Italian Army in Russia
The Italian Army in Russia was an army-sized unit of the Italian Royal Army which fought on the Eastern Front during World War II. The ARMIR was known as the 8th Italian Army and had 235,000 soldiers. In July 1942, the ARMIR was created when Italian dictator Benito Mussolini decided to scale up the Italian effort in the Soviet Union; the existing Italian Expeditionary Corps in Russia was expanded to become the ARMIR. Unlike the "mobile" CSIR which it replaced, the ARMIR was an infantry army. A good portion of the ARMIR was made up of mountain troops. While in many ways the mountain troops added to the capabilities of the ARMIR, in other ways these elite mountain fighters were ill-suited to the vast, flat expanses of southern Russia. Like the CSIR, the ARMIR included an Aviation Command with a limited number of fighters and transport aircraft; this command was part of the Regia Aeronautica and was known as the Corpo Aereo Spedizione in Russia. The ARMIR was subordinated to German Army Group B commanded by General Maximilian von Weichs.
In February 1943, after its near destruction during the Battle of Stalingrad, Mussolini disbanded what was left of the Italian 8th Army and the surviving Italian troops were unceremoniously brought home from Russia. Mussolini sent seven new divisions to Russia for a total of ten divisions. Four new infantry divisions were sent: the 2 Infantry Division Sforzesca, the 3 Infantry Division Ravenna, the 5 Infantry Division Cosseria, the 156 Infantry Division Vicenza. In addition to the infantry divisions, three new mountain divisions made up of Alpini were sent: the 2 Alpine Division Tridentina, the 3 Alpine Division Julia, the 4 Alpine Division Cuneense; these new divisions were added to the 52 Motorised Division Torino, 9 Motorised Division Pasubio and 3 Cavalry Division Amedeo Duca d'Aosta which were in Russia as part of the CSIR. The 8th Italian Army was organized into three corps: The XXXV Army Corps, the II Army Corps, the Mountain Corps; the XXXV Corps included the three divisions of the CSIR: Torino and Amedeo Duca d'Aosta.
The II Corps included the new Sforzesca and Cosseria divisions. The Mountain Corps included the Tridentina, the Julia, Cuneense divisions; the Vicenza Division was under direct command of the 8th Army and was utilized behind the front on "lines of communications" duties and anti-partisan and to act as a reserve. In addition to the ten divisions, the 8th Italian Army included the 298th and 62nd German divisions, a Croatian volunteer legion, three legions of Italian Blackshirt volunteers. By November 1942, the 8th Italian Army had a total of 235,000 men in twelve divisions and four legions, it was equipped with 988 guns, 420 mortars, 25,000 horses, 17,000 vehicles. While the Italians did receive 12 German Mk. IV tanks and had captured several Soviet tanks, there were still few modern tanks and anti-tank guns available to the ARMIR; the few tanks that were available still tended to be obsolete Italian models. Both the L6/40 light tanks and the 47 mm anti-tank guns were out of date when Italy declared war on 10 June 1940.
Compared to what the Soviets had available to them in late 1942 and early 1943, Italian tanks and anti-tank guns could be considered more dangerous to the crews than to the enemy. Moreover, as was the complaint of General Messe with the CSIR, the ARMIR was short of adequate winter equipment. Infantry small arms were often inadequate or useless. Rifles and machine guns were prone to jamming; the Carcano rifle and the Breda 30 light machine gun had to be kept for a long time on a source of heat to work properly in extreme climatic conditions, thus were not capable of firing in the midst of battle. Incidentally, these last two weapons were considered the deadliest among the Italian arsenal; the heavy Breda M37 proved to be a more reliable machine gun, though having an excessive weight and slow rate of fire. The old belt-fed Fiat 14 was seen in small numbers, but was obsolete; the praised high-quality Beretta 38A submachine guns were rare, given only in small numbers to specialized units, such as the Blackshirt legions, some tank crews or Carabinieri military police.
Italian paratroopers in North Africa were equipped with this weapon, gave outstanding combat results. There was total absence of any portable anti-tank weapon, thus making hand grenades, machine guns and mortars the last resort against Soviet armour. Hand grenades detonated or detonated unpredictably; the Brixia Model 35 45mm mortar bombs had an inadequate explosive charge and fragmented poorly, larger 81mm mortars modello 35 were rare. The Aviation Command of the ARMIR had a total of 64 aircraft; the ARMIR had the following aircraft available to it: Macchi C.200 “Thunder" fighter, Macchi C.202 “Lightning" fighter, Caproni Ca.311 light reconnaissance-bomber, Fiat Br.20 “Stork" twin-engined bomber. Italian General Italo Gariboldi took command of the newly formed ARMIR from General Giovanni Messe; as commander of the CSIR, Messe had opposed an enlargement of the Italian contingent in Russia until it could be properly equipped. As a result, he was dismissed by Mussolini and the CSIR was expanded without his further input.
Just prior to commanding the ARMIR, Gariboldi was the Governor-General of Italian Libya. He was criticized after the war for
Second Army (Hungary)
The Hungarian Second Army was one of three field armies raised by the Kingdom of Hungary which saw action during World War II. All three armies were formed on March 1, 1940; the Second Army was the best-equipped Hungarian formation at the beginning of the war, but was eliminated as an effective fighting unit by overwhelming Soviet force during the Battle of Stalingrad, suffering 84% casualties. Towards the end of the war, a reformed Second Army fought more at the Battle of Debrecen, during the ensuing Siege of Budapest, it was destroyed and absorbed into the Hungarian Third Army; the Hungarian Second Army had four commanders from March 1, 1940 - November 13, 1944: Colonel General Vitéz Gusztáv Jány Colonel General Géza Lakatos Lieutenant General Lajos Veress von Dálnoki Lieutenant General Jenő Major The Kingdom of Hungary was a reluctant member of the Axis at the beginning of the European conflict. Hungary's head of state was Regent Admiral Miklós Horthy and the government was led by Prime Minister Pál Teleki.
On April 3, 1941, Teleki committed suicide when it became clear that Hungary was to take part in the invasion of Yugoslavia, its erstwhile ally. The comparatively small Hungarian Army had a peacetime strength of only 80,000 men. Militarily, the nation was divided into seven corps commands; each army corps consisted of three infantry divisions, each of which comprised three infantry regiments and an artillery regiment. Each corps included two cavalry brigades, two motorized infantry brigades, an anti-aircraft battery, a signals company, a cavalry reconnaissance troop. On March 11, 1940, the Hungarian Army was expanded to three field armies, each with three corps. All three of these field armies were to see action against the Red Army before the end of the war. Hungary did not participate in Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union. Adolf Hitler did not directly ask for, nor want, Hungarian assistance at that time. Most of the Hungarian forces, including the three field armies, were relegated to duties within the reenlarged Hungarian state.
Hungary regained substantial portions of its territories, ceded following the loss of World War I and the resultant Treaty of Trianon. At the end of June 1941, Germany summoned Hungary to join in the attack on the Soviet Union. Hungary continued to resist joining in the war; the matter was settled on June 1941, when the Soviet air force bombed Košice. The Kingdom of Hungary declared war on the Soviet Union the next day, June 27, 1941. At first, only Hungary's "Karpat Group" with its integral "Rapid Corps" was sent to the Eastern Front, in support of the German 17th Army. Towards the end of 1941, only the battle weary "Rapid Corps" was left. But, before Horthy would gain Hitler's consent to withdraw the "Rapid Corps," he had to agree to deploy an larger Hungarian force. Of the 3 Hungarian field armies, high command decided to send the 2nd Army.. However the Armed Forces in general were so poorly equipped that all "modern" equipment was provided to the 2nd Army. After these desperate measures the 2nd Army still lacked adequate motorized transport and anti-armor weapons.
Germany has promised to provide the necessary equipment, but failed to deliver any meaningful quantities. All the armoured units Hungary had were re-organized into the 1st Hungarian Armored Division and attached to the 2nd Army. All combat-worthy aircraft and supporting units were organized into the 1st Flight Group attached to the 2nd Army. For both the armored and air units, shortages in supplies and equipment lead to significant delays and they were shipped to Russia later than infantry units. By April 11, 1942, the 209,000-man-strong Second Army was assigned to the German Army Group South in southern Russia. In June 1942, the Second Army became part of Army Group B in Operation Blue. Transportation of the army to the frontline began on 17 April 1942, the last units arrived by 27 June. During the transport, 19 of the total 822 railway trains suffered attack by Soviet guerilla units, causing casualties. In June and July 1942, prior to the Battle of Stalingrad, the Hungarian Second Army was involved in the Battle of Voronezh as part of Army Group B.
Fighting in and around the city of Voronezh on the Don River, the Hungarian troops supported the German 4th Panzer Army against the defending Soviet Voronezh Front. Though technically an Axis success, this pyrrhic victory fatally delayed the arrival of the 4th Panzer Army in the Caucasus. During these operations, the Hungarian Second Army had suffered severe casualties in manpower as without adequate air and armor support all assaults were carried out by infantry units only, against the skillful and determined defense conducted by the Soviet troops. Lack of transportation was so severe that there were examples of divisions marching over 1,000 km on foot from their disembarkation points to the first contact with the enemy. Artillery support during the offensive was limited for the same reason, leading to worse infantry losses; the Hungarian Second Army is the best known Hungarian wartime army because of the part it
Ferrous metallurgy is the metallurgy of iron and its alloys. It began far back in prehistory; the earliest surviving iron artifacts, from the 4th millennium BC in Egypt, were made from meteoritic iron-nickel. It is not known when or where the smelting of iron from ores began, but by the end of the 2nd millennium BC iron was being produced from iron ores from Sub-Saharan Africa to China; the use of wrought iron was known by the 1st millennium BC, its spread marked the Iron Age. During the medieval period, means were found in Europe of producing wrought iron from cast iron using finery forges. For all these processes, charcoal was required as fuel. Steel was first produced in antiquity as an alloy, its process of production, Wootz steel, was exported before the 4th century BC from India to ancient China, the Middle East and Europe. Archaeological evidence of cast iron appears in 5th-century BC China. New methods of producing it by carburizing bars of iron in the cementation process were devised in the 17th century.
During the Industrial Revolution, new methods of producing bar iron by substituting coke for charcoal were devised and these were applied to produce steel, creating a new era of increased use of iron and steel that some contemporaries described as a new Iron Age. In the late 1850s, Henry Bessemer invented a new steelmaking process, that involved blowing air through molten pig iron to burn off carbon, so to produce mild steel; this and other 19th-century and steel making processes have displaced wrought iron. Today, wrought iron is no longer produced on a commercial scale, having been displaced by the functionally equivalent mild or low carbon steel; the largest and most modern underground iron ore mine in the world is located in Kiruna, Norrbotten County, Lapland. The mine, owned by Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara AB, a large Swedish mining company, has an annual production capacity of over 26 million tonnes of iron ore. Iron was extracted from iron–nickel alloys, which comprise about 6% of all meteorites that fall on the Earth.
That source can be identified with certainty because of the unique crystalline features of that material, which are preserved when the metal is worked cold or at low temperature. Those artifacts include, for example, a bead from the 5th millennium BC found in Iran and spear tips and ornaments from Ancient Egypt and Sumer around 4000 BC; these early uses appear to have been ceremonial or ornamental. Meteoritic iron is rare, the metal was very expensive more expensive than gold; the early Hittites are known to have bartered iron for silver, at a rate of 40 times the iron's weight, with the Old Assyrian Empire in the first centuries of the second millennium BC. Meteoric iron was fashioned into tools in the Arctic, about the year 1000, when the Thule people of Greenland began making harpoons, knives and other edged tools from pieces of the Cape York meteorite. Pea-size bits of metal were cold-hammered into disks and fitted to a bone handle; these artifacts were used as trade goods with other Arctic peoples: tools made from the Cape York meteorite have been found in archaeological sites more than 1,000 miles distant.
When the American polar explorer Robert Peary shipped the largest piece of the meteorite to the American Museum of Natural History in New York City in 1897, it still weighed over 33 tons. Another example of a late use of meteoritic iron is an adze from around 1000 AD found in Sweden. Native iron in the metallic state occurs as small inclusions in certain basalt rocks. Besides meteoritic iron, Thule people of Greenland have used native iron from the Disko region. Iron smelting—the extraction of usable metal from oxidized iron ores—is more difficult than tin and copper smelting. While these metals and their alloys can be cold-worked or melted in simple furnaces and cast into molds, smelted iron requires hot-working and can be melted only in specially designed furnaces. Iron is a common impurity in copper ores and iron ore was sometimes used as a flux, thus it is not surprising that humans mastered the technology of smelted iron only after several millennia of bronze metallurgy; the place and time for the discovery of iron smelting is not known because of the difficulty of distinguishing metal extracted from nickel-containing ores from hot-worked meteoritic iron.
The archaeological evidence seems to point to the Middle East area, during the Bronze Age in the 3rd millennium BC. However, wrought iron artifacts remained a rarity until the 12th century BC; the Iron Age is conventionally defined by the widespread replacement of bronze weapons and tools with those of iron and steel. That transition happened at different times as the technology spread. Mesopotamia was into the Iron Age by 900 BC. Although Egypt produced iron artifacts, bronze remained dominant until its conquest by Assyria in 663 BC; the Iron Age began in India about 1200 BC, in Central Europe about 600 BC, in China about 300 BC. Around 500 BC, the Nubians who had learned from the Assyrians the use of iron and were expelled from Egypt, became major manufacturers and exporters of iron. One of the earliest smelted iron artifacts, a dagger with an iron blade found in a Hattic tomb in Anatolia, dated from 2500 BC. About 1500 BC, increasing numbers of non-meteoritic, smelted iron objects appeared in Mesopotamia and Egypt.
Nineteen meteoric iron objects were found in the tomb of Egyptian ruler Tutankhamun, who died in 1323 BC, including an iron dagger with a golden hilt, an Eye of Horus, the mummy's head-stand and sixteen
Operation Winter Storm
Operation Winter Storm was a German offensive in World War II in which the German 4th Panzer Army unsuccessfully attempted to break the Soviet encirclement of the German 6th Army during the Battle of Stalingrad. In late November 1942, the Red Army completed Operation Uranus, encircling some 300,000 Axis personnel in and around the city of Stalingrad. German forces within the Stalingrad pocket and directly outside were reorganized under Army Group Don, under the command of Field Marshal Erich von Manstein. Meanwhile, the Red Army continued to allocate as many resources as possible to the eventual launch of the planned Operation Saturn, which aimed to isolate Army Group A from the rest of the German Army. To remedy the situation, the Luftwaffe attempted to supply German forces in Stalingrad through an air bridge; when the Luftwaffe proved incapable of carrying out its mission and it became obvious that a successful breakout could occur only if launched as early as possible, Manstein decided on a relief effort.
Manstein was promised four panzer divisions. Due to German reluctance to weaken certain sectors by redeploying German units, the task of opening a corridor to the German 6th Army fell to the 4th Panzer Army; the German force was pitted against several Soviet armies tasked with the destruction of the encircled German forces and their offensive around the lower Chir River. The German offensive made large gains on the first day; the spearhead forces were able to defeat counterattacks by Soviet troops. By 13 December, Soviet resistance slowed the German advance considerably. Although German forces took the area surrounding Verkhne-Kumskiy, the Red Army launched Operation Little Saturn on 16 December. Operation Little Saturn crushed the Italian 8th Army on Army Group Don's left flank, threatening the survival of Manstein's entire group of forces; as resistance and casualties increased, Manstein appealed to Hitler and to the commander of the German 6th Army, General Friedrich Paulus, to allow the 6th Army to break out of Stalingrad.
The 4th Panzer Army continued its attempt to open a corridor to the 6th Army on 18–19 December, but was unable to do so without the aid of forces inside the Stalingrad pocket. Manstein called off the assault on 23 December and by Christmas Eve the 4th Panzer Army began to withdraw to its starting position. Due to the failure of the 6th Army to break out from the Soviet encirclement, the Red Army was able to continue the strangulation of German forces in Stalingrad. On 23 November 1942, the Red Army closed its encirclement of Axis forces in Stalingrad. Nearly 300,000 German and Romanian soldiers, as well as Russian volunteers for the Wehrmacht, were trapped in and around the city of Stalingrad by 1.1 million Soviet personnel. Amidst the impending disaster, German chancellor Adolf Hitler appointed Field Marshal Erich von Manstein as commander of the newly created Army Group Don. Composed of the German 4th Panzer and 6th Armies, as well as the Third and Fourth Romanian Armies, Manstein's new army group was situated between German Army Groups A and B.
Instead of attempting an immediate breakout, German high command decided that the trapped forces would remain in Stalingrad in a bid to hold out. The encircled German forces were to be resupplied by air, requiring 680 t of supplies per day. However, the assembled fleet of 500 transport aircraft were insufficient for the task. Many of the aircraft were hardly serviceable in the rough Soviet winter; the German 6th Army, for example, was getting less than 20% of its daily needs. Furthermore, the Germans were still threatened by Soviet forces which still held portions of the Volga River's west bank in Stalingrad. Given the unexpected size of German forces closed off in Stalingrad, on 23 November Stavka decided to strengthen the outer encirclement preparing to destroy Axis forces in and around the city. On 24 November, several Soviet formations began to entrench themselves to defend against possible German incursions originating from the West; the Soviets reinforced the encircling forces in order to prevent a successful breakout operation by the German 6th Army and other Axis units.
However, this tied down over ½ of the Red Army's strength in the area. Planning for Operation Saturn began on 25 November, aiming for the destruction of the Italian 8th Army and the severing of communications between German forces west of the Don River and those operating in the Caucasus. Meanwhile, planning began for Operation Koltso, which aimed at reducing German forces in the Stalingrad pocket; as Operation Uranus concluded, German forces inside the encirclement were too weak to attempt a breakout on their own. Half of their remaining armor, for example, had been lost during the defensive fighting, there was a severe lack of fuel and ammunition for the surviving vehicles, given that the Luftwaffe was not able to provide adequate aerial resupply. Manstein proposed a counterstrike to break the Soviet encirclement of Stalingrad, codenamed Operation Winter Storm. Manstein believed that—due to the inability of the Luftwaffe to supply the Stalingrad pocket—it was becoming more important to relieve them "at the earliest possible date".
On 28 November, Manstein sent Hitler a detailed report on Army Group Don's situation, including the strength of the German 6th Army and an assessment on the available ammunition for German artillery inside the city. The dire strategic situation made Manstein doubtful on whether or not the relief operation could afford to wait to receive all units earmarked for the offensive. Stavka
Volgograd Tractor Plant
The Volgograd Tractor Plant the Dzerzhinskiy Tractor Factory or the Stalingrad Tractor Plant, is a heavy equipment factory located in Volgograd, Russia. It was a site of fierce fighting during World War II's Battle of Stalingrad; until 1961, the Volgograd Tractor Plant was called the Stalingrad Tractor Plant named for Dzerzhinsky (Russian: Сталинградский тракторный завод им. Ф. Э. Дзержинского, Stalingradski traktorni zavod im. F. E. Dzerzhinskogo, or СТЗ; the plant was built in one of the first industrial sites that were built according to the plans of rapid industrialization of the USSR, adopted in the late 1920s. The construction of the Stalingrad Tractor Plant was carried out with the assistance of Western countries the United States; the plant produces military equipment. During World War II, the plant was retooled to produce equipment for the Red Army, most notably the T-34 tank, it became world-famous during the Battle of Stalingrad for being the site of fierce fighting. In December 2002 the plant was divided into four separate companies within the Group: Tractor Company VgTZ Russian Machine Building Components Territory of Commercial Development Volgograd Tractor Plant There is a separate production facility for production of military technology projects Volgograd Machine Building Company VgTZ.
As an incorporated entity the plant was recognised as bankrupt in 2005. Is the successor of the plant Tractor Company "VgTZ", a concern "Tractor Plants". T-34 STZ NATI Artillery Tractor PT-76 BMD-1 BMD-2 BMD-3 BMD-4 2S25 Sprut-SD STZ-3 DT-54 DT-75 VT-100 Agromash 90TG Agromash 315TG Soviet tank factories Soviet armored fighting vehicle production during World War II Melnikova-Raich, Sonia. "The Soviet Problem with Two'Unknowns': How an American Architect and a Soviet Negotiator Jump-Started the Industrialization of Russia, Part I: Albert Kahn". IA, The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology. 36: 57–80. ISSN 0160-1040. JSTOR 41933723. Official website
Volgograd Tsaritsyn, 1589–1925, Stalingrad, 1925–1961, is an industrial city and the administrative centre of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. The city lies on the western bank of the Volga River; the Battle of Stalingrad in World War II was one of the largest and bloodiest battles in the history of warfare. Known locally as the "Hero City", it is home to The Motherland Calls, an 85 meter statue dedicated to the heroes of the battle; the city has many tourist attractions, such as museums, sandy beaches, a self-propelled floating church. Its population was 1,021,215 at the 2010 Census, growing from 1,011,417 in the 2002 Census. Although the city may have originated in 1555, documented evidence of Tsaritsyn at the confluence of the Tsaritsa and Volga rivers dates only from 1589. Grigori Zasekin established the fortress Sary Su as part of the defences of the unstable southern border of the Tsardom of Russia; the structure stood above the mouth of the Tsaritsa River on the right bank. It soon became the nucleus of a trading settlement.
In 1607 the fortress garrison rebelled against the troops of Tsar Vasili Shuisky for six months. In 1608 the city acquired St. John the Baptist. At the beginning of the 17th century, the garrison consisted of 350 to 400 people. In 1670 troops of Stepan Razin captured the fortress. In 1708 the insurgent Cossack Kondraty Bulavin held the fortress. In 1717 in the Kuban pogrom, raiders from the Kuban under the command of the Crimean Tatar Bakhti Gerai blockaded the town and enslaved thousands in the area. In August 1774 Yemelyan Pugachev unsuccessfully attempted to storm the city. In 1691 Moscow established a customs-post at Tsaritsyn. In 1708 Tsaritsyn was assigned to the Kazan Governorate. According to the census in 1720, the city had a population of 408 people. In 1773 the city became a district town. From 1779 it belonged to the Saratov Viceroyalty. In 1780 the city came under the newly-established Saratov Governorate. In the 19th century Tsaritsyn became commercial center; the population expanded increasing from fewer than 3,000 people in 1807 to about 84,000 in 1900.
The first railway reached the town in 1862. The first theatre opened in 1872, the first cinema in 1907. In 1913 Tsaritsyn got its first tram-line, the city's first electric lights were installed in the city center. During the Russian Civil War of 1917–1923, Tsaritsyn came under Soviet control from November 1917. In 1918 White troops under the Ataman of the Don Cossack Host, Pyotr Krasnov, besieged Tsaritsyn; the Reds repulsed three assaults by the Whites. However, in June 1919 the White Armed Forces of South Russia under the command of General Denikin captured Tsaritsyn, which they held until January 1920; the fighting from July 1918 to January 1920 became known as the Battle for Tsaritsyn. The city was renamed Stalingrad after Joseph Stalin on April 10, 1925; this was to recognize the city and Stalin's role in its defense against the Whites between 1918 and 1920. In 1931, the German settlement-colony Old Sarepta became a district of Stalingrad. Renamed Krasnoarmeysky Rayon, it became the largest area of the city.
The first institute was opened in 1930. A year the Stalingrad Industrial Pedagogical Institute, now Volgograd State Pedagogical University, was opened. Under Stalin, the city became a center of heavy industry and transshipment by river. During World War II, German and Axis forces attacked the city, in 1942 it became the site of one of the pivotal battles of the war; the Battle of Stalingrad had the greatest casualty figures of any single battle in the history of warfare. The battle became a titanic struggle between Hitler and Stalin as both saw it of great propaganda value, each keenly aware of the namesake of the city, each poured hundreds of thousands of men into the battle; the battle began on August 23, 1942, on the same day, the city suffered heavy aerial bombardment that reduced most of it to rubble. By September, the fighting reached the city center; the fighting was of unprecedented intensity. By early November, the German forces controlled 90 percent of the city and had cornered the Soviets in two narrow pockets, but they were unable to eliminate the last pockets of Soviet resistance before Soviet forces launched a huge counterattack on November 19.
This led to the encirclement of the German Sixth Army and other Axis units. On January 31, 1943 the Sixth Army's commander, Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus, by February 2, with the elimination of straggling German troops, the Battle of Stalingrad was over. In 1945 the Soviet Union awarded Stalingrad the title Hero City for its resistance. Great Britain's King George VI awarded the citizens of Stalingrad the jeweled "Sword of Stalingrad" in recognition of their bravery. A number of cities around the world established sister and twinning links in the spirit of solidarity or reconciliation. One of the first "sister city" projects was that established during World War II between Stalingrad and Coventry in the United Kingdom – both suffered extensive devastation from aerial bombardment. On 10 November 1961, Nikita Khrushchev's administration changed the name of the city to Volg
VTB Bank is one of the leading universal banks of Russia. VTB Bank and its subsidiaries form a leading Russian financial group – VTB Group, offering a wide range of banking services and products in Russia, CIS, Asia and the U. S. VTB was ranked 446th on the FT Global 500 2012, The Financial Times’ annual snapshot of the world's largest companies, it climbed to 210th in the ranking of the 500 largest companies in Europe, the FT Europe 500 2014, to 127th in the FT Emerging 500 2014, the list of the 500 largest companies on the world's emerging markets. The Moscow-based bank is registered in St. Petersburg and came 66th in the British magazine The Banker’s Top 1,000 World Banks in terms of capital in 2014, it has won “Bank of the Year in Russia” in The Banker magazine’s “Bank of the Year Awards 2018” awards. 1990: Russia's Foreign Trade Bank was established with the support of the Russian State Bank and the Ministry of Finance. It was set up as a limited liability company with the aim of servicing Russia's foreign trade operations and promoting Russia's integration into the global economy.
1997: The bank was converted into a public company, majority owned by the Russian government represented by the Central Bank. 2002: The bank's stocks were transferred to Russia's Ministry of State Property. 2004: The bank acquired a majority stake of 85.81% in Guta Bank. The new acquisition was reorganised into a retail bank, Vneshtorgbank 24; the bank acquired the Armenian Armsberbank, renamed VTB Armenia. 2005: The bank acquired 75% plus three shares of the Promstroybank, reorganised as Bank VTB North-West and became VTB's North-Western Regional Centre. 2006: Vneshtorgbank and Vneshtorgbank 24 were rebranded VTB and VTB 24. The bank set up a subsidiary, VTB Africa in Angola, bought the Ukrainian bank Mriya, merged with VTB Bank.2007: The bank took over Slavneftebank in Belarus renamed VTB Belarus. VTB was the first Russian bank to offer an initial public offering, raising $8 billion in what became the largest international banking IPO at the time. 2008: VTB set up a subsidiary, VTB Kazakhstan.
2009: The bank acquired AF Bank in Azerbaijan from AF Holding International renamed VTB Azerbaijan. 2010: VTB bought a 43.18% stake in TransCreditBank from Russian Railways. 2011: VTB invested more than $191 million for shares in the Isle of Man company DST Investment 3. DST Investment 3 issued shares to Alisher Usmanov's Kanton. VTB sold a 10% minus 2 shares to private foreign investors; the deal yielded over 95 billion rubles. As a result, the government's stake in the bank's equity decreased to 75.5%. By the end of December 2011, VTB had increased its stake in Bank of Moscow to 94.84%.2012: VTB increased its stake in TransCrediBank to 99.6% after buying more stock from Russian Railways.2013: VTB carries out additional share issue. As a result of the SPO the Russian government's share in VTB has decreased by 15%. 2014: May: VTB transferred most of its DST Investment 3 to Kanton. July-August: the Office of Foreign Assets Control published that the Bank of Moscow and VTB Bank have been added to the Sectoral Sanctions Identifications List.
VTB Bank and its subsidiaries were added on the European Union sanctions list, VTB was added on the Canadian sanctions list. Subsequently, US increases its sectoral sanctions on its subsidiaries. September: VTB was added to the Australian autonomous sanctions list; the US issues a consolidated listing of directives regarding Executive Order 13662 sanctions. Directive 1 was amended to increase the financial sanctions for "all transactions in, provision of financing for, other dealings" in new equity or new debt issued on or after 12 September 2014 to longer than 30 days maturity. New equity or new debt issued from 29 July 2018 until 12 September 2018 was sanctioned if longer than 90 days maturity.2015, 24 July: Approved by Dmitry Medvedev, an agreement was signed between the bank president, Director of Russian Post, Dmitry Strashnov, Minister of Communications and Mass Media, Nikolai Nikiforov, on the Russian Post purchase of 50% minus 1 share of Leto Bank from VTB24, to reorganise it into the National Post Bank.
The remaining 50% plus one share will be owned by VTB24. VTB CEO Kostin suggested appointing Dmitry Rudenko, the current head of Leto Bank, as the head of Post Bank.2016, 28 January: Sets of documents were signed between VTB24 and Russian Post on establishing the Post Bank. Russian Post purchased 50% minus one share of the newly established Post Bank through its 100% subsidiary; the remaining 50% plus one share is owned by VTB24. Dmitry Rudenko became the head of Post Bank.2017: March: Ukraine imposed sanctions against VTB Bank and subsidiaries because of the alleged Russian interference in Ukraine. November: the United States increases the Executive Order 13662 sanctions. Directive 1 was amended to increase the financial sanctions for "all transactions in, provision of financing for, other dealings" in new equity or new debt issued on or after 28 November 2017 to longer than 14 days maturity. New equity or new debt issued from 12 September 2014 until 28 November 2017 was sanctioned if longer than 30 days maturity.
December: VTB24 sells two shares to Dmitry Rudenko, the Chairman of the Board of Post Bank. VTB 24 and Russia Post each have 50% minus one share.2018: 1 January: VTB acquires VTB24. 27 November: the National Bank of Ukraine declares the Ukrainian subsidiary of VTB Bank insolvent due to its declining liquidity and worsening financial position. VTB Bank took over 15 banks between 2002 and February 2019: Guta Bank (2