Walter Theodore "Sonny" Rollins is an American jazz tenor saxophonist, recognized as one of the most important and influential jazz musicians. In a seven-decade career, he has recorded over sixty albums as a leader. A number of his compositions, including "St. Thomas", "Oleo", "Doxy", "Pent-Up House", "Airegin", have become jazz standards. Rollins has been called "the greatest living improviser" and the "Saxophone Colossus". Rollins was born in New York City to parents from the United States Virgin Islands; the youngest of three siblings, he grew up in central Harlem and on Sugar Hill, receiving his first alto saxophone at the age of seven or eight. He attended Edward W. Stitt Junior High School and graduated from Benjamin Franklin High School in East Harlem. Rollins started as a pianist, changed to alto saxophone, switched to tenor in 1946. During his high school years, he played in a band with other future jazz legends Jackie McLean, Kenny Drew, Art Taylor. After graduating from high school in 1947, Rollins began performing professionally.
Within the next few months, he began to make a name for himself, recording with Johnson and appearing under the leadership of pianist Bud Powell, alongside trumpeter Fats Navarro and drummer Roy Haynes, on a seminal "hard bop" session. In early 1950, Rollins was arrested for armed robbery and spent ten months in Rikers Island jail before being released on parole. Between 1951 and 1953, he recorded with Miles Davis, the Modern Jazz Quartet, Charlie Parker, Thelonious Monk. A breakthrough arrived in 1954 when he recorded his famous compositions "Oleo", "Airegin", "Doxy" with a quintet led by Davis that featured pianist Horace Silver. In 1955, Rollins entered the Federal Medical Center, Lexington, at the time the only assistance in the U. S. for drug addicts. While there, he volunteered for then-experimental methadone therapy and was able to break his heroin habit, after which he lived for a time in Chicago rooming with the trumpeter Booker Little. Rollins feared sobriety would impair his musicianship, but went on to greater success.
Rollins joined the Miles Davis Quintet in the summer of 1955. That year, he joined the Clifford Brown–Max Roach quintet. After the deaths of Brown and the band's pianist, Richie Powell, in a June 1956 automobile accident, Rollins continued playing with Roach and began releasing albums under his own name on Prestige Records, Blue Note and the Los Angeles label Contemporary, his acclaimed album Saxophone Colossus was recorded on June 22, 1956, at Rudy Van Gelder's studio in New Jersey, with Tommy Flanagan on piano, former Jazz Messengers bassist Doug Watkins, his favorite drummer, Roach. This was Rollins's sixth recording as a leader and it included his best-known composition "St. Thomas", a Caribbean calypso based on a tune sung to him by his mother in his childhood, as well as the fast bebop number "Strode Rode", "Moritat". A long blues solo on Saxophone Colossus, "Blue 7", was analyzed in depth by the composer and critic Gunther Schuller in a 1958 article. In the solo for "St. Thomas", Rollins uses repetition of a rhythmic pattern, variations of that pattern, covering only a few tones in a tight range, employing staccato and semi-detached notes.
This is interrupted by a sudden flourish, utilizing a much wider range before returning to the former pattern. In his book The Jazz Style of Sonny Rollins, David N. Baker explains that Rollins "very uses rhythm for its own sake, he will sometimes improvise on a rhythmic pattern instead of on the melody or changes." Since recording "St. Thomas", Rollins's use of calypso rhythms has been one of his signature contributions to jazz. In 1956 he married model Dawn Finney. In 1956 he recorded Tenor Madness, using Davis's group – pianist Red Garland, bassist Paul Chambers, drummer Philly Joe Jones; the title track is the only recording of Rollins with John Coltrane, a member of Davis's group. At the end of the year Rollins appeared as a sideman on Thelonious Monk's album Brilliant Corners and recorded his own first album for Blue Note Records, entitled Sonny Rollins, Volume One, with Donald Byrd on trumpet, Wynton Kelly on piano, Gene Ramey on bass, Roach on drums. In 1957, Rollins pioneered the use of bass and drums, without piano, as accompaniment for his saxophone solos, a texture that came to be known as "strolling."
Two early tenor/bass/drums trio recordings are A Night at the Village Vanguard. Way Out West was so named because it was recorded for California-based Contemporary Records, because it included country and western songs such as "Wagon Wheels" and "I'm an Old Cowhand"; the Village Vanguard album consists of two sets, a matinee with bassist Donald Bailey and drummer Pete LaRoca and an evening set with bassist Wilbur Ware and drummer Elvin Jones. Rollins used the trio format intermittently throughout his career, sometimes taking the unusual step of using his sax as a rhythm section instrument during bass and drum solos. Lew Tabackin cited Ro
Teak is a tropical hardwood tree species placed in the flowering plant family Lamiaceae. Some forms of teak are known as Burmese teak, Central Province teak, as well as Nagpur teak. T. grandis is a deciduous tree that occurs in mixed hardwood forests. It has fragrant white flowers arranged in dense clusters at the end of the branches; these flowers contain both types of reproductive organs. The large, papery leaves of teak trees are hairy on the lower surface. Teak wood has a leather-like smell when it is freshly milled and is valued for its durability and water resistance; the wood is used for boat building, exterior construction, furniture, carving and other small wood projects. Tectona grandis is native to south and southeast Asia India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Thailand and Bangladesh but is naturalised and cultivated in many countries in Africa and the Caribbean. Myanmar's teak forests account for nearly half of the world's occurring teak. Molecular studies show that there are two centres of genetic origin of teak: one in India and the other in Myanmar and Laos.
The English word teak comes from Tamil tekku, Telugu teku, Malayalam thekku, Sinhala thekka, Kannada tega via the Portuguese teca. In Bangladesh and West Bengal, the species is known as segun. Central Province teak and Nagpur teak are named for those regions of India. Teak is a large, deciduous tree up to 40 m tall with gray to grayish brown branches; these are known for their finest quality wood. Leaves are ovate-elliptic to ovate, 15–45 cm long by 8–23 cm wide, are held on robust petioles which are 2–4 cm long. Leaf margins are entire. Fragrant white flowers are borne on 25–40 cm long by 30 cm wide panicles from June to August; the corolla tube is 2.5–3 mm long with 2 mm wide obtuse lobes. Tectona grandis sets fruit from September to December. Flowers are weakly protandrous in that the anthers precede the stigma in maturity and pollen is shed within a few hours of the flower opening; the flowers are entomophilous, but can be anemophilous. A 1996 study found that in its native range in Thailand, the major pollinator were species in the bee genus Ceratina.
Heartwood is yellowish in colour. It darkens. Sometimes there are dark patches on it. There is a leather-like scent in newly cut wood. Sapwood is whitish to pale yellowish brown in colour, it can separate from heartwood. Wood texture ring porous. Density varies according to moisture content: at 15% mc it is 660 kg/m3. Tectona grandis was first formally described by Carl Linnaeus the Younger in his 1782 work Supplementum Plantarum. In 1975, Harold Norman Moldenke published new descriptions of four forms of this species in the journal Phytologia. Moldenke described each form as varying from the type specimen: T. grandis f. canescens is distinguished from the type material by being densely canescent, or covered in hairs, on the underside of the leaf, T. grandis f. pilosula is distinct from the type material in the varying morphology of the leaf veins, T. grandis f. punctata is only hairy on the larger veins on the underside of the leaf, T. grandis f. tomentella is noted for its dense yellowish tomentose hairs on the lower surface of the leaf.
Tectona grandis is one of three species in the genus Tectona. The other two species, T. hamiltoniana and T. philippinensis, are endemics with small native distributions in Myanmar and the Philippines, respectively. Tectona grandis is native to India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, northern Thailand, northwestern Laos. Tectona grandis is found in a variety of habitats and climatic conditions from arid areas with only 500 mm of rain per year to moist forests with up to 5,000 mm of rain per year. Though, the annual rainfall in areas where teak grows averages 1,250-1,650 mm with a 3-5 month dry season. Teak's natural oils make it useful in exposed locations, make the timber termite and pest resistant. Teak is durable when not treated with oil or varnish. Timber cut from old teak trees was once believed to be more durable and harder than plantation grown teak. Studies have shown that plantation teak performs on par with old-growth teak in erosion rate, dimensional stability and surface checking, but is more susceptible to color change from UV exposure.
The vast majority of commercially harvested teak is grown on teak plantations found in Indonesia and controlled by Perum Perhutani that manages the country's forests. The primary use of teak harvested in Indonesia is in the production of outdoor teak furniture for export. Nilambur in Kerala, India, is a major producer of teak of fine quality, holds the world's oldest teak plantation. Teak consumption raises a number of environmental concerns, such as the disappearance of rare old-growth teak. However, its popularity has led to growth in sustainable plantation teak production throughout the seasonally dry tropics in forestry plantations; the Forest Stewardship Council offers certification of sustainably grown and harvested teak products. Propagation of teak via tissue culture for plantation purposes is commercially viable. Teak plantations were established in Equatorial Africa during the Colonial era; these timber resources, as well as the oil reserves, are at the heart of the current South Sudanese conflict.
Much of the world's teak is exported by Myanmar. There is a growing plantation grown market in Central America and South America
Herbert Jeffrey Hancock is an American pianist, bandleader and actor. Hancock started his career with Donald Byrd, he shortly thereafter joined the Miles Davis Quintet where he helped to redefine the role of a jazz rhythm section and was one of the primary architects of the post-bop sound. In the 1970s, Hancock experimented with jazz fusion and electro styles. Hancock's best-known compositions include "Cantaloupe Island", "Watermelon Man", "Maiden Voyage", "Chameleon", the singles "I Thought It Was You" and "Rockit", his 2007 tribute album River: The Joni Letters won the 2008 Grammy Award for Album of the Year, only the second jazz album to win the award, after Getz/Gilberto in 1965. Hancock was born in Chicago, the son of Winnie Belle, a secretary, Wayman Edward Hancock, a government meat inspector, his parents named him after actor Herb Jeffries. He attended the Hyde Park Academy. Like many jazz pianists, Hancock started with a classical music education, he studied from age seven, his talent was recognized early.
Considered a child prodigy, he played the first movement of Mozart's Piano Concerto No. 26 in D Major, K. 537 at a young people's concert on February 5, 1952, with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra at the age of 11. Through his teens, Hancock never developed his ear and sense of harmony, he was influenced by records of the vocal group the Hi-Lo's. He reported that:"...by the time I heard the Hi-Lo's, I started picking that stuff out. I could hear stuff and that's when I learned some much farther-out voicings – like the harmonies I used on Speak Like a Child – just being able to do that. I got that from Clare Fischer's arrangements for the Hi-Lo's. Clare Fischer was a major influence on my harmonic concept...he and Bill Evans, Ravel and Gil Evans, finally. You know, that's where it came from." In 1960, he heard Chris Anderson play just once, begged him to accept him as a student. Hancock mentions Anderson as his harmonic guru. Hancock left Grinnell College, moved to Chicago and began working with Donald Byrd and Coleman Hawkins, during which period he took courses at Roosevelt University.
Byrd was attending the Manhattan School of Music in New York at the time and suggested that Hancock study composition with Vittorio Giannini, which he did for a short time in 1960. The pianist earned a reputation, played subsequent sessions with Oliver Nelson and Phil Woods, he recorded his first solo album Takin' Off for Blue Note Records in 1962. "Watermelon Man" was to provide Mongo Santamaría with a hit single, but more for Hancock, Takin' Off caught the attention of Miles Davis, at that time assembling a new band. Hancock was introduced to Davis by a member of the new band. Hancock received considerable attention. Davis sought out Hancock, whom he saw as one of the most promising talents in jazz; the rhythm section Davis organized was young but effective, comprising bassist Ron Carter, 17-year-old drummer Williams, Hancock on piano. After George Coleman and Sam Rivers each took a turn at the saxophone spot, the quintet gelled with Wayne Shorter on tenor saxophone; this quintet is regarded as one of the finest jazz ensembles yet.
While in Davis's band, Hancock found time to record dozens of sessions for the Blue Note label, both under his own name and as a sideman with other musicians such as Shorter, Grant Green, Bobby Hutcherson, Byrd, Kenny Dorham, Hank Mobley, Lee Morgan and Freddie Hubbard. Hancock recorded several less-well-known but still critically acclaimed albums with larger ensembles – My Point of View, Speak Like a Child and The Prisoner featured flugelhorn, alto flute and bass trombone. 1963's Inventions and Dimensions was an album of entirely improvised music, teaming Hancock with bassist Paul Chambers and two Latin percussionists, Willie Bobo and Osvaldo "Chihuahua" Martinez. During this period, Hancock composed the score to Michelangelo Antonioni's film Blowup, the first of many film soundtracks he recorded in his career; as well as feature film soundtracks, Hancock recorded a number of musical themes used on American television commercials for such well known products as Pillsbury's Space Food Sticks, Standard Oil, Tab diet cola and Virginia Slims cigarettes.
Hancock wrote and conducted a spy type theme for a series of F. William Free commercials for Silva Thins cigarettes. Hancock liked it so much he wished to record it as a song but the ad agency would not let him, he rewrote the harmony and tone and recorded the piece as the track "He Who Lives in Fear" from his The Prisoner album of 1969. Davis had begun incorporating elements of rock and popular music into his recordings by the end of Hancock's tenure with the band. Despite some initial reluctance, Hancock began doubling on electric keyboards including the Fender Rhodes electric piano at Davis's insistence. Hancock adapted to the new instruments, which proved to be important in his future artistic endeavors. Under the pretext that he had returned late from a honeymoon in Brazil, Hancock was dismissed from Davis's band. In the summer of 1968 Hancock formed his own sextet. However, although Davis soon disbanded his quintet to search for a new sound, despite his departur
The Kronos Quartet is an American string quartet based in San Francisco. They have been in existence with a rotating membership of musicians for over forty years; the quartet covers a broad range of musical genres, including contemporary classical music. More than 900 works have been written for them; the quartet was founded by violinist David Harrington in Washington. Its first performance was in November 1973. Since 1978, the quartet has been based in California; the longest-running combination of performers had Harrington and John Sherba on violin, Hank Dutt on viola, Joan Jeanrenaud on cello. In 1999, Joan Jeanrenaud left Kronos because she was "eager for something new". In June 2013, Zeigler was replaced by Sunny Yang. With over forty studio albums to their credit and having performed worldwide, they were called "probably the most famous'new music' group in the world" and were praised in philosophical studies of music for the inclusiveness of their repertoire. By the time the quartet celebrated their twenty-fifth anniversary in 1999, they had a repertoire of over 600 works, which included 400 string quartets written for them, more than 3,000 performances, seven first-prize ASCAP awards, Edison Awards in classical and popular music, had sold more than 1.5 million records.
When Kronos turned 30, in 2003, they decided on a commissioning process for composers under the age of 30, in the hope of bringing some of the talented young composers to light. The program, called the Under 30 Project, is now run in cooperation with Carnegie Hall, Cal Performances at the University of California and the Montalvo Arts Center; the first recipient was Alexandra du Bois, followed by Felipe Perez Santiago, Dan Visconti. To celebrate the fortieth year of the organization, the Kronos Quartet decided to return to Seattle, the city in which they first played, work in collaboration with Seattle's Degenerate Art Ensemble to create a piece incorporating music and video, they celebrated their 40th anniversary with a sold-out performance at Zellerbach Hall, UC Berkeley, in December 2013. The same year, Michael Giacchino, a soundtrack composer who names his pieces with puns, published a piece named after them as a part of the soundtrack to Star Trek Into Darkness, for a scene that takes place on the fictional planet "Kronos".
Over 900 pieces have been created for the Kronos Quartet, which has a long history of commissioning new works. They have worked with many minimalist composers including John Adams, Arvo Pärt, George Crumb, Henryk Górecki, Steve Reich, Philip Glass, Terry Riley, Kevin Volans; some of Kronos' string-quartet arrangements were published in 2007. Kronos covers a broad range of musical genres: Mexican folk, pre-classical early music, movie soundtracks and tango. Kronos has recorded adaptations of Jimi Hendrix's "Purple Haze", Sigur Rós's "Flugufrelsarinn", Television's "Marquee Moon", Raymond Scott's "Dinner Music for a Pack of Hungry Cannibals", Bob Dylan's "Don't Think Twice, It's All Right". Kronos has worked with a variety of global musicians, including Bollywood playback singer Asha Bhosle. Kronos has performed live with the poet Allen Ginsberg, Astor Piazzolla, The National, the Modern Jazz Quartet, Tom Waits, David Bowie, Paul McCartney and Björk, has recorded with Nelly Furtado, Rokia Traoré, Joan Armatrading, Brazilian electronica artist Amon Tobin, Texas yodeler Don Walser, Faith No More, Tiger Lillies and David Grisman.
On the 1998 Dave Matthews Band album Before These Crowded Streets, Kronos Quartet performed on the tracks "Halloween" and "The Stone". They recorded for the 2007 Nine Inch Nails remix album, Year Zero Remixed doing a rendition of the track "Another Version of the Truth"", they performed Lee Brooks' score for the short film 2081, based on the Kurt Vonnegut short story "Harrison Bergeron." In 2009, the quartet contributed an acoustic version of Blind Willie Johnson's "Dark Was the Night" for the AIDS benefit album Dark Was the Night produced by the Red Hot Organization. In 2017, the quartet performed as featured artists on the songs "Lost Light" and "Journey" on the soundtrack to the videogame Destiny 2. Le Diapason d'Or de Mai 1997 Osvaldo Golijov's The Dreams and Prayers of Isaac the BlindRolf Schock Prize1999 Royal Swedish Academy of Music for Musical Arts in MusicMusical America 2003 Musicians of the YearGrammy Award for Best Chamber Music Performance 2004 Alban Berg: Lyric SuiteGrammy Award for Best Small Ensemble Performance 2018 Laurie Anderson: LandfallNational Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences 2005 The Recording Academy President's Merit AwardPolar Music Prize 2011.
The announcement of the award said "For 40 years, the Kronos Quartet has been revolutionizing the potential of the string quartet genre when it comes to both style and content."WOMEX Awards 2018 WOMEX Artist Award - Since the introduction of the W
Tap dance is a type of dance characterized by using the sounds of tap shoes striking the floor as a form of percussion. The sound is made by shoes that have a metal "tap" on the toe. There are several major variations on tap dance including: flamenco, rhythm tap, classical tap, Broadway tap, post-modern tap. Broadway tap is rooted in English theatrical tradition and focuses on formations and less complex rhythms. Rhythm tap focuses on musicality, practitioners consider themselves to be a part of the jazz tradition. Classical tap has a long tradition which marries European "classical" music with American foot drumming with a wide variation in full-body expression. Post-modern or contemporary tap has emerged over the last three decades to incorporate abstract expression, thematic narrative and technology. There are different brands of shoes. "Soft-shoe" is a rhythm form of tap dancing that does not require special shoes, though rhythm is generated by tapping of the feet, it uses sliding of the feet more than modern rhythm tap.
It produced what is considered to be modern tap, but has since declined in popularity. Tap dance has its roots in the fusion of several ethnic percussive dances, including Spanish flamenco, African tribal dances, English clog dancing and Irish jigs; the oldest record of flamenco dates to 1774 in the book Las Cartas Marruecas by José Cadalso. El baile flamenco is known for its emotional intensity, proud carriage, expressive use of the arms and rhythmic stamping of the feet. Tap dance is believed by some to have begun in the mid-1800s during the rise of minstrel shows. Famous as Master Juba, William Henry Lane became one of the few black performers to join an otherwise white minstrel troupe, is considered to be one of the most famous forebears of tap dance; as the minstrel shows began to decline in popularity, tap dance moved to the popular Vaudeville stage. Due to the two-colored rule, which forbade black people from performing solo, the majority of Vaudeville tap acts were duets; this gave rise to the famous pair "Buck and Bubbles", which consisted of John "Bubbles" Sublett tap dancing and Ford "Buck" Washington on piano.
The duo perfected the "class act", a routine in which the performers wore impeccable tuxedos, which has since become a common theme in tap dance. The move is seen by some as a rebuttal to the older minstrel show idea of the tap dancer as a "grinning-and-dancing clown." John "Bubbles" Sublett is known famously for popularizing rhythm tap which incorporates more percussive heel drops and lower-body movements. Another notable figure to emerge during this period is Bill "Bojangles" Robinson, a protégé of Alice Whitman of the Whitman Sisters around 1904. Well-versed in both Buck and Wing dancing and Irish step dancing, Bill Robinson joined the vaudeville circuit in 1902, in a duo with George W. Cooper; the act became famous, headlining events across the country, touring England as well. In 1908, the two had an altercation and the partnership was ended. Gambling on his popularity, Robinson decided to form a solo act, rare for a black man at that time. Despite this, he soon became a world-famous celebrity.
He went on to have a leading role in many films, notably in movies starring Shirley Temple. Shortly thereafter, the Nicholas Brothers came on the scene. Consisting of real-life brothers Fayard and Harold, this team wowed audiences with their acrobatic feats incorporated into their classy style of dancing, they never looked less than suave and were always in total control of their dancing in childhood numbers such as Stormy Weather. A notable scene in the movie Stormy Weather features the pair dancing up a staircase and descending the staircase in a series of leapfrogs over each other into a full split from which they rise without using their hands. During the 1930s tap dance mixed with Lindy hop. "Flying swing-outs" and "flying circles" are Lindy hop moves with tap footwork. In the mid- to late 1950s, the style of entertainment changed. Jazz music and tap dance declined, while the new jazz dance emerged. What is now called jazz dance evolved from tap dance, so both styles have many moves in common.
Jazz has since evolved separately from tap dance to become a new form in its own right. Well-known dancers during the 1960s and 1970s included Tommy Tune. No Maps on My Taps, the Emmy award-winning PBS documentary of 1979, helped begin the recent revival of tap dance; the outstanding success of the animated film, Happy Feet, has further reinforced the popular appeal. National Tap Dance Day in the United States, now celebrated May 25, was signed into law by President George Bush on November 7, 1989. Prominent modern tap dancers have included Sarah Reich, Brenda Bufalino, Melinda Sullivan, The Clark Brothers, Savion Glover and Maurice Hines, LaVaughn Robinson, Jason Samuels Smith, Chloe Arnold, Michelle Dorrance, Dulé Hill and Dianne "Lady Di" Walker. Indie-pop band Tilly and the Wall features a tap dancer, Jamie Pressnall, tapping as percussion. Tap dancers make frequent use of syncopation. Choreography starts on the eighth or first beatcount. Another aspect of tap dancing is improvisation. Tap dancing can either be done with music following the beats provided, or without musical accompaniment.
Dee Dee Bridgewater
Dee Dee Bridgewater is an American jazz singer. She is a three-time Grammy Award-winning singer-songwriter, as well as a Tony Award-winning stage actress. For 23 years, she was the host of National Public Radio's syndicated radio show JazzSet with Dee Dee Bridgewater, she is a United Nations Goodwill Ambassador for the Agriculture Organization. Born Denise Eileen Garrett in Memphis, she was raised Catholic in Flint, Michigan, her father, Matthew Garrett, was a jazz trumpeter and teacher at Manassas High School, through his playing, she was exposed to jazz early on. At the age of sixteen, she was a member of a Rock and Rhythm'n' Blues trio, singing in clubs in Michigan. At 18, she studied at Michigan State University before she went to the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. With the school's jazz band, she toured the Soviet Union in 1969; the next year, she met trumpeter Cecil Bridgewater, after their marriage, they moved to New York City, where Cecil played in Horace Silver's band. In the early 1970s, Bridgewater joined the Thad Jones-Mel Lewis Jazz Orchestra as lead vocalist.
This marked the beginning of her jazz career, she performed with many of the great jazz musicians of the time, such as Sonny Rollins, Dizzy Gillespie, Dexter Gordon, Max Roach, Rahsaan Roland Kirk and others. She performed at the Monterey Jazz Festival in 1973. In 1974, her first solo album, entitled Afro Blue and she performed on Broadway in the musical The Wiz. For her role as Glinda the Good Witch she won a Tony Award in 1975 as "Best Featured Actress", the musical won the 1976 Grammy Award for Best Musical Show Album, she subsequently appeared in several other stage productions. After touring France in 1984 with the musical Sophisticated Ladies, she moved to Paris in 1986; the same year saw her in Lady Day, as Billie Holiday, for which role she was nominated for the Laurence Olivier Award, as well as recording the song "Precious Thing" with Ray Charles, featured on her album Victim of Love. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, she returned from the world of Contemporary R'nB to Jazz, she performed at the Sanremo Music Festival in Italy and the Montreux Jazz Festival in 1990, four years she collaborated with Horace Silver, whom she had long admired, released the album Love and Peace: A Tribute to Horace Silver.
Performed at the San Francisco Jazz Festival. Her 1997 tribute album Dear Ella won her the 1998 Grammy Award for Best Jazz Vocal Album, the 1998 album Live at Yoshi's was worth a Grammy nomination. Performed again at the Monterey Jazz Festival, she has explored on This Is New the songs of Kurt Weill, and, on her next album J'ai Deux Amours, the French Classics. Her album Red Earth, released in 2007, features Africa-inspired themes and contributions by numerous musicians from Mali. Performed at the San Francisco Jazz Festival. On December 8, 2007 she performed with the Terence Blanchard Quintet at the prestigious John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington, D. C.. She tours including overseas gigs around the world. October 16, 2009 found her opening the Shanghai JZ Jazz Festival, in which she sang tunes associated with Ella Fitzgerald, along with Ellington compositions and other jazz standards; as a Goodwill Ambassador to the United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organization, Bridgewater continues to appeal for international solidarity to finance global grassroots projects in the fight against world hunger.
Awarded Honorary Doctorates from University of Michigan and Berklee College of Music, Bridgewater makes a concerted effort to mentor and nurture young artists. In April 2017, Bridgewater was the recipient of an NEA Jazz Masters Award with honors bestowed at the Kennedy Center in Washington, D. C. and in 2018 was awarded the 2018 Maria Fisher Founder's Award by the Thelonious Monk/Hancock Institute of Jazz. She is on tour worldwide in support of her latest CD, “Memphis... Yes, I'm Ready”. Bridgewater is the mother to Tulani Bridgewater, China Moses and Gabriel Durand, her eldest daughter, Tulani Bridgewater, attended the Mirman School for Gifted Children in Los Angeles, CA. She went on to graduate from the Ecole Active Bilingue in Paris, France at age 16, going on to graduate from Vassar College, she serves as Bridgewater's manager under her firm Bridgewater Artists Management and runs Bridgewater's production company and record label. Daughter China Moses is an accomplished singer, producer, radio host and MTV VJ.
Her critically acclaimed albums have earned her an international reputation as heir to Bridgewater's legacy. Moses tours worldwide sharing the bill with Bridgewater. First American to be inducted into the Haut Conseil de la Francophonie Commandeur dans l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres Award Tony Award, Best Featured Actress in a Musical, The Wiz, 1975 Laurence Olivier Award Nomination, 1987 AUDELCO Award, Outstanding Performance in a Musical-Female, LADY DAY, 2014 ASCAP Foundation Champion Award, 2017 Doris Duke Award, 2018 As guest Frank Foster – The Loud Minority Stanley Clarke - Children of Forever Roy Ayers – Coffy – as Denise Bridgewater Buddy Terry – Lean on Him Norman Connors – Love from the Sun Cecil McBee – Mutima Charles Sullivan – Genesis Carlos Garnett - Black Love Stanley Clarke – I Wanna Play for You Hollywood Bowl Orchestra – Prelude
Performing arts are a form of art in which artists use their voices, bodies or inanimate objects to convey artistic expression. It is different from visual arts, when artists use paint, canvas or various materials to create physical or static art objects. Performing arts include a range of disciplines. Theatre, music and object manipulation, other kinds of performances are present in all human cultures; the history of music and dance date to pre-historic times whereas circus skills date to at least Ancient Egypt. Many performing arts are performed professionally. Performance can be in purpose built buildings, such as theatres and opera houses, on open air stages at festivals, on stages in tents such as circuses and on the street. Live performances before an audience are a form of entertainment; the development of audio and video recording has allowed for private consumption of the performing arts. The performing arts aim to express one's emotions and feelings. Artists who participate in performing arts in front of an audience are called performers.
Examples of these include actors, dancers, circus artists and singers. Performing arts are supported by workers in related fields, such as songwriting and stagecraft. A performer who excels in acting and dancing is referred to as a triple threat. Well-known examples of historical triple threat artists include Gene Kelly, Fred Astaire, Judy Garland. Performers adapt their appearance, such as with costumes and stage makeup, stage lighting, sound. Performing arts may include dance, opera and musical theatre, illusion, spoken word, circus arts, performance art. There is a specialized form of fine art, in which the artists perform their work live to an audience; this is called performance art. Most performance art involves some form of plastic art in the creation of props. Dance was referred to as a plastic art during the Modern dance era. Theatre is the branch of performing arts. Any one or more of these elements is performing arts. In addition to the standard narrative dialogue style of plays. Theater takes such forms as plays, opera, illusion, classical Indian dance, mummers' plays, improvisational theatre, stand-up comedy and non-conventional or contemporary forms like postmodern theatre, postdramatic theatre, or performance art.
In the context of performing arts, dance refers to human movement rhythmic and to music, used as a form of audience entertainment in a performance setting. Definitions of what constitutes dance are dependent on social, aesthetic artistic and moral constraints and range from functional movement to codified, virtuoso techniques such as ballet. There is one another modern form of dance that emerged in 19th- 20th century with the name of Free-Dance style; this form of dance was structured to create a harmonious personality which included features such as physical and spiritual freedom. Isadora Duncan was the first female dancer who argued about “woman of future” and developed novel vector of choreography using Nietzsche’s idea of “supreme mind in free mind”. Dance is a powerful impulse, but the art of dance is that impulse channeled by skillful performers into something that becomes intensely expressive and that may delight spectators who feel no wish to dance themselves; these two concepts of the art of dance—dance as a powerful impulse and dance as a skillfully choreographed art practiced by a professional few—are the two most important connecting ideas running through any consideration of the subject.
In dance, the connection between the two concepts is stronger than in some other arts, neither can exist without the other. Choreography is the art of making dances, the person who practices this art is called a choreographer. Music is an art form which combines pitch and dynamic in order to create sound, it can be performed using a variety of instruments and styles and is divided into genres such as folk, hip hop and rock, etc. As an art form, music can occur in live or recorded formats, can be planned or improvised; as music is a protean art, it co-ordinates with words for songs as physical movements do in dance. Moreover, it has a capability of shaping human behaviors. Starting in the 6th century BC, the Classical period of performing art began in Greece, ushered in by the tragic poets such as Sophocles; these poets wrote plays. The Hellenistic period began the widespread use of comedy. However, by the 6th century AD, Western performing arts had been ended, as the Dark Ages began. Between the 9th century and 14th century, performing art in the West was limited to religious historical enactments and morality plays, organized by the Church in celebration of holy days and other important events.
In the 15th century performing arts, along with the arts in general, saw a revival as the Renaissance began in Italy and spread throughout Europe plays, some of which incorporated dance, which were performed and Domenico da Piacenza credited with the first use of the term ballo instead of danza for his baletti or balli. The term became Ballet; the first Ballet per se is thought to be Balthasar de Beaujoyeulx's Ballet Comique de la Reine. By the mid-16th century Commedia Dell'arte became popular in Europe, introducing the use of improvisation; this period introduced the Elizabethan