Jazz dance is the performance dance technique and style that emerged in America in the early twentieth century. Jazz dance may refer to vernacular Broadway or theatrical jazz. Both genres build on the African American vernacular style of dancing. Vernacular jazz dance includes ragtime dances, Lindy hop, mambo. Popular vernacular jazz dance performers include The Whitman Sisters, Florence Mills, Ethel Waters, Al & Leon, Frankie Manning, Norma Miller, Dawn Hampton, Katherine Dunham. Theatrical jazz dance performed on concert stage was popularized by Jack Cole, Bob Fosse, Eugene Louis Faccuito, Gus Giordano; the term "jazz dance" has been used in ways. Since the 1940s, Hollywood movies and Broadway shows have used the term to describe the choreography of Bob Fosse and Jerome Robbins. In the 1990s, colleges and universities applied to the term to classes offered by physical education departments in which students dance to various forms of pop music jazz; the origin of jazz dance can be traced to African ritual and celebratory dances from around the seventeenth century.
These dances emphasized improvisation. From the sixteenth to the nineteenth century, the transatlantic slave trade brought ten million enslaved Africans to the Americas. By 1817 in New Orleans, city laws "restricted gatherings of enslaved people to Sunday afternoons in Congo Square, known as Place Publique". In 1917, jazz pianist Spencer Williams wrote a song called "Shim-Me-Sha-Wabble" which inspired a jazz dance called the shimmy; the shimmy is done by holding the body still "except for the shoulders, which are alternated back and forth". The dances that emerged during this period were the Lindy hop; the Charleston is "characterized by its toes-in, heels-out twisting steps". It can be done with any number of people; the Lindy hop was a wild and spontaneous partner dance, rhythmically conscious. When the Great Depression began in October of 1929, many people turned to dance; because of this, the Charleston and the Lindy hop are now considered to be under the umbrella term "swing dance" because they were most popular during the swing era of music.
Jacqui Malone distinguishes between dances such as the Lindy hop in the 1930s and Bob Fosse's choreography in a Broadway musical such as Chicago in the 1970s, though the term "jazz dance" has been applied to both. She uses terms such as "vernacular dance" and "classic jazz dance" to refer to the former. Referring to the latter, she follows Marshall and Jean Sterns in using the term "modern jazz dance"; the Stearns drew attention to Shuffle Along, an all-black Broadway revue with Josephine Baker that started in 1921 and toured American cities for two years. Buddy Bradley choreographed black musicals in 1920s and 1930s and with Jack Cole, who choreographed the movies Kismet and Gentleman Prefer Blondes. Cole influenced. Gwen Verdon was a student of Cole, she danced in the musical Chicago in 1975. Twenty years Chicago was revived on Broadway, Ann Reinking repeated some of the Fosse style; this style of jazz dance has been linked with Gower Champion, Michael Kidd, Jerome Robbins. The emphasis on sexuality in this kind of dancing led Martha Graham to say it belongs to the "House of Pelvic Truth".
White choreographers on Broadway began using vernacular jazz movements as early as 1913, setting the choreography in all or white casts shows. In 1913, Florenz Ziegfeld Jr. of the Ziegfeld Follies purchased the finale to The Darktown Follies, a show choreographed and performed by an all African American cast and made it the finale of this show opening on the New Amsterdam Theater. In the 1920s and 30s African American women who starred in the musical stages revues of New York further popularized jazz dance vocabulary, as well as radical images of free, satirical, gender-bending female independence. Eugene Louis Faccuito created the Luigi Technique consisting of "highly stylized, continuously flowing movements that developed the technique and style for the combinations that followed". Cole's style has been called hip and cool". Fosse combined "vaudeville, magic shows, nightclubs and Broadway musicals". Contemporary jazz became well known because of shows. Mia Michaels's earlier work exemplifies this style.
Some other companies and choreographers that create contemporary jazz dance are Sonya Tayeh, Mandy Moore, Hubbard Street Dance Chicago. Commercial jazz, popular since the 1980s, combines aspects of hip hop and jazz and is done to pop music; this style can be seen in the music videos of Paula Abdul. Commercial jazz includes more "tricks." Commercial jazz and contemporary jazz are both seen at dance competitions. Another variety of jazz is Latin jazz. "Maria Torres developed and popularized the fusion at Broadway Dance Center". Latin jazz has an emphasis on the movement of isolations, it can be seen in the films El Dance with Me, as well as on TV dance shows. Jack Cole influenced Matt Mattox, Bob Fosse, Jerome Robbins, Gwen Verdon, Duplicate word removedis credited with popularizing the theatrical form of jazz dance with his great number of choreographic works on television and Broadway. Katherine Dunham is an anthropologist and pioneer in black theatrical dance who introduced isolations jazz dance.
Eugene Louis Faccuito known as Luigi, was an American jazz dancer, teacherm choreographer, creator of the first codified jazz technique, the Luigi Technique. Bob Fosse and film director, revo
Ballet is a type of performance dance that originated during the Italian Renaissance in the fifteenth century and developed into a concert dance form in France and Russia. It has since become a widespread technical form of dance with its own vocabulary based on French terminology, it has been globally influential and has defined the foundational techniques used in many other dance genres and cultures. Ballet has been taught in various schools around the world, which have incorporated their own cultures and as a result, the art has evolved in a number of distinct ways. See glossary of ballet. A ballet, a work, consists of the music for a ballet production. Ballets are performed by trained ballet dancers. Traditional classical ballets are performed with classical music accompaniment and use elaborate costumes and staging, whereas modern ballets, such as the neoclassical works of American choreographer George Balanchine are performed in simple costumes and without the use of elaborate sets or scenery.
Ballet is a French word which had its origin in Italian balletto, a diminutive of ballo which comes from Latin ballo, meaning "to dance", which in turn comes from the Greek "βαλλίζω", "to dance, to jump about". The word came into English usage from the French around 1630. Ballet originated in the Italian Renaissance courts of the sixteenth centuries. Under Catherine de' Medici's influence as Queen, it spread to France, where it developed further; the dancers in these early court ballets were noble amateurs. Ornamented costumes were meant to impress viewers, but they restricted performers' freedom of movement; the ballets were performed in large chambers with viewers on three sides. The implementation of the proscenium arch from 1618 on distanced performers from audience members, who could better view and appreciate the technical feats of the professional dancers in the productions. French court ballet reached its height under the reign of King Louis XIV. Louis founded the Académie Royale de Danse in 1661 to establish standards and certify dance instructors.
In 1672, Louis XIV made Jean-Baptiste Lully the director of the Académie Royale de Musique from which the first professional ballet company, the Paris Opera Ballet, arose. Pierre Beauchamp served as Lully's ballet-master. Together their partnership would drastically influence the development of ballet, as evidenced by the credit given to them for the creation of the five major positions of the feet. By 1681, the first "ballerinas" took the stage following years of training at the Académie. Ballet started to decline in France after 1830, but it continued to develop in Denmark and Russia; the arrival in Europe of the Ballets Russes led by Sergei Diaghilev on the eve of the First World War revived interest in the ballet and started the modern era. In the twentieth century, ballet had a wide influence on other dance genres, Also in the twentieth century, ballet took a turn dividing it from classical ballet to the introduction of modern dance, leading to modernist movements in several countries. Famous dancers of the twentieth century include Anna Pavlova, Galina Ulanova, Rudolf Nureyev, Maya Plisetskaya, Margot Fonteyn, Rosella Hightower, Maria Tall Chief, Erik Bruhn, Mikhail Baryshnikov, Suzanne Farrell, Gelsey Kirkland, Natalia Makarova, Arthur Mitchell.
Stylistic variations and subgenres have evolved over time. Early, classical variations are associated with geographic origin. Examples of this are Russian ballet, French ballet, Italian ballet. Variations, such as contemporary ballet and neoclassical ballet, incorporate both classical ballet and non-traditional technique and movement; the most known and performed ballet style is late Romantic ballet. Classical ballet is based on vocabulary. Different styles have emerged in different countries, such as French ballet, Italian ballet, English ballet, Russian ballet. Several of the classical ballet styles are associated with specific training methods named after their creators; the Royal Academy of Dance method is a ballet technique and training system, founded by a diverse group of ballet dancers. They merged their respective dance methods to create a new style of ballet, unique to the organization and is recognized internationally as the English style of ballet; some examples of classical ballet productions are: the Nutcracker.
Romantic ballet was an artistic movement of classical ballet and several productions remain in the classical repertoire today. The Romantic era was marked by the emergence of pointe work, the dominance of female dancers, longer, flowy tutus that attempt to exemplify softness and a delicate aura; this movement occurred during the early to mid-nineteenth century and featured themes that emphasized intense emotion as a source of aesthetic experience. The plots of many romantic ballets revolved around spirit women who enslaved the hearts and senses of mortal men; the 1827 ballet La Sylphide is considered to be the first, the 1870 ballet Coppélia is considered to be the last. Famous ballet dancers of the Romantic era include Marie Taglioni, Fanny Elssler, Jules Perrot. Jules Perrot is known for his choreography that of Giselle considered to be the most celebrated romantic ballet. Neoclassical ballet is abstract, with no clear plot, costumes or scenery. Music choice can be diverse and will include music, neoclassical.
Lesser Poland known by its Polish name Małopolska, is a historical region of Poland. It should not be confused with the modern Lesser Poland Voivodeship, which covers only the south-western part of Lesser Poland. Historical Lesser Poland was much bigger than the current voivodeship, it reached from Bielsko-Biała in the south-west as far as to Siedlce in the north-east. It consisted of the three voivodeships of Sandomierz and Lublin, it comprised 60,000 km2 in area. Its landscape is hilly, with the Carpathian Mountains in the south, it has been noted for rich nobility. In the wider sense, Lesser Poland from the 14th century encompassed Red Ruthenia. From the 16th century it included Podlachia and parts of modern Ukraine. In the era of partitions, the southern part, known as Galicia, was sometimes called Lesser Poland; as a result of this long-lasting division, many inhabitants of the northern part of the pre-partition region of Poland do not recognize their Lesser Polish identity. However, while Lublin was declared an independent Voivodeship as early as 1474, it still has speakers of the Lesser Polish dialect.
In addition, it has various local traditions as well as cuisine that have been carried forward since the time of Lesser Poland. Lesser Poland lies in the area of the upper confluence of the Vistula river and covers a large upland, including the Świętokrzyskie Mountains with the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland further west, Małopolska Upland, Sandomierz Basin, Lublin Upland. Unlike other historical parts of the country, such as Kujawy, Podlachia, Pomerania, or Greater Poland, Lesser Poland is hilly, with Poland's highest peak, located within the borders of the province. Flat are northern and central areas of the province – around Tarnobrzeg, Stalowa Wola and Siedlce valleys of the main rivers – the Vistula, the Pilica, the San. Apart from Rysy, there are several other peaks located in the province – Pilsko, Babia Góra, Turbacz, as well as Łysica in the Świętokrzyskie Mountains. Southern part of the province is covered by the Carpathian Mountains, which are made of smaller ranges, such as Pieniny and Beskidy.
Whole area is located in the Vistula Basin, with the exception of western and southern parts, belonging to the Odra and Dunaj Basins. Main rivers of the province are the Vistula, upper Warta, Soła, Raba, Wisłok, Wisłoka, Wieprz, Nida, Kamienna and Pilica. Major lakes of the province are: Lake Rożnów, Lake Czchów, Lake Dobczyce, Lake Czorsztyn, Lake Czaniec, Lake Międzybrodzie, Lake Klimkówka and Żywiec Lake. Most of them are man-made reservoirs. Lesser Poland stretches from the Carpathians in the south to Liwiec rivers to the north, it borders Mazovia to the north, Podlaskie to the northeast, Red Ruthenia to the east, Slovakia to the south, Silesia to the west, Greater Poland to the northwest. The region is divided between Polish voivodeships – Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, Silesian Voivodeship, Podkarpackie Voivodeship, Masovian Voivodeship, Łódź Voivodeship, Lublin Voivodeship. In Silesian Voivodeship, the border between Silesia and Lesser Poland is easy to draw, because with few exceptions, it goes along boundaries of local counties.
In the south, it goes along western boundary of ancient Duchy of Teschen, with the borderline along the Biała river, where Zwardoń, Milówka, Rajcza are in Lesser Poland. Bielsko-Biała is a city made of two parts – Lesser Poland's Biala, makes eastern half of the city, only in 1951 it merged with Silesian Bielsko. Further north, the border goes along western boundaries of cities of Jaworzno, Sosnowiec, along the Przemsza and Brynica rivers, it goes northwest, leaving Czeladź, Koziegłowy, Blachownia, Kłobuck and Krzepice within Lesser Poland. From Krzepice, the border goes eastwards, towards Koniecpol, along the Pilica river, with such towns as Przedborz, Drzewica, Białobrzegi, Kozienice within Lesser Poland. East of Białobrzegi, the boundary goes along the Radomka river, to the Vistula. East of the Vistula, the boundary goes north of Łaskarzew and Żelechów, south of Mazovian town of Garwolin, turning northwest. Extreme northern point of the province is marked by the Liwiec river, with both Siedlce, Łuków being part of Lesser Poland.
The line goes south, with Miedzyrzec Podlaski being part of historical Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Radzyń Podlaski as well as Parczew left in Lesser Poland. Between the Vistula and the Bug Rivers, eastern border of Lesser Poland goes west of Leczna, but east of Krasnystaw and Szczebrzeszyn, both of which belong to Red Ruthenia. Further south, Lesser Poland includes Frampol, Biłgoraj, which lies in the southeastern corner on Lesser Poland's historical Lublin Voivodeship, close to the border with Red Ruthenia; the border goes west of Biłgoraj, turning south, towards Leżajsk. Boundary between Lesser Poland and Red Ruthenia was described by Ukrainian historian and geographer Myron Korduba along the line Dukla – Krosno – Domaradz – Czudec – Krzeszów nad Sanem. Lesser Poland border towns were: Rudnik, Ropczyce, Sędziszów Małopolski, Strzyżów, Jasło, Biecz
Circle dance, or chain dance, is a style of dance done in a circle or semicircle to musical accompaniment, such as rhythm instruments and singing. Circle dancing is the oldest known dance formation and was part of community life from when people first started to dance. Dancing in a circle is an ancient tradition common to many cultures for marking special occasions, strengthening community and encouraging togetherness; the dance can be enjoyed as an uplifting group experience or as part of a meditation. Circle dances are choreographed to many different styles of music and rhythms. Unlike line dancing, circle dancers are in physical contact with each other, it is a type of dance. The participants follow a leader around the dance floor while holding the hand of the dancers beside them; the dance can be energetic. Modern circle dance mixes traditional folk dances from European or Near Eastern sources, with choreographed ones to a variety of music both ancient and modern. There is a growing repertoire of new circle dances to classical music and contemporary songs.
Modern circle dancing is found in many cultures, including Arabic, Assyrian, Turkish, Azerbaijani and South Eastern European. Despite its immense reputation in the Middle East and southeast Europe, circle dancing has a historical prominence in Brittany and Ireland to the west of Europe, in South America and with Native Americans, it is used, in its more meditative form, in worship within various religious traditions including, the Church of England and the Islamic Haḍra dances. Thousands of medieval tombstones called "Stećci" were found in Bosnia and Hercegovina and neighboring areas, they dated from the end of the 12th century to the 16th century. They bear inscription and figures. Men and women are portrayed dancing together holding hands at shoulder level but the groups consist of only one sex. In Macedonia, near the town of Zletovo, the murals on the monastery of Lesnovo, which date from the 14th century, show a group of young men linking arms in a round dance. A chronicle from 1344 urges the people of the city of Zadar to sing and dance circle dances for a festival.
However, a reference comes from Bulgaria, in a manuscript of a 14th-century sermon, which calls chain dances "devilish and damned." The circle dance of Germany was called "Reigen", which dates from the 10th century, may have originated from devotional dances at early Christian festivals. Dancing around the church or a fire was denounced by church authorities which only underscores how popular it was. One of the frescos in Tyrol, at Runkelstein Castle, depicts Elisabeth of Poland, Queen of Hungary leading a chain dance. Circle dances were found in Czech Republic, dating to the 15th century. Dancing was done around trees on the village green. In Poland as well the earliest village dances were in circles or lines accompanied by the singing or clapping of the participants. In the 14th century Giovanni Boccaccio describes men and women circle dancing to their own singing or accompanied by musicians. One of the frescos in Siena by Ambrogio Lorenzetti painted in 1338-40 show a group of women doing a "bridge" figure while accompanied by another woman playing the tambourine.
There are the accounts of two western European travelers to Constantinople, the capital of the Ottoman Empire. In 1577, Salomon Schweigger describes the events at a Greek wedding: "then they joined arms one upon the other, made a circle, went round the circle, with their feet stepping hard and stamping. Another traveler, the German pharmacist Reinhold Lubenau, was in Constantinople in November 1588 and reports on a Greek wedding in these terms: "a company of Greeks of ten or more persons, stepped forth to the open place, took each other by the hand, made a round circle, now stepped backward, now forward, sometimes went around, singing in Greek the while, sometimes stamped on the ground with their feet." In Denmark, old ballads mention a closed circle dance. A fresco in Ørslev church in Zealand from about 1400 shows nine people and women, dancing in a line; the leader and some others in the chain carry bouquets of flowers. In the case of women's dances, there may have been a man. In Sweden, medieval songs mentioned dancing.
A long chain was formed, with the leader singing the verses and setting the time while the other dancers joined in the chorus. The hora dance originates in the Balkans but found in other countries; the dancers hold each other's hands and the circle spins counterclockwise, as each participant follows a sequence of three steps forward and one step back. The Hora is popular during wedding celebrations and festivals, is an essential part of the social entertainment in rural areas. In Bulgaria, it is not necessary to be in a circle; the kolo is a collective folk dance common in various South Slavic regions, such as Serbia, named after the circle formed by the dancers. It is performed amongst groups of people holding each other's having their hands around each other's waists. There is no movement
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Dance is a performing art form consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement. This movement has aesthetic and symbolic value, is acknowledged as dance by performers and observers within a particular culture. Dance can be categorized and described by its choreography, by its repertoire of movements, or by its historical period or place of origin. An important distinction is to be drawn between the contexts of theatrical and participatory dance, although these two categories are not always separate. Other forms of human movement are sometimes said to have a dance-like quality, including martial arts, cheerleading, figure skating, synchronized swimming, marching bands, many other forms of athletics. Theatrical dance called performance or concert dance, is intended as a spectacle a performance upon a stage by virtuoso dancers, it tells a story using mime and scenery, or else it may interpret the musical accompaniment, specially composed. Examples are western ballet and modern dance, Classical Indian dance and Chinese and Japanese song and dance dramas.
Most classical forms are centred upon dance alone, but performance dance may appear in opera and other forms of musical theatre. Participatory dance, on the other hand, whether it be a folk dance, a social dance, a group dance such as a line, chain or square dance, or a partner dance such as is common in western Western ballroom dancing, is undertaken for a common purpose, such as social interaction or exercise, of participants rather than onlookers; such dance has any narrative. A group dance and a corps de ballet, a social partner dance and a pas de deux, differ profoundly. A solo dance may be undertaken for the satisfaction of the dancer. Participatory dancers all employ the same movements and steps but, for example, in the rave culture of electronic dance music, vast crowds may engage in free dance, uncoordinated with those around them. On the other hand, some cultures lay down strict rules as to the particular dances in which, for example, men and children may or must participate. Archeological evidence for early dance includes 9,000-year-old paintings in India at the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka, Egyptian tomb paintings depicting dancing figures, dated c. 3300 BC.
It has been proposed that before the invention of written languages, dance was an important part of the oral and performance methods of passing stories down from one generation to the next. The use of dance in ecstatic trance states and healing rituals is thought to have been another early factor in the social development of dance. References to dance can be found in early recorded history; the Bible and Talmud refer to many events related to dance, contain over 30 different dance terms. In Chinese pottery as early as the Neolithic period, groups of people are depicted dancing in a line holding hands, the earliest Chinese word for "dance" is found written in the oracle bones. Dance is further described in the Lüshi Chunqiu. Primitive dance in ancient China was associated with shamanic rituals. During the first millennium BCE in India, many texts were composed which attempted to codify aspects of daily life. Bharata Muni's Natyashastra is one of the earlier texts, it deals with drama, in which dance plays an important part in Indian culture.
It categorizes dance into four types – secular, abstract, interpretive – and into four regional varieties. The text elaborates various hand-gestures and classifies movements of the various limbs, steps and so on. A strong continuous tradition of dance has since continued in India, through to modern times, where it continues to play a role in culture, and, the Bollywood entertainment industry. Many other contemporary dance forms can be traced back to historical, traditional and ethnic dance. Dance is though not performed with the accompaniment of music and may or may not be performed in time to such music; some dance may provide its own audible accompaniment in place of music. Many early forms of music and dance were created for each other and are performed together. Notable examples of traditional dance/music couplings include the jig, tango and salsa; some musical genres have a parallel dance form such as baroque dance. Rhythm and dance are linked in history and practice; the American dancer Ted Shawn wrote.
A musical rhythm requires two main elements. The basic pulse is equal in duration to a simple step or gesture. Dances have a characteristic tempo and rhythmic pattern; the tango, for example, is danced in 24 time at 66 beats per minute. The basic slow step, called a "slow", lasts for one beat, so that a full "right–left" step is equal to one 24 measure; the basic forward and backward walk of the dance is so coun
Breaking called breakdancing or b-boying/b-girling, is an athletic style of street dance. While diverse in the amount of variation available in the dance, breakdancing consists of four kinds of movement: toprock, power moves and freezes. Breakdancing is set to songs containing drum breaks in hip-hop, soul music and breakbeat music, although modern trends allow for much wider varieties of music along certain ranges of tempo and beat patterns. Breaking was created by African American youth during early 1970s; the earliest breakdancing groups included the "Zulu Kings" and "Clark Kent". By the late seventies, the dance had begun to spread to other communities and was gaining wider popularity. A practitioner of this dance is called b-girl, or breaker. Although the term "breakdance" is used to refer to the dance in popular culture and in the mainstream entertainment industry, "b-boying" and "breaking" are the original terms and are preferred by the majority of the pioneers and most notable practitioners.
Instead of the original term b-boying, the mainstream media promoted the art-form as breakdancing, by which it came to be known. Some enthusiasts consider "breakdancing" an ignorant and derogatory term due to the media’s exploitation of the artform; the media displayed a simplified version of the dance, making it seem like the so-called "tricks" were everything trading the culture for money and promotion. The term "breakdancing" is problematic because it has become a diluted umbrella term that includes popping and electric boogaloo, which are not styles of "breakdance", but are funk styles that were developed separately from breaking in California; the dance itself is properly called "breaking" by rappers such as KRS-One, Talib Kweli, Mos Def, Darryl McDaniels of Run-D. M. C; the terms "b-boy", "b-girl", "breaker" were the original terms used to describe the dancers who performed to DJ Kool Herc's breakbeats. DJ Kool Herc is a Jamaican-American DJ, responsible for developing the foundational aspects of hip-hop music.
The obvious connection of the term "breaking" is to the word "breakbeat". DJ Kool Herc has commented that the term "breaking" was 1970s slang for "getting excited", "acting energetically" or "causing a disturbance". Most breaking pioneers and practitioners prefer the terms "b-boy", "b-girl", and/or "breaker" when referring to these dancers. For those immersed in hip-hop culture, the term "breakdancer" may be used to disparage those who learn the dance for personal gain rather than for commitment to the culture. B-boy London of the New York City Breakers and filmmaker Michael Holman refer to these dancers as "breakers". Frosty Freeze of the Rock Steady Crew says, "we were known as b-boys", hip-hop pioneer Afrika Bambaataa says, "b-boys, what you call break boys... or b-girls, what you call break girls." In addition, co-founder of Rock Steady Crew Santiago "Jo Jo" Torres, Rock Steady Crew member Marc "Mr. Freeze" Lemberger, hip-hop historian Fab 5 Freddy, rappers Big Daddy Kane and Tech N9ne use the term "b-boy".
Many elements of breakdancing can be seen in other antecedent cultures prior to the 1970s. B-boy pioneers Richard "Crazy Legs" Colon and Kenneth "Ken Swift" Gabbert, both of Rock Steady Crew, cite James Brown and Kung Fu films as influences. Many of the acrobatic moves, such as the flare, show clear connections to gymnastics. In the 1877 book'Rob Roy on the Baltic' John MacGregor describes seeing near Norrköping a'...young man quite alone, practicing over and over the most inexplicable leap in the air...he swung himself up, round on his hand for a point, when his upper leg described a great circle...'. The engraving shows a young man breakdancing; the dance was called the Giesse Harad Polska or'salmon district dance'. In 1894 Thomas Edison filmed Walter Wilkins, Denny Toliver and Joe Rastus dancing and performing a "breakdown". In 1898 he filmed a young street dancer performing acrobatic headspins. However, it was not until the 1970s that b-boying developed as a defined dance style in the United States.
There is evidence of this style of dancing in Kaduna, Nigeria in 1959. Beginning with DJ Kool Herc, Bronx-based DJs would take the rhythmic breakdown sections of dance records and prolong them by looping them successively; the breakbeat provided a rhythmic base that allowed dancers to display their improvisational skills during the duration of the break. This led to the first battles—turn-based dance competitions between two individuals or dance crews judged with respect to creativity and musicality; these battles occurred in cyphers—circles of people gathered around the breakers. Though at its inception the earliest b-boys were "close to 90 percent African-American", dance crews such as "SalSoul" and "Rockwell Association" were populated entirely by Puerto Rican-Americans. A separate but related dance form which influenced breakdancing is uprock called rocking or Brooklyn rock. Uprock is an aggressive dance that involves two dancers mimicking ways of fighting each other using mimed weaponry in rhythm with the music.
Uprock as a dance style of its own never gained the same widespread popularity as breakdancing, except for some specific moves adopted by breakers who use it as a variation for their toprock. When used in a breakdancing battle, opponents respond by performing similar uprock moves creating a short uprock battle; some breakers argue that because uprock was a separate dance style it should never be mixed with breakdancing and that the uprock moves performed by breakers toda