Krabi is one of the southern provinces of Thailand, on the shore of the Andaman Sea. Neighbouring provinces are Phang Nga, Surat Thani, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Trang. Phuket Province lies to the west across Phang Nga Bay. Krabi town is the seat of provincial government; the area is dotted both on land and in the sea. Rock climbers from all over travel to Ton Sai Railay Beach; the beaches form part of Krabi's Phra Nang Peninsula. Of the 154 islands in the province, Ko Phi Phi Le is the most famous, as it was the site of the movie The Beach. Other notable islands include Ko Phi Phi Don, part of the Phi Phi Islands, Ko Lanta, a larger island to the south; the coast was damaged by the tsunami of 26 December 2004. Krabi's limestone hills contain most having stalactites and stalagmites. Tham Chao Le and Tham Phi Hua To, both in Ao Luek District, contain prehistoric rock-paintings depicting humans and geometrical shapes. In Lang Rong Rien cave in 1986 archaeologists found 40,000-year-old human artifacts: stone tools and bones.
It is one of the oldest traces of human occupation in Southeast Asia. Krabi's caves are one of the main sources of nests of the edible-nest swiftlet, used in the making of bird's nest soup. Krabi's farmland is dominated by a duopoly of palm oil plantations. Palm plantations alone occupy 52 percent of the province's farmland. Together, palm oil and rubber cover 95 percent of Krabi's cultivated area with many smallholder farms amidst industrial plantations. Circa 1200 CE, Krabi was tributary to the Kingdom of Ligor, a city on the Kra Peninsula's east coast, better known today as Nakhon Si Thammarat. In modern times, Krabi was administered from Nakhon Si Thammarat after 1872 when King Chulalongkorn granted Krabi town status. In 1875 it was made a direct subordinate of Bangkok. In 1900 the governor moved the seat of the province from Ban Talad Kao to its present location at the mouth of the Krabi River, it is believed the town may have taken its name from the word "krabi", which means'sword'. This may stem from a legend.
Krabi is subdivided into eight districts, which are further divided into 53 communes and 374 villages. The seal of the province shows two ancient crossed swords in front of the Indian Ocean and Khao Phanom Bencha mountain which, at 1,397 metres above sea level, is the highest mountain of the province; the provincial slogan is, "Krabi, the liveable city, friendly people."The provincial tree is the thung-fa or Alstonia macrophylla. In mid-2015, government plans to build an 800 megawatt coal-fired electricity generating station in Tambon Pakasai in Amphoe Nuea Khlong have generated protests and hunger strikes by those opposed to the plant who say that it would endanger Krabi's pristine environment; the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand has pushed forward with development. The government intends to start the bidding process without an environmental assessment in order to "save time"; the Krabi site is one of nine coal-fired plants planned for southern Thailand to be constructed over the next two decades to off-set the depletion of natural gas fields in the Gulf of Thailand.
Opponents of the plan say their demands—which include a three-year waiting period to see if the province can produce 100 percent renewable energy—have been ignored. Thailand's resolve to go ahead with the massive new coal-fired power station in Krabi, a 315 MWe, 48 billion baht undertaking, presents a problem. Coal is a major source of mercury poisoning and has been found in toxic amounts up to 12 times more than the maximum acceptable dose in the inhabitants of Tha Thum in Prachinburi Province. Possible vectors are fly ash from the local coal power plant, coal dust from outdoor coal storage piles, or coal ash, used as fertiliser; these present risks to Krabi. Coal pollution mitigation technology, sometimes called "clean coal", is still in its infancy and at the moment can only handle sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulates. Carbon dioxide sequestering is costly. Two academics, referring to coal pollution mitigation in general, point out that, "So-called'clean coal' is expensive, untested and unworkable, yet it is raised as a panacea."
In mid-2016, a pro-renewables working group in Krabi published a "Green Power Development Plan". It concludes that Krabi Province can depend on renewables—mainly biomass and biogas—for 100 percent of its electricity needs; the report calculates. During a subsequent three-year period, renewables could generate 287 MW, exceeding the province's peak demand year of 2015, when it consumed 143 MW. If adopted, the plan would obviate the need to import coal, saving 175 billion baht over a 25-year period. In August 2016, EGAT solicited bids for the plant's construction and received bids in the range of 32–34.9 billion baht. The bidding process and the environmental and health impact assessment report were completed simultaneously. "After being delayed for two years, this November will be the time to decide whether to proceed or scrap the plan," said Energy Minister Gen Anantaporn Kanjanarat. EGAT power plant opponents in Krabi have formed a coalition of local administration officials, academics and concerned citizens, proving to be a formidable opponent of EGAT's fossil fueled plan
The 18th Division was an infantry division in the III Corps of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam. The U. S. Military Assistance Command Vietnam considered the 18th as undisciplined and was well known throughout the ARVN for its "cowboy" reputation. In 1975 the 18th was made famous for its tenacious defense of Xuân Lộc, the last major battle before the Fall of Saigon; the Division was activated as the 10th Infantry Division in May 1965 under the command of General Lữ Mộng Lan. By the end of 1965 the US advisers to the Division regarded General Lan as "moody and vacillatory" and "a marginal commander who would have to be worked with." They gave Lan high marks for his "perceptiveness and dexterity in civil affairs and troop morale" but saw his interest in local politics as too distracting. Although they found his three regimental commanders "capable and willing people," they felt that it was too early to judge if the Division was going to jell into a fighting unit. COMUSMACV General William Westmoreland predicted that combined operations with the US 1st Infantry Division and the 173rd Airborne Brigade would inspire the Division to higher standards.
In early May 1966 General Westmoreland suggested a "buddy" effort, matching the US 173d Airborne Brigade and the 1st Australian Task Force with the Division. In 1967 MACV assessed that the three ARVN divisions surrounding Saigon, the Division, 5th and the 25th Division had shown no improvement, US advisers considered their commanders, Generals Do Ke Giai, Pham Quoc Thuan and Phan Trong Chinh, flatly incompetent; the senior Junta generals had agreed on the need to replace them, for political reasons, had taken no action. Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development Support leader Robert Komer accused several battalion commanders in the Division of using the new pacification mission as an excuse to withdraw from all meaningful operations, except to provide for their own self-protection. On 27/8 June 1967 units of the Division engaged forces from the Viet Cong 5th Division near Tuc Trung and had to be assisted by the US 1st Squadron, 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment, conducting Operation Akron.
ARVN losses were 51 killed, but they killed 167 VC while US forces claimed a further 49. From 3 November 1967 to 5 January 1968 the Division participated in Operation Santa Fe, a security operation with the US 1st Brigade, 9th Infantry Division and the 1st Australian Task Force against the VC 5th Division's base in the May Tao Secret Zone. From 8 April to 31 May 1968 the Division participated in Operation Toan Thang I to continue pressure on PAVN/VC forces in III Corps after the successful Operation Quyet Thang; the operation involved nearly every combat unit in III Corps. The operation was a success with allied forces claiming 7645 VC/PAVN killed, however the operation did not prevent the PAVN/VC from launching their May Offensive attacks against Saigon. In September 1968 MACV rated General Giai as inept and Division advisers noted that the Division was a "laughing stock" to the Vietnamese. II Field Force, Vietnam commander Lt. Gen. Walter T. Kerwin, Jr. appealed to COMUSMACV General Creighton Abrams for help, the MACV commander "raised hell" with President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu over the matter, but Thiệu feeling safer with old friends like Giai around the capital to keep a watch on his rivals, did nothing.
On 15 January 1969 the Headquarters and 3rd Battalion 52nd Regiment and the 5th Marine Battalion joined Operation Goodwood with the 1st Australian Task Force replacing the 1st Marine Battalion. In June 1969 the new II Field Force commander Lt. Gen. Julian Ewell initiated the Dong Tien Program with III Corps commander, General Đỗ Cao Trí, to "buddy up US and ARVN units to conduct combined operations... maximize the effectiveness of both forces achieve in 2, 3, or 4 months a quantum jump in ARVN and RF/PF performance." The US 199th Light Infantry Brigade moved to Xuan Loc, headquarters of the Division, began a series of combined operations with what was still considered one of the worst units in the ARVN. In July 1969, Maj. Gen. Roderick Wetherill, the IV Corps senior adviser, suggested deploying elements of the Division out of the placid Saigon area and into the delta border regions where they might pick up some useful combat experience, however Lt. Gen. Ewell treated the proposal as a joke saying "the 18th couldn't hit the ground with their hat in Delta terrain against the VC" and insisted they stay at home, out of harm's way.
General Abrams agreed and let the matter drop. In August 1969 Giai was replaced as Division commander by General Lam Quang Tho, however US officials had major reservations about this replacement, not regarding Tho as a dynamic leader. One MACV evaluation described Tho as a "highly respected and admired general," while another judged him to be a "coward and military incompetent." During the Easter Offensive in late March 1972 the Division's 2nd Battalion, 52nd Infantry Regiment and 1st Battalion, 48th Infantry Regiment were both transferred to the 5th Division to serve as a border screen. During the Battle of Loc Ninh, on 6 April 5th Division commander Brigadier General Lê Văn Hưng organised the 2 Battalions as Task Force 52 and ordered them to move north to relieve the 9th Infantry Regiment under siege in Lộc Ninh; as the 2nd Battalion to advance towards Lộc Ninh it was ambushed at the junction of National Highway 13 and Route 17. Unable to withstand the VC's superior firepower, it was forced to withdraw.
To prevent Task Force 52 from evacuating to either Lộc Ninh or An Lộc, the VC pursued Task Force 52 and bombarded their bases with heavy artillery throughout the day. As Lộc Ninh fell on the morning of 7 April at 09:00 General Hưng ordered Task Force 52 to a
Moby-Dick is a novel by Herman Melville. While some characters only appear in the shore-based chapters at the beginning of the book, others are captains and crewmembers of other ships, the majority of the characters are crew members of the Pequod; the following is a list of the characters. Ahab is the tyrannical captain of the Pequod, driven by a monomaniacal desire to kill Moby Dick, the whale that had maimed him off the coast of Japan during a previous whaling voyage. Ahab’s obsession with Moby Dick causes the death of the entire crew of the Pequod, except for Ishmael. He's the main protagonist of the novel. Ishmael, the only surviving crewmember of the Pequod, is the narrator of the book, but not the main protagonist; as a character he is a few years younger. His importance relies on his role as narrator; the name has come to symbolize orphans and social outcasts. The title character is a giant white bull sperm whale and arguably the main antagonist of the novel. A former whaler, a preacher in the New Bedford Whaleman's Chapel.
The character Elijah, on learning that Ishmael and Queequeg have signed onto Ahab's ship, asks, "Anything down there about your souls?" When Ishmael reacts with surprise, Elijah continues: Oh you hav'n't got any," he said quickly. "No matter though, I know many chaps that hav'n't got any — good luck to'em. A soul's a sort of a fifth wheel to a wagon." In the conversation, Elijah adds: Well, what's signed, is signed. Any how, it arranged a ` ready. Morning to ye, morning; the principal owners of the Pequod, two well-to-do Quaker retired whaling captains. Both have names taken from the Bible: Peleg, Bildad. Peleg served as first mate under Ahab on the Pequod before obtaining his own command, is responsible for all her whalebone embellishment; the crew is international, having constituents from rest of the world. Chapter 40, "Midnight, Forecastle," highlights, in its stage-play manner, the striking variety in the sailors' origins. A partial list of the speakers includes sailors from the Isle of Man, Iceland, the Netherlands, the Azores and Malta, Chile, Portugal, England and Ireland.
Although in fact 44 members of the crew are mentioned, in the final chapters Melville writes three times that there are 30 crewmembers. Since there were thirty states in the union at the time, it has been suggested that, in its diversity, the Pequod to be a metaphor for American ship of state; the three mates of the Pequod are all from New England. Starbuck, the young chief mate of the Pequod, is a thoughtful and intellectual Quaker from Nantucket, he is married with a son. Such is his desire to return to them, that when nearly reaching the last leg of their quest for Moby Dick, he considers arresting or killing Ahab with a loaded musket, turning the ship back, straight for home. Starbuck is alone among the crew in objecting to Ahab's quest, declaring it madness to want revenge on an animal, which lacks reason. Starbuck advocates continuing the more mundane pursuit of whales for their oil, but he lacks the support of the crew in his opposition to Ahab, is unable to persuade them to turn back. Despite his misgivings, he feels himself bound by his obligations to obey the captain.
Starbuck was an important Quaker family name on Nantucket, there were several actual whalemen of this period named Starbuck, as evidenced by the name of Starbuck Island in the South Pacific whaling grounds. Stubb, the second mate of the Pequod, is from Cape Cod, always seems to have a pipe in his mouth and a smile on his face. "Good-humored and careless, he presided over his whaleboat as if the most deadly encounter were but a dinner, his crew all invited guests". Although he is not an educated man, Stubb is remarkably articulate, during whale hunts keeps up an imaginative patter reminiscent of that of some characters in Shakespeare. Scholarly portrayals range from that of an optimistic simpleton to a paragon of lived philosophic wisdom. Flask is the third mate of the Pequod. A short, stout man hailing from Martha's Vineyard, he approaches the practice of whaling as if trying to avenge some deep offense the whales have done him. Flask is nicknamed "King-Post" by the crew, as his physical stature reminds them of this short, strong timber, used to brace ships and structures.
The harpooneers of the Pequod are all non-Christians from various parts of the world. Each serves on a mate's boat. Queequeg hails from the fictional island of Rokovoko in the South Seas, inhabited by a cannibal tribe, is the son of the chief of his tribe. Since leaving the island, he has become skilled with the harpoon, he befriends Ishmael early in the novel. He is described as existing in a state between savage. Queequeg is the harpooneer on Starbuck's boat, where Ishmael is an oarsman. Queequeg is best friends with Ishmael in the story, he is prominent early in the novel, but fades in significance, as does Ishmael. Tashtego is described as a Gay Head Native American harpooneer; the personification of the hunter, he turns from hunting land animals to hunting whales. Tashtego is the
Hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia, or mucoepithelial dysplasia, is a rare autosomal dominant multiepithelial disorder causing systemic maldevelopment of the epithelia and mucous membranes that line the surface of tissues and structures throughout the body affecting systems affiliated with mucosa, which includes the respiratory, urinary and immune systems. The disorder is attributed to improper formation of desmosomes and gap junctions, which prevents proper cornification of the epithelial layer of the skin. Desmosomes are extracellular protein structures responsible for cellular adhesion, whereby cells of the same type are held together. Gap junctions are specialized channels located within the cell membrane of many animal cell types, which serve as gateways that connect the cytoplasmic interior of two adjacent cells, allowing the passage of small molecules such as ions, second messengers and others; the movement and exchange of small molecules between cells is an important part of intracellular communication processes like cell signaling
The Diplectanidae are a family of monopisthocotylean monogeneans. They are all parasitic on the gills of fish. Diplectanids are small animals around 1 mm in length; as parasites, they can be numerous, up to several thousand on an individual fish. The family Diplectanidae was proposed by the Italian parasitologist Monticelli in 1903; the status of the family and its components was examined by various authors, including Johnston & Tiegs, Bychowsky and Oliver. Diplectanids are diagnosed by the combination of these three characters: Presence of accessory adhesive organs on dorsal and ventral part of the haptor, called squamodiscs when they are made up of rodlets and lamellodiscs when they include lamellae In the haptor, three transversal bars (one ventral, two lateral, connected to two pairs of hooks A germarium, anterior to the testis and loops around the right intestinal caecum The genera recognized in WoRMS are
Phymorhynchus castaneus is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Raphitomidae. Phymorhynchus castaneus is the type species of the genus Phymorhynchus; this species occurs in the Pacific Ocean in the Gulf of Panama. The shell is polished, thin, it is resembling Phymorhynchus cingulatus, of a chestnut-brown color, fading to a paler pinkish-brown, with seven whorls. The nucleus eroded, the early whorls are with four or five flattened elevated spirals with wider interspaces in front of a somewhat sloping anal fasciole, more or less reticulated by narrow, irregular, elevated riblets in harmony with the lines of growth, which form on the fasciole delicate arches concave forward; the suture is appressed. On the body there are about twenty spirals, stronger at the shoulder and closer forward, the wide interspaces finely spirally striate, while the most prominent spirals are undulate or obscurely nodulous; the transverse sculpture is nearly obsolete and hardly to be distinguished from the incremental lines.
The aperture is oval. The outer lip is thin, crenulated by the sculpture, but not lirate. Anal sulcus is shallow, directly in front of the suture. Body whorl is with a thin wash of callus. Pillar is thin, attenuated in front, forming a narrowly pervious axis, the whole of a pinkish-brown color; the canal is short, not recurved. The width of the shell is 23 millimetres and the height is 53 mm; the height of the last whorl is 38 mm, the height of the aperture is 28 mm. Phymorhynchus castaneus differs from Phymorhynchus cingulatus by its smaller size, more sloping whorls, more delicate and reticulate sculpture, by its pervious axis; the animal is blind, there is no operculum. This article incorporates public domain text from the 1908 reference "Reports on the Dredging Operations off the West Coast of Central America...". Tucker, J. K.. "Catalog of recent and fossil turrids". Zootaxa. 682: 1–1295. Gastropods.com: Phymorhynchus castaneus