The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Luigi Carlo Filippo Russolo was an Italian Futurist painter, builder of experimental musical instruments, the author of the manifesto The Art of Noises. He is regarded as one of the first noise music experimental composers with his performances of noise music concerts in 1913–14 and again after World War I, notably in Paris in 1921, he constructed a number of noise-generating devices called Intonarumori. Luigi Russolo was the first noise artist, his 1913 manifesto, L'Arte dei Rumori, stated that the industrial revolution had given modern men a greater capacity to appreciate more complex sounds. Russolo found traditional melodic music confining, he envisioned noise music as its future replacement. Russolo designed and constructed a number of noise-generating devices called Intonarumori, assembled a noise orchestra to perform with them. A performance of his Gran Concerto Futuristico was met with strong disapproval and violence from the audience, as Russolo himself had predicted. None of his intoning devices have survived, though some have been reconstructed and used in performances.
Although Russolo's works bear little resemblance to modern noise music, his pioneering creations cannot be overlooked as an essential stage in the evolution of the several genres in this category. Many artists are now familiar with Russolo's manifesto. Antonio Russolo, another Italian Futurist composer and Luigi's brother, produced a recording of two works featuring the original Intonarumori; the phonograph recording, made in 1921, included works entitled Corale and Serenata, which combined conventional orchestral music set against the sound of the noise machines. It is the only surviving contemporaneous sound recording of Luigi Russolo's noise music. Russolo and Filippo Tommaso Marinetti gave the first concert of Futurist music, complete with intonarumori, in April 1914, causing a riot; the program comprised four "networks of noises". Some of Russolo's instruments were destroyed in World War II. Replicas of the instruments have since been built. Musica Futurista Experimental music Custom-made instruments Noise music List of noise musicians Futurism Chilvers, Ian, & John Glaves-Smith.
A Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Art. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Chessa, Luciano: Luigi Russolo, Futurist: Noise, Visual Arts, the Occult. University of California Press, 2012. Russolo, Luigi Carlo Filippo. Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani. Media Art Net | Russolo, Luigi: Intonarumori Archive Russolo recordings at LTM Peggy Guggenheim Collection: Luigi Russolo Bob Osborn's Futurism: Luigi Russolo Prof. Russolo & His Noise IntonersAudioMP3 audio files of music of Luigi Russolo on UbuWeb Three audio clips by Luigi Russolo: Serenata and Risveglio di una cittàVideoMusic for 16 Futurist Noise Intoners on YouTube
A Gittler Guitar is an experimental designed guitar created by Allan Gittler. Gittler felt that sentimental design references to acoustic guitars are unnecessary in an electronically amplified guitar, designed his instrument with the objective of reducing the electric guitar to the most minimal functional form possible, he made 60 guitars in New York in the mid-1970s to early 1980s. In 1982, Gittler emigrated to Israel, settled in Hebron, changed his name to Avraham Bar Rashi, licensed the design to a local company in Kiryat Bialik called Astron Engineer Enterprises LTD, they computer-machined around 300, Bar Rashi commented to the effect that he was unhappy with the manufacturing. Astron, claims that their instruments are manufactured copies of the original construction, that the addition of a plastic body containing electronics for simplified handling, while arguably compromising the minimalism of the original idea, had no influence on the sound or the style of playing; the first 60 are sometimes described as the Fishbone Gittler guitar.
Three Gittler basses exist, made in New York and numbered 1, 2, 3. During this period, he made a portable, battery-powered amplifier, cylindrical in shape, with a long handle that allowed it to be rolled around like a grass-seed-roller. Rolling was necessary to transport it through the street, since it was quite heavy due to the large number of D batteries that powered it, he used this set-up to play his guitar in a street adjoining Astor Place in lower Manhattan, where the reverberation from the surrounding buildings amplified the sound. The Gittler guitar has six strings; each string has its own pickup. Versions have a plastic body; the steel frets, consisting of stainless steel bars pressure fitted into the stainless steel neck, give the instrument a sitar-like feel, as it is possible to bend the strings downward past where a wooden fretboard would prohibit the movement in a conventional guitar. The six individual pickups can be routed to divided outputs via D-sub-9-pin. Or be mixed to a 1/4" TS connector.
The built in pre-amps are powered via D-sub connector. The New York version came without a pre-amp section; the Museum of Modern Art, MOMA has one instrument in its collection, as does the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. Gittler guitars can be seen in several other museums and collections; the only left-handed Gittler guitar known to exist was made by Bar Rashi himself in 1995 or 1996. It is a signed minimalist instrument, identical to the one he played in the period of his life and made to order for a client in Jerusalem. There are only 12 separate parts in total and the frets are one long thread of nylon; this creates a unique sound. After Bar Rashi's passing in 2003, his eldest son, became a partner in Gittler Instruments LLC; the company has returned to manufacturing the Gittler guitar and presently sells the instruments online. Gittler Instruments president Russ Rubman has extended the company's line to include upright basses and violins designed with the same principles of the original Gittler Guitar.
Official website Site dedicated Gittler guitars and their customization and repair MoMA, The Collection: Allan Gittler. Electric Guitar. 1975
BBC Radiophonic Workshop
The BBC Radiophonic Workshop was one of the sound effects units of the BBC, created in 1958 to produce incidental sounds and new music for radio and television. The unit is known for its experimental and pioneering work in electronic music and music technology, as well as its popular scores for programs such as Doctor Who and Quatermass and the Pit during the 1950s and 1960s; the original Radiophonic Workshop was based in the BBC's Maida Vale Studios in Delaware Road, Maida Vale, London. The Workshop was closed in March 1998, although much of its traditional work had been outsourced by 1995, its members have included Daphne Oram, Delia Derbyshire, David Cain, John Baker, Paddy Kingsland, Glynis Jones. The Workshop was set up to satisfy the growing demand in the late 1950s for "radiophonic" sounds from a group of producers and studio managers at the BBC, including Desmond Briscoe, Daphne Oram, Donald McWhinnie, Frederick Bradnum. For some time there had been much interest in producing innovative music and sounds to go with the pioneering programming of the era, in particular the dramatic output of the BBC Third Programme.
The sounds required for the atmosphere that programme makers wished to create were unavailable or non-existent through traditional sources and so some, such as the musically trained Oram, would look to new techniques to produce effects and music for their pieces. Much of this interest drew them to musique concrète and tape manipulation techniques, since using these methods could allow them to create soundscapes suitable for the growing range of unconventional programming; when the BBC noticed the rising popularity of this method they established a Radiophonic Effects Committee, setting up the Workshop in rooms 13 & 14 of the BBC's Maida Vale studios with a budget of £2,000. The Workshop contributed articles to magazines of their findings, leading to some of their techniques being borrowed by sixties producers and engineers such as Eddie Kramer. In 1958, Desmond Briscoe was appointed the Senior Studio Manager with Dick Mills employed as a technical assistant. Much of The Radiophonic Workshop's early work was in effects for radio, in particular experimental drama and "radiophonic poems".
Their significant early output included creating effects for the popular science-fiction serial Quatermass and the Pit and memorable comedy sounds for The Goon Show. In 1959, Daphne Oram left the workshop to set up her own studio, the Oramics Studios for Electronic Composition, where she developed her "Oramics" technique of electronic sound creation; that year Maddalena Fagandini joined the workshop from the BBC's Italian Service. From the early sixties the Workshop began creating television theme tunes and jingles for low budget schools programmes; the shift from the experimental nature of the late 50s dramas to theme tunes was noticeable enough for one radio presenter to have to remind listeners that the purpose of the Workshop was not pop music. In fact, in 1962 one of Fagandini's interval signals "Time Beat" was reworked with assistance from George Martin and commercially released as a single using the pseudonym Ray Cathode. During this early period the innovative electronic approaches to music in the Workshop began to attract some significant young talent including Delia Derbyshire, Brian Hodgson and John Baker, in fact a jazz pianist with an interest in reverse tape effects.
In 1967. They were joined by a jazz bass player and mathematician. In these early days, one criticism the Workshop attracted was its policy of not allowing musicians from outside the BBC to use its equipment, some of the most advanced in the country at that time not only because of its nature, but because of the unique combinations and workflows which the Workshop afforded its composers. In years this would become less important as more electronic equipment became available to a wider audience. In 1963 they were approached by composer Ron Grainer to record a theme tune for the upcoming BBC television series Doctor Who. Presented with the task of "realising" Grainer's score, complete with its descriptions of "sweeps", "swoops", "wind clouds" and "wind bubbles", Delia Derbyshire created a piece of electronic music which has become one of television's most recognisable themes. Over the next quarter-century the Workshop contributed to the programme providing its vast range of unusual sound-effects, from the TARDIS dematerialisation to the Sonic screwdriver, as well as much of the programme's distinctive electronic incidental music, including every score from 1980 to 1985.
In 2018 Matthew Herbert, creative director of The New Radiophonic Workshop, composed the sting used alongside the reveal of the new Doctor Who logo debuting that year. It has yet to be confirmed as to whether the Workshop will be responsible for music in the series itself; as the sixties drew to a close many of the techniques used by the Workshop changed as more electronic music began to be produced by synthesisers. Many of the old members of the Workshop were reluctant to use the new instruments because of the limitations and unreliable nature of many of the early synthesisers but for some, because of a dislike of the sounds they created; this led to many leaving the workshop making way for a new generation of musicians in the early 1970s including Malcolm Clarke, Paddy Kingsland, Roger Limb and Peter Howell. From the early days of a studio full of tape reels and electronic oscillators, the Workshop now found itself in possession of various synthesisers including the EMS VCS 3 and the EMS Synthi 100 nicknamed the "Delaware" by the members of the Workshop.
In 1977, Workshop co-founder Desmond Briscoe retired from organisational duties with Brian Hodgson, returning after a five-year gap aw
Thaddeus Cahill was a prominent inventor of the early 20th century. He is credited with the invention of the first electromechanical musical instrument, which he dubbed the telharmonium, he studied the physics of music at Oberlin Conservatory in Ohio. After working as a clerk for Congress in Washington D. C. to pay for his college studies, he graduated from the Columbian Law School in 1889. He became convinced, he showed his first teleharmonium to Lord Kelvin in 1902. That year he established a laboratory at Holyoke, where he was joined by his brother, Arthur T. Cahill. Cahill had tremendous ambitions for his invention. At a starting weight of 7 tons and a price tag of $200,000, only three telharmoniums were built, Cahill's great vision was never implemented, his idea proved to be fruitful, nearly a century with the advent of streaming media. Martin, Thomas Commerford. "The Telharmonium: Electricity's Alliance with Music". The American monthly review of reviews. 33: 420–423. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
Reynold Weidenaar: Magic Music from the Telharmonium, The Scarecrow Press Inc.: London. Electronic Music Interfaces Thaddeus Cahill's Telharmonium
Speak & Spell (toy)
The Speak & Spell line is a series of electronic hand-held child computers by Texas Instruments that consisted of a TMC0280 linear predictive coding speech synthesizer, a keyboard, a receptor slot to receive one of a collection of ROM game library modules. The first Speak & Spell was introduced at the summer Consumer Electronics Show in June 1978, making it one of the earliest handheld electronic devices with a visual display to use interchangeable game cartridges; the Speak & Spell was named an IEEE Milestone in 2009. The Speak & Spell was created by a small team of engineers led by Paul Breedlove, himself an engineer, with Texas Instruments during the late 1970s. Development began in 1976 with an initial budget of $25,000, as an outgrowth of TI's research into speech synthesis; the completed proof version of the first console utilized TI's trademarked Solid State Speech technology to store full words in a solid state format similar to the manner in which calculators of the time stored numbers.
Additional purchased cartridges could be inserted through the battery receptacle to provide new solid-state libraries and new games. This represented the first time an educational toy utilized speech, not recorded on tape or phonograph record; the original Speak & Spell was the first of a three-part talking educational toy series that included Speak & Read and Speak & Math. This series was a subset of TI's Learning Center product group and the Speak & Spell was released with the Spelling B, the First Watch; the Speak & Spell was sold, with regional variations, in the United States, Australia, in Europe, Japan. The toy was advertised as a tool for helping children ages 7 and up to learn to spell and pronounce over 200 misspelled words, it shipped without a cartridge, in this configuration called the Basic Unit. Between its release and 1983, the Speak & Spell was redesigned twice under the name Spell, it was recreated in 1982 as the Speak & Spell Compact, in 1989 the Super Speak & Spell was released to replace the original vacuum fluorescent display with a liquid crystal display.
Between 1989 and 1992 the Super Speak & Spell would see three redesigns as well. The 1992 Super Speak & Spell would mark the last release of the series. Regional variations with different speech libraries and different games were released in at least 9 countries with seven language variations; because the linguistic aspect of the games played on the Speak & Spell are of central importance to Speak & Spell titles, separate cartridge libraries were developed for English, German, French and Spanish markets. Beyond the natural disinclination of consumers to purchase games in foreign languages, regional lockout does not prevent the use of expansion module cartridges in consoles for which they were not designed. Since the layout of foreign editions is nearly identical, the cartridges lacked a lockout, cartridges bore instructions in multiple languages despite their designation for consumer groups that might not understand the language. In 1980, the original Speak & Spell was redesigned to give it a membrane keyboard in place of raised buttons.
This version was nearly identical to the first release and with backward compatible cartridge recognition common to all Speak & Spells except the first version of the Super Speak & Spell, the entire library of cartridges from the original release were available to the 1980 release. Outside of the United States, the 1980 release was marketed in the United Kingdom under the same name, in German as the Buddy, in French as La Dictée Magique. In 1982, the Speak & Spell Compact was released at about half the size of the Speak & Spell and lacking the VFD screen; the Speak & Spell Compact was a dedicated console and only one other version, the Speak & Write, was released for English markets. Speak & Spell Compact sales were poor in the United States, causing TI to send much of its excess stock abroad. UK Marketing Manager Martin Finn had the product retitled for the UK, all existing units were recolored blue and repackaged. In 1983, the Speak & Spell was again redesigned; the change was more minute, representing nothing more substantial than a redesign of the faceplate graphics.
This version was marketed first in Italian as Grillo Parlante, later in the United States and the United Kingdom as the Speak & Spell, in France as the Dictée Magique again. The Super Speak & Spell was released in 1989 with a number of major changes; the display screen was changed to an LCD screen instead of the former VFD screen. The keyboard layout was altered to match the standard QWERTY keyboard rather than the ABC keyboard; the general structure of the console was altered so that the handle which had come at the top of the screen in prior Speak & Spells was now found on the bottom of the toy and ergonomic features were added to the shape. Furthermore, game cartridges for the Super Speak & Spell were changed so that they were incompatible with prior Speak & Spells and the cartridge slot was altered to prevent backward compatibility. Th
The Springtime is an experimental electric guitar with seven strings and three outputs. The instrument was created in 2008 by Dutch luthier Yuri Landman for guitar player Laura-Mary Carter of Blood Red Shoes; the string set up of the guitar is 1 bass string, 3 wound guitar strings for the chords and a cluster of 3 unwound strings tuned off-key unison, causing a rapid vibrating tone. Each group of strings has its own individual output for three amplifiers to preserve tonal interference; the sound simulates three musicians at once. The instrument is fitted with a so-called tailed bridge to increase overtone possibilities; the electronics contain switches to change the 3-way system to stereo or mono if fewer amplifiers are available. Landman handed over his prototype to Carter before their sold out gig on May 19, 2008 in the venue Doornroosje in Nijmegen, Holland; this is the first guitar created by Landman, put in serial production. The reproductions have a blank body. A few months after the first Springtime, Landman built the Springtime II on specifications made up by Lou Barlow.
Barlow's version has eight tuning pegs, two of them unused, but available for an alternative seven or eight string set up. The other six employ the strings for the instruments in four positions similar to a bass guitar, but the upper two positions are double coursed strings; because of this the instrument remains a six string guitar. The pickup configuration is different and four single coils are present instead of three; the lowest positioned pickup is left out and a regular bridge and neck pickup are placed aside of the rotated pickup duo. The velcro tape to mute undesired string resonance from the tailed bridge is not present on this version. Other alternate versions of the Springtime exist. For Mauro Pawlowski of dEUS Landman made an alternate version with nine tuning pegs and an additional pick up in the tail to explore the possibilities of creating third bridge sounds; this pick up has a separate output. A fifth pick up was added, similar to the bridge pick up present at Barlow's version.
A red version for Meric Long of The Dodos is made with an alternate pickup and string configuration. A red Springtime was used by Placebo frontman Brian Molko in 2008, while he was in the studio for recording Battle for the Sun. On the Battle for the Sun bonus DVD, Molko is seen experimenting with the Springtime and discussing its possible uses with producer David Bottrill. Article on myownmusicindustry.nl Article on The Dutch Rock & Pop Institute website Article on VPRO's 3VOOR12 website www.hypercustom.nl