavor rather than substance to food. Herbs can be perennials such as thyme, sage or lavender, biennials such as parsley, or annuals like basil. Perennial herbs can be shrubs such as rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis, or trees such as bay laurel, Laurus nobilis – this contrasts with botanical herbs, which by definition cannot be woody plants; some plants are used as both herbs and spices, such as dill weed and dill seed or coriander leaves and seeds. There are some herbs, such as those in the mint family, that are used for both culinary and medicinal purposes. Emperor Charlemagne compiled a list of 74 different herbs.
The connection between herbs and health is important in the European Middle Ages--The Forme of Cury promotes extensive use of herbs, including in salads, claims in its preface "the assent and advisement of the masters of physic and philosophy in the King's Court". Some herbs can be infused in boiling water to make herbal teas; the dried leaves, flowers or seeds are used, or fresh herbs are used. Herbal teas tend to made from aromatic herbs, may not contain tannins or caffeine, are not mixed with milk. Common examples include mint tea. Herbal teas are used as a source of relaxation or can be associated with rituals. Herbs were used in prehistoric medicine; as far back as 5000 BCE, evidence that Sumerians used herbs in medicine was inscribed on cuneiform. In 162 CE, the physician Galen was known for concocting complicated herbal remedies that contained up to 100 ingredients; some plants contain phytochemicals. There may be some effects when consumed in the small levels that typify culinary "spicing", some herbs are toxic in larger quantities.
For instance, some types of herbal extract, such as the extract of St. John's-wort or of kava can be used for medical purposes to relieve depression and stress. However, large amounts of these herbs may lead to toxic overload that may involve complications, some of a serious nature, should be used with caution. Complications can arise when being taken with some prescription medicines. Herbs have long been used as the basis of traditional Chinese herbal medicine, with usage dating as far back as the first century CE and far before. In India, the Ayurveda medicinal system is based on herbs. Medicinal use of herbs in Western cultures has its roots in the Hippocratic elemental healing system, based on a quaternary elemental healing metaphor. Famous herbalist of the Western tradition include Avicenna, Paracelsus and the botanically inclined Eclectic physicians of 19th
A long drink or tall drink is an alcoholic mixed drink with a large volume. A long drink will have a tall glass full of mixer, in contrast to a short drink which has less mixer. Short drinks are stronger since both types tend to contain the same amount of alcohol. Long drinks are therefore more dilute than short drinks. A classic long drink is a Tom Collins. A simple style of long drink is a cocktail composed of one liquor and one mixer. A classic example of the highball is the tonic. In Finland, long drink refers to a mixed drink made from gin and, most grapefruit soda, although other long drink flavours include cranberry and lime. In Finland, the long drink is ubiquitously available both in stores and in restaurants on draught
Killepitsch is a herb liqueur from Düsseldorf, Germany. It is a blood red colour and is flavoured with fruits, berries and spices, its alcohol content is 42% by volume. Killepitsch is produced by Peter Busch GmbH of Düsseldorf. Jägermeister Kuemmerling Killepitsch German homepage
A liqueur is an alcoholic drink flavored variously by fruits, spices, nuts or cream combined with distilled spirits. Served with or after dessert, they are heavily sweetened and un-aged beyond a resting period during production, when necessary, for their flavors to mingle. Liqueurs are historical descendants of herbal medicines, they were made in Italy as early as the 13th century prepared by monks. Today they are produced the world over served straight, over ice, with coffee, in cocktails, used in cooking. In some areas of the United States and Canada liqueurs are referred to as cordials or schnapps, though the terms refer to different beverages elsewhere; the French word liqueur is derived from the Latin liquifacere, which means "to dissolve". In some parts of the United States and Canada, liqueurs may be referred to as schnapps; this can cause confusion as in the United Kingdom a cordial would refer to a non-alcoholic concentrated fruit syrup diluted to taste and consumed as a non-carbonated soft drink.
Schnapps, on the other hand, can refer to any distilled beverage in Germany and aquavit in Scandinavian countries. In the United States and Canada, where spirits are called "liquor", there is confusion discerning between liqueurs and liquors, due to the many different types of flavored spirits that are available today. Liqueurs contain a lower alcohol content than spirits and it has sweetener mixed, while some can have an ABV as high as 55%. Under the Food and Drug Regulations, liqueurs are produced from mixing alcohol with plant materials; these materials include juices or extracts from fruits, leaves or other plant materials. The extracts are obtained by filtering or softening the plant substances. A sweetening agent should be added in an amount, at least 2.5 percent of the finished liqueur. The alcohol percentage shall be at least 23%, it may contain natural or artificial flavouring and color. The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau regulates liqueurs to Canada, requiring that alcohol be mixed with plant products and sweeteners be added to at least 2.5% by weight.
Some liqueurs are prepared by infusing certain woods, fruits, or flowers in either water or alcohol and adding sugar or other items. Others are distilled from flavoring agents. Anise and Rakı liqueurs have the property of turning from transparent to cloudy when added to water: the oil of anise remains in solution in the presence of a high concentration of alcohol, but crystallizes when the alcohol concentration is reduced. Liqueurs are sometimes mixed into cocktails to provide flavor. Layered drinks are made by floating different-colored liqueurs in separate layers; each liqueur is poured into a glass over the back of a spoon or down a glass rod, so that the liquids of different densities remain unmixed, creating a striped effect. The Liqueur Compounder's Handbook of Recipes for the Manufacture of Liqueurs, Alcoholic Cordials and Compounded Spirits. Bush, W. J. and Co. 1910. Kaustinen, E. M.. Production and stability of cream liqueurs made with whey protein concentrate. University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Liqueurs at The Cook's Thesaurus
Amaro is an Italian herbal liqueur, consumed as an after-dinner digestif. It has a bitter-sweet flavour, sometimes syrupy, has an alcohol content between 16% and 40%. Similar liqueurs have traditionally been produced throughout Europe. There are local varieties in Germany, in Hungary, the Netherlands, France, but the term amaro is applied only to Italian products of this kind. Amaro is produced by macerating herbs, flowers, and/or citrus peels in alcohol, either neutral spirits or wine, mixing the filtrate with sugar syrup, allowing the mixture to age in casks or bottles. Dozens of varieties are commercially produced, the most available of which are Padre Peppe, Ramazzotti and Montenegro. Many commercial bottlers trace their production to the 19th century. Recipes originated in monasteries or pharmacies. Amaro is drunk neat, sometimes with a citrus wedge, it may be drunk on ice or with tonic water. Amaro should not be confused with amaretto, another Italian liqueur, sweet and traditionally flavoured with the pits of apricot or other drupe fruits such as almonds.
Nor should it be confused with amarone, a rich Italian dry red wine from Valpolicella. Amaro is flavoured with several roots; some producers list their ingredients in detail on the bottle label. Herbs used for flavouring may include any of the following: gentian, cardoon, lemon balm, lemon verbena, anise, zedoary, mint, sage, bay laurel, citrus peels, cinnamon, cardamom, rue and elderflowers. Medium — 32% alcohol by volume, with an balance between bitter and citrus tastes. Examples of this type are Montenegro, Averna, Luxardo Amaro Abano, Amaro Bio. Fernet — more bitter than other amari. Examples include Fernet Stock, Luxardo Fernet, Amaro Santa Maria Al Monte. Light — Lighter in colour than others with more citrus notes. Examples include Amaro Florio, Amaro del Capo. Alpine — flavoured with'alpine' herbs, sometimes with a smokey taste around 17% alcohol content. Examples include Amaro Zara, Amaro Braulio. Vermouth — Unlike other amaros, which are made from grain-based alcohol, vermouth amaro is wine-based.
It is sweeter with more citrus, closely resembles the aperitif vermouth. Examples are Amaro Don Bairo, Amaro Diesus del Frate. Carciofo — made with artichoke around 17% alcohol content; these amari are taken as an aperitif, rather than a digestif. Examples include Carciofo. Tartufo — made with black truffles, bottled at 30% alcohol. Amari of this type are produced in the central Italian region of Umbria, known for its truffles, as well as in San Marino. China — made with bark of Cinchona calisaya; the oldest and most popular brand is China Martini, based in Turin. Rabarbaro — made with rhubarb; the oldest and most popular brand is Zucca, based in Milan. Miscellaneous -- made with fennel, or unripe green walnuts; the following is a list of some of the notable commercial brands: Amer Picon