Grini detention camp
Grini prison camp was a Nazi concentration camp in Bærum, which operated between 1941 and May 1945. Ila Detention and Security Prison is now located here. Grini was built as a women's prison, near an old croft named Ilen, on land bought from the Løvenskiold family by the Norwegian state; the construction of a women's prison started in 1938, but despite being more or less finished in 1940, it did not come into use for its original purpose: Nazi Germany's invasion of Norway on 9 April 1940, during World War II, instead precipitated the use of the site for detention by the Nazi regime. At first, the Nazis used the prison to detain Norwegian officers captured during the Norwegian Campaign fighting; this use was discontinued in June 1940. The prison was used to house Wehrmacht soldiers until a concentration camp was established on 14 June 1941; the first detainees were sent from Åneby concentration camp, the use of, at the same time discontinued. Shortly afterwards, the ranks of prisoners were increased by Soviet troops captured during Operation Barbarossa.
The camp was run by Schutzstaffel and Gestapo personnel, who renamed the camp Polizeihäftlingslager Grini. The name corresponds to a nearby farm and surrounding residential district located a short distance southeast of the camp, but the area at Ilen had no connection to Grini farm. At first inmates were detained on the premises of the original prison, but in 1942 an extra barracks had to be built to enlarge capacity. In August 1942, the Veidal Prison Camp was created as a subunit of the camp. Grini was used for Norwegian political prisoners, but the detention of more regular criminals followed. Many were held at Grini before being shipped to camps in Germany. Many teachers who took part in the civil disobedience of 1942 were held at Grini for one day before being taken to Kirkenes via Jørstadmoen. A small number of foreign citizens were held there. Altogether, 19,247 prisoners passed through Grini, at most there were 6,208. Among these were the survivors of Operation Checkmate, a 1942 British commando raid, including their leader, John Godwin, RN.
They were subsequently sent to Sachsenhausen concentration camp where they were executed in February 1945. The total number killed at Grini is unknown, though the Gestapo and police used the area for purposes of torture and at least eight people were executed there. British airborne troops sent by glider to sabotage the Norsk Hydro heavy-water plant during Operation Freshman crashed in Norway due to foul weather; the five uninjured survivors were taken prisoner and held at Grini concentration camp until 18 January 1943, when they were taken to nearby woods and shot in the back of the head by the Gestapo. This was a war crime, in breach of the Geneva Convention. Executions took place at Akershus Fortress or Trandumskogen. Camps in other parts of Norway, including Fannrem, Kvænangen and Bardufoss, were organized as part of the Grini system. German forces maintained a military camp at Huseby, not far from Grini. Other than guards, the German occupiers devoted few personnel to the camp. Since many politicians and cultural personalities were detained at Grini, a certain level of internal organization was established.
Prisoners worked in manufacturing and other manual labor. Much of this manual labor took place outside the camp; some detainees maintained their pre-war specialties, such as literary historian Francis Bull who secretly held several lectures, managed to publish three books with material written during his three-year stay at Grini. The diet at Grini was poor. After the war, it caused a certain stir in the populace when it was perceived that Nazi prisoners of the liberated Norway were treated better than prisoners of the Nazi regime. On the other hand, Grini was more hospitable to resistance prisoners than the similar camps in Germany. On 7 May 1945 Harry Söderman, in charge of the education of the Norwegian police troops in Sweden, arrived in the camp and ordered commander Zeidler to arrange an assembly, first for the 5,000 male prisoners, for the 500 females; the women were released while the male detainees were asked to stay in the camp for a few days until transport could be arranged, leadership of the camp was handed over to the prisoners' representatives.
Prisoners from Møllergata 19 and Victoria Terrasse were transferred to Grini the same day. After the liberation of Norway in May 1945, the prison was used for Norwegians tried or convicted of treason or collaboration, as a part of the legal purge in Norway after World War II. Since the name "Grini" was now associated with the Norwegian resistance movement, hence seen as heroic, the camp was renamed Ilebu; the new name reflected the actual location of the camp better. 3,440 people were imprisoned here in July 1945. The conditions in the camp were unhealthy, with beri-beri breaking out in the summer. A guard reported. On 13 October 1945 the National Mobile Police Service conducted a razzia. During the razzia, prosecutor Lauritz Jenssen Dorenfeldt and the wife of camp commandant Helge Gleditsch were wrongly rounded up in the yard, it was closed in 1951 but reopened in the same year under the name Ila as a "landsfengsel og sikringsanstalt", a prison for criminals serving long-term sentences. Much of the camp, including the barracks, has been torn down.
One preserved barracks building t
National Socialism, more known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – the National Socialist German Workers' Party – in Nazi Germany, of other far-right groups with similar aims. Nazism is a form of fascism and showed that ideology's disdain for liberal democracy and the parliamentary system, but incorporated fervent antisemitism, anti-communism, scientific racism, eugenics into its creed, its extreme nationalism came from Pan-Germanism and the Völkisch movement prominent in the German nationalism of the time, it was influenced by the Freikorps paramilitary groups that emerged after Germany's defeat in World War I, from which came the party's "cult of violence", "at the heart of the movement."Nazism subscribed to theories of racial hierarchy and Social Darwinism, identifying the Germans as a part of what the Nazis regarded as an Aryan or Nordic master race. It aimed to overcome social divisions and create a German homogeneous society based on racial purity which represented a people's community.
The Nazis aimed to unite all Germans living in German territory, as well as gain additional lands for German expansion under the doctrine of Lebensraum and exclude those who they deemed either community aliens or "inferior" races. The term "National Socialism" arose out of attempts to create a nationalist redefinition of "socialism", as an alternative to both Marxist international socialism and free market capitalism. Nazism rejected the Marxist concepts of class conflict and universal equality, opposed cosmopolitan internationalism, sought to convince all parts of the new German society to subordinate their personal interests to the "common good", accepting political interests as the main priority of economic organization; the Nazi Party's precursor, the Pan-German nationalist and antisemitic German Workers' Party, was founded on 5 January 1919. By the early 1920s the party was renamed the National Socialist German Workers' Party – to attract workers away from left-wing parties such as the Social Democrats and the Communists – and Adolf Hitler assumed control of the organization.
The National Socialist Program or "25 Points" was adopted in 1920 and called for a united Greater Germany that would deny citizenship to Jews or those of Jewish descent, while supporting land reform and the nationalization of some industries. In Mein Kampf, Hitler outlined the anti-Semitism and anti-Communism at the heart of his political philosophy, as well as his disdain for representative democracy and his belief in Germany's right to territorial expansion; the Nazi Party won the greatest share of the popular vote in the two Reichstag general elections of 1932, making them the largest party in the legislature by far, but still short of an outright majority. Because none of the parties were willing or able to put together a coalition government, in 1933 Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Paul Von Hindenburg, through the support and connivance of traditional conservative nationalists who believed that they could control him and his party. Through the use of emergency presidential decrees by Hindenburg, a change in the Weimar Constitution which allowed the Cabinet to rule by direct decree, bypassing both Hindenburg and the Reichstag, the Nazis had soon established a one-party state.
The Sturmabteilung and the Schutzstaffel functioned as the paramilitary organizations of the Nazi Party. Using the SS for the task, Hitler purged the party's more and economically radical factions in the mid-1934 Night of the Long Knives, including the leadership of the SA. After the death of President Hindenburg, political power was concentrated in Hitler's hands and he became Germany's head of state as well as the head of the government, with the title of Führer, meaning "leader". From that point, Hitler was the dictator of Nazi Germany, known as the "Third Reich", under which Jews, political opponents and other "undesirable" elements were marginalized, imprisoned or murdered. Many millions of people were exterminated in a genocide which became known as the Holocaust during World War II, including around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe. Following Germany's defeat in World War II and the discovery of the full extent of the Holocaust, Nazi ideology became universally disgraced.
It is regarded as immoral and evil, with only a few fringe racist groups referred to as neo-Nazis, describing themselves as followers of National Socialism. The full name of the party was Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei for which they used the acronym NSDAP; the term "Nazi" was in use before the rise of the NSDAP as a colloquial and derogatory word for a backwards farmer or peasant, characterizing an awkward and clumsy person. In this sense, the word Nazi was a hypocorism of the German male name Ignatz – Ignatz being a common name at the time in Bavaria, the area from which the NSDAP emerged. In the 1920s, political opponents of the NSDAP in the German labour movement seized on this and – using the earlier abbreviated term "Sozi" for Sozialist as an example – shortened NSDAP's name, Nationalsozialistische, to the dismissive "Nazi", in order to associate them with the derogatory use of the term mentioned above; the first use of the term "Nazi" by the National Socialists occurred in 1926 in a publication by Joseph Goebbels called Der Nazi-Sozi.
In Goebbels' pamphlet, the word "Nazi" only appears when linked with the word "Sozi" as an abbreviation of
Falstad concentration camp
Falstad concentration camp was situated in the village of Ekne in what was the municipality of Skogn in Norway. It was used for political prisoners from Nazi-occupied territories; the boarding school for boys at Falstad was founded as part of the general movement in Europe and Norway in particular, to reform the penal system for children. Prison director Anders Daae took the initiative in founding a private institution in Trøndelag, to be modeled after similar schools in Europe, he raised funds through the Trondhjems Brændevinssamlag and Trondhjems Sparebank and acquired the farm known as Nedre Falstad for 80,000 kr in 1895, along with the farm buildings. It was explicitly originated to serve the needs of the "misguided" rather than criminal youth through education, a "Christian spirit."The main building burned down the same year the institution was established. New buildings were constructed, in 1910, the Norwegian government took over the operations of the school. In 1921, there was another fire, the new brick structures that followed were based on 19th century prison designs, with a courtyard in the middle of a rectangular building.
Nazi German authorities first visited Falstad in August 1941 with the hope of making it a center for the Lebensborn program in Norway, but found it unsuitable for this task. However, they decided to put it to use as a prison camp in September 1941; the inhabitants of Ekne were put under severe restrictions, the first prisoners—about 170 Danes who had volunteered and reneged on being a part of the Todt Organisation. The Danish inmates spent three months in the camp, using the time to start construction of the barbed wire fence and watch towers. Within the command structure of the German occupying authorities in Norway, Falstad came under the civilian authority of Reichskommissar Josef Terboven through Wilhelm Rediess, in charge of all German police, including the SS and Gestapo, Heinrich Fehlis, "Befehlshaber der Sicherheitspolizei und des Sicherheitsdienst," conveniently abbreviated to BdS. For reasons that remain unclear, Falstad was part of the Fifth Section, known as the "Kriminalpolizei," or criminal police.
For all practical purposes, Falstad became the personal prison of Gerhard Flesch, the leader of the regional Einsatzkommando V, with the title KdS Drontheim. The camp inmate population grew new buildings were erected. Prison barracks were built southeast of the main building, utility buildings were constructed around the center, the commander's quarters were erected nearby on the other side of the river. In all, the grounds were monitored from three watchtowers; the camp authorities burned what documents they could before the liberation of 1945, but it is estimated that at least 4,500 prisoners passed through Falstad. Citizens of at least 13 countries were among these inmates. Although the camp was intended for political prisoners, several thousand prisoners of war were kept there. Most of them were sent to other camps in Germany or Poland, or to Grini concentration camp, in Norway; the camp became notorious for its use as a transit camp for the deportation of Norwegian Jews to Auschwitz. Forty-seven Jewish men were imprisoned at Falstad at another.
One, Ephraim Wolff Koritzinsky, died of cancer at Levanger Hospital on 15 May 1942. At least eight were murdered at Falstad; the main characteristic of the camp was forced and meaningless labor. Degradations and abuse were commonplace under the administration of SS-Hauptscharführer Gogol and Edward F. Lambrecht, a prison guard known among the prisoners as Gråbein —an appellation used in reference to wolves; the camp commanders used the nearby forest as a site for extrajudicial executions of POWs, following show trials of political and Jewish prisoners. The first executions took place on 7 March 1942, when Olav Sverre Benjaminsen, Abel Lazar Bernstein, David Isaksen, Wulf Isaksen, David Wolfsohn were shot. All of these, except Benjaminsen, were Jewish. In June 1942, Ljuban Vukovic, a Yugoslav POW, was made the first grave digger in the forest, he became an important witness in the post-war trials. On 6 October 1942, the Nazi authorities imposed martial law on sections of central Norway, at least 170 non-Norwegian prisoners and 34 Norwegian political prisoners were put to death in the forest just south of Falstad.
On 13 November 1942, Moritz Abrahamsen, Kalman Glick, Herman Schidorsky, all Jewish, were put to death. On 16 February 1943, Toralf Berg—a resistance fighter—was executed. During the summer of 1943, a change in the command of the camp led to improved conditions for the remaining prisoners. Throughout all this, more than 150 unnamed POWs were shot in the forest. During 4–5 May 1945, the camp authorities sought to exhume and hide the bodies of their victims, sinking about 25 in the fjord near the camp. Efforts to find, exhume and bury the victims are ongoing; the original estimate of 202 dead is considered low. There were six camp commandants at Falstad during the war: Paul Schöning, Paul Gogol, Werner Jeck, Georg Bauer, Karl Denk. None of these were prosecuted for war crimes in Norway, though Denk may have faced trial in Germany for unrelated charges. Gerhard Flesch, Kommandeur der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD Trondheim 1941 to 1945 was sentenced to death during the Legal purge in Norway after World War II.
Walter Hollack, Gestapo officer who acted as "prosecutor" during the tribunals in 1942, was sentenced to a life term of hard labor, but was pardoned in 1953 and
Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
German occupation of Norway
The German occupation of Norway during World War II began on 9 April 1940 after German forces invaded the neutral Scandinavian country of Norway. Conventional armed resistance to the German invasion ended on 10 June 1940 and the Germans controlled Norway until the capitulation of German forces in Europe on 8/9 May 1945. Throughout this period, Norway was continuously occupied by the Wehrmacht. Civil rule was assumed by the Reichskommissariat Norwegen, which acted in collaboration with a pro-German puppet government, the Quisling regime, while the Norwegian King Haakon VII and the prewar government escaped to London, where they acted as a government in exile; this period of military occupation is in Norway referred to as the "war years" or "occupation period". Having maintained its neutrality during World War I, Norwegian foreign and military policy since 1933 was influenced by three factors: Fiscal austerity promoted by the conservative parties; these three factors met resistance as tensions grew in Europe in the 1930s from Norwegian military staff and right-wing political groups, but also from individuals within the mainstream political establishment and, it has since come to light, by the monarch, King Haakon VII, behind the scenes.
By the late 1930s, the Norwegian parliament Storting had accepted the need for a strengthened military and expanded the budget accordingly by assuming national debt. As it turned out, most of the plans enabled by the budgetary expansion were not completed in time. Although neutrality remained the highest priority, until the invasion was a fait accompli, it was known throughout the government that Norway, above all, did not want to be at war with Britain. On 28 April 1939, Nazi Germany offered Norway and several other Scandinavian countries non-aggression pacts; however to maintain neutrality, it was turned down along with Finland. By the autumn of 1939 there was an increasing sense of urgency because of its long western coastline facing access routes into the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean that Norway had to prepare, not only to protect its neutrality, but indeed to fight for its freedom and independence. Efforts to improve military readiness and capability, to sustain an extended blockade, were intensified between September 1939 and April 1940.
Several incidents in Norwegian maritime waters, notably the Altmark incident in Jøssingfjord, put great strains on Norway's ability to assert its neutrality. Norway managed to negotiate favourable trade treaties both with the United Kingdom and Germany under these conditions, but it became clear that both countries had a strategic interest in denying the other warring power access to Norway and its coastline; the government was increasingly pressured by Britain to direct larger parts of its massive merchant fleet to transport British goods at low rates, as well as to join the trade blockade against Germany. In March and April 1940, British plans for an invasion of Norway were prepared in order to reach and destroy the Swedish iron ore mines in Gällivare, it was hoped that this would divert German forces away from France, open a war front in south Sweden. It was agreed that mines would be laid in Norwegian waters and that the mining should be followed by the landing of troops at four Norwegian ports: Narvik, Trondheim and Stavanger.
Because of Anglo-French arguments, the date of the mining was postponed from 5 April to 8 April. The postponement was catastrophic. On 1 April, German Fuhrer Adolf Hitler had ordered the German invasion of Norway to begin on 9 April. On the pretext that Norway needed protection from British and French interference, Germany invaded Norway for several reasons: strategically, to secure ice-free harbors from which its naval forces could seek to control the North Atlantic. Through neglect both on the part of the Norwegian foreign minister Halvdan Koht and minister of defence Birger Ljungberg, Norway was unprepared for the German military invasion when it came on the night of 8–9 April 1940. A major storm on 7 April resulted in the British Navy failing to make material contact with the German shipping. Consistent with Blitzkrieg warfare, German forces attacked Norway by sea and air as Operation Weserübung was put into action; the first wave of German attackers counted only about 10,000 men. German ships came into the Oslofjord, but were stopped when the Krupp-built artillery and torpedoes of Oscarsborg Fortress sank the German flagship Blücher and sank or damaged the other ships in the German task force.
Blücher transported the forces that would ensure control of the political apparatus in Norway, the sinking and death of over 1,000 soldiers and crew delayed the Germans, so that the King and government had the chance to escape from Oslo. In the other cities that were attacked, the Germans faced no resistance; the surprise, the lack of preparedness of Norway for a large-scale invasion of this kind, gave the German forces their initial success. The major Norwegian ports from Oslo northward to Narvik were occupied by advance detachments of German troops, trans