Saka guru, or soko guru in Javanese, is the four main posts which supported certain Javanese buildings, e.g. the pendopo, the house proper and the mosque. The saka guru is the most fundamental element in Javanese architecture because it supports the entire roof of the building; because of its importance, the saka guru is treated with certain rituals. The saka guru construction is employed in buildings that are constructed with a joglo-type or tajug-type roofs; the joglo type roof is only reserved for the house of the nobles, while the tajug-type roof is used to support sacred buildings e.g. mosques or temples. In Javanese architecture, walls are boundaries of room and the exterior with no structural purposes; the main structural columns/posts of a Javanese house supports directly the roof and not the wall. Each of these four main posts sits on top of an umpak, three-dimensional trapezoidal stone which acts as a transition between the post and foundation. Umpak size varies from 20 x 20 cm2 to more than a square meter, depending on the dimension of the posts, which ranges between 12 x 12 cm2 to 40 x 40 cm2.
Umpak prevents the wooden post from the infiltration of groundwater, reduces the horizontal forces caused by earthquakes. During the construction of the saka guru, the northeast umpak is the first stone to be placed on site; this umpak is designed to look like the padma flower. The next umpak to be placed is the southeast umpak, followed by northwest, the southwest; the wooden posts are always placed according to the direction of tree growth. After the saka guru is erected, in the evening an offering ceremony is held; each wooden post of the saka guru has pens at both ends. The first beam to be set is the pengeret the second beam blandar is set on top of the pengeret; the two beams lock together. Each wooden post of the saka guru contains a hole at the upper portion, to be filled by the pen of secondary beams; the first beam is known as sunduk which contains a pen known as purus wedokan. The pen purus wedokan contains a hole which will be locked by a pen of a second beam after it is inserted into the saka guru.
The second beam is known as kili. The structural element of kili and sunduk' stabilizes the saka guru structure; the Javanese term for pen is purus meaning the male sex organ. Upon the completion of all the plug-in procedure, the saka guru is stable and can support the roof on top of it. Two or three parallel beams join the post at its top; the posts may directly support roof trusses or roof beams. In the case of joglo, the main posts are topped by two sets of inward stepped wooden piles, tumpang sari, outward stepped piles, elar; the number of steps in a tumpang sari reveals the status of the owner. The usur-duduk is hip rafter running from an external corner to the ridge, called traditionally as molo. Saka guru consists of guru. According to the Javanese text of Kawruh Kalang, the guru or "teacher" is a title given to the four wooden beams, while saka or "post" is for the four main posts, thus the whole configuration is known as sakaguru, or more sakaning guru or saka ingkang nyanggi guru. In Indonesian language, the term saka guru is used to signifies a fundamental principle.
For example, "the Indonesian Cooperative is the saka guru of the National Economy". The space beneath the saka guru was considered a important sacred space. In modern day, the area has no specific usage, but traditionally, this area was where incense was burnt once a week to honor the rice goddess Sri; the space below the tumpang sari is the place where the bride and bridegroom are seated during their marriage ceremony. Javanese traditional house Pendopo
Mimusops elengi is a medium-sized evergreen tree found in tropical forests in South Asia, Southeast Asia and northern Australia. English common names include Spanish cherry and bullet wood, its timber is valuable, the fruit is edible, it is used in traditional medicine. As the trees give thick shade and flowers emit fragrance, it is a prized collection of gardens, its flower is the provincial flower of Thailand. Bullet wood is an evergreen tree reaching a height of about 16 m, it flowers in April, fruiting occurs in June. Leaves are glossy, dark green, oval-shaped, 5–14 cm long, 2.5–6 cm wide. Flowers are cream and scented. Bark is thick and appears dark brownish black or grayish black in colour, with striations and a few cracks on the surface; the tree may reach up to a height of 9–18 m with about 1 m in circumference. The bark, flowers and seeds of Bakula are used in Ayurvedic medicine in which it is purported to be astringent, anthelmintic and febrifuge, it is used for dental ailments such as bleeding gums, dental caries, loose teeth.
The edible fruit is hairy becoming smooth, bright red-orange when ripe. The wood is a luxurious wood, hard and tough, rich deep red in color; the heartwood is defined from the sapwood. It works and takes a beautiful polish. Density is 1008 kg per cubic meter. Brock, J. Top End Native Plants, 1988. ISBN 0-7316-0859-3
Sir Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles, FRS was a British statesman, Lieutenant-Governor of the Dutch East Indies and Lieutenant-Governor of Bencoolen, best known for his founding of Singapore and the British Malaya. He was involved in the conquest of the Indonesian island of Java from Dutch and French military forces during the Napoleonic Wars and contributed to the expansion of the British Empire, he wrote The History of Java. Thomas Bingley Stamford Raffles was born on 6 July 1781 on the ship Ann off the coast of Port Morant, Jamaica, to Captain Benjamin Raffles and Anne Raffles, his father was a Yorkshireman who had a burgeoning family and little luck in the West Indies trade during the American Revolution, sending the family into debt. The little money the family had went into schooling Raffles, he attended a boarding school. In 1795, at the age of 14, Raffles started working as a clerk in London for the British East India Company, the trading company that shaped many of Britain's overseas conquests.
Nine years in 1804, the 23-year-old Raffles married Olivia Mariamne Devenish, a widow 10 years his senior:57, 73, 107, married to Jacob Cassivelaun Fancourt, an assistant surgeon in Madras who had died in 1800.:59, 69In 1805, he was sent to Prince of Wales Island, starting his long association with Southeast Asia. He started with a post, as assistant secretary, under the Honourable Philip Dundas, the new Governor of Penang. At this time he made the acquaintance of Thomas Otho Travers, who would accompany him for the next twenty years, his knowledge of the Malay language, as well as his wit and ability, gained him favour with Lord Minto, the Governor-General of India, he was sent to Malacca. In 1811, after the annexation of the Kingdom of Holland by France during Napoleon's war, Raffles had no choice but to leave the country, he mounted a military expedition against the French in Java, Indonesia. The war was swiftly conducted by Admiral Robert Stopford, General Frederick Augustus Wetherall, Colonel Robert Rollo Gillespie, who led a well-organized army against an army of French conscripts with little proper leadership.
The previous Dutch governor, Herman Willem Daendels, had built a well-defended fortification at Meester Cornelis, at the time, the governor, Jan Willem Janssens, mounted a brave but futile defence at the fortress. The British, led by Colonel Gillespie, captured it within three hours. Janssens was captured; the British invasion of Java took a total of forty-five days, during which Raffles was appointed the Lieutenant-Governor of the Dutch East Indies by Baron Minto before hostilities formally ceased. He took his residence at Buitenzorg and despite having a small subset of Britons as his senior staff, kept many of the Dutch civil servants in the governmental structure. During the brief British rule in Java, Raffles negotiated peace and mounted some significant military expeditions against local Javanese princes to subjugate them to British rule. Most significant of these was the 21 June 1812 assault on Yogyakarta, one of the two most powerful indigenous polities in Java. During the attack, the Yogyakarta kraton was extensively looted by British troops.
Raffles seized much of the contents of the court archive. The event was unprecedented in Javanese history, it was the first time an indigenous court had been taken by storm by a European army, the humiliation of the local aristocracy was profound. Although peace returned to Central Java in the immediate aftermath of the British assault, the events may have fuelled the deep-seated instability and hostility to European involvement that gave rise to the Java War of the 1820s. Raffles ordered an expedition to Palembang in Sumatra to unseat the local sultan, Mahmud Badaruddin II, to seize the nearby Bangka Island to set up a permanent British presence in the area in the case of the return of Java to Dutch rule after the end of the War of the Sixth Coalition in Europe. During his lieutenant-governorship, Raffles placed some restrictions on the local slave trade in line with wider British policy across its Asian territories, although slavery remained widespread and Raffles himself was served by a large retinue of slaves at his official residences in Java.
Raffles attempted a replacement of the Dutch system of forced agricultural deliveries in kind with a cash-based land tenure system of land management influenced by the earlier writings of Dirk van Hogendorp. Under Raffles's aegis, a large number of ancient monuments in Java were systematically catalogued for the first time; the first detailed English-language account of Prambanan was prepared by Colin Mackenzie while Borobudur was surveyed and cleared of vegetation by H. C. Cornelius. Under the harsh conditions of the island, his wife, died on 26 November 1814, an event that devastated Raffles. In 1815, he left again for England shortly before the island of Java was returned to control of the Netherlands following the Napoleonic Wars, under the terms of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814. Raffles had been removed from his post by the East India Company ahead of the handover and replaced by John Fendall on account of the poor financial performance of the colony during his administration and allegations of financial impropriety on his own part.
He sailed to England in early 1816 to clear his name and, en route, visited Napoleon, in exile at St. Helena, but found him unpleasant and unimp
Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono X is the Sultan of the historic Yogyakarta Sultanate in Indonesia, is also the Governor of the modern Yogyakarta Special Region. Hamengkubuwono X succeeded his father, Hamengkubuwono IX as the Sultan of Yogyakarta when Hamengkubuwono IX died on 3 October 1988. Hamengkubuwono X was formally installed as Sultan on 7 March 1989. However, the position of the Governor of the Yogyakarta Special Region did not go to Hamengkubuwono X. Vice Governor Sri Paku Alam VIII, prince of the subordinate enclave of Paku Alaman within Yogyakarta was instead controversially elevated to the position of governor; this was in contrary to the agreement made at the independence of Indonesia in recognition of Hamengkubuwono IX's support and role in the Indonesian War of Independence. Under the agreement, the Yogyakarta Sultan holds the position of governor in the Yogyakarta Special Region, the Paku Alam holds the position of vice governor. After the fall of the Suharto regime in May 1998, following the death of Sri Paku Alam VIII on 11 September 1998, the central government required an election be held for the post of Yogyakarta Governor.
Hamengkubuwono X was democratically elected as the Governor on 3 October 1998. On 30 August 2012, following a decade of talks between Yogyakarta and the central government, the national legislature of Indonesia formally enshrined in law the convention that the Sultan inherits the position of governor. Hamengkubuwono X was a graduate of Public Administration at the Faculty of Law of Gajah Mada University in Yogyakarta. Hamengkubuwono X was active as Chairman DIY KADINDAII, Chairman of the DPD Golkar DIY, Chairman of the DIY Sports Committee Chairman and Managing Director of PT Punokawan Construction, President of the PG Madukismo Commissioner, in July 1996 was appointed Chairman of the DIY Expert Counsel to the Governor. Hamengkubuwono X followed the tradition of his late father Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX in the spirit of Indonesian Nationalism over self-interest by participating in street protests in support of the student demonstrations opposing Suharto's rule on May 14 of 1998, like his illustrious father, wanted to be a pioneer in the Yogyakarta Reformation Movement albeit in a non-violent manner.
Hamengkubuwono X was one of the four key figures in the early reform period sparked Ciganjur Declaration urging the government to hold elections as soon as possible, because President BJ Habibie had neither Constitutional nor legal right to resume the presidency of Suharto who had just resigned. Hamengkubuwono X has stated his vision for his region and Sultanate is the development of science and technology, development of agriculture and world-famous cultural industries and thus provide a fair and prosperous life to all his citizens. Hamengkubuwono X was nominated by popular choice, Golkar Yogyakarta Assembly as a Presidential Candidate for the 2009 Indonesian Presidential Election Campaign. Hamengkubuwono X, though respected across all parties and nationwide as neutral and uncorrupted was unsuccessful in garnering support outside Central Java and was unsuccessful to attain first round voting position. Hamengkubuwono X has discontinued the polygamist tradition of Javanese royalty with kings having several wives and possible multiple concubines, as per his late father's wishes to modernize the royal system and thus women's rights, to lead by example and is married to Ratu Gusti Kanjeng Ratu Hemas.
Their five daughters are: Crown Princess Gusti Kanjeng Ratu Mangkubumi married to Kanjeng Pangeran Haryo Wironegoro Gusti Kanjeng Ratu Condrokirono divorced Gusti Kanjeng Ratu Maduretno married to Kanjeng Pangeran Haryo Purbodiningrat Gusti Kanjeng Ratu Hayu married to Kanjeng Pangeran Haryo Notonegoro Gusti Kanjeng Ratu Bendara married to Kanjeng Pangeran Haryo YudonegoroHamengkubuwono X resides in the Keraton Yogyakarta complex and uses the Governor's mansion for political affairs. In Javanese Kraton names of individuals change with respect to change in status: From birth until marriage: Bendoro Raden Mas Herjuno Darpito Post-nuptial until appointment as Crown Prince: Kanjeng Gusti Pangeran Haryo Mangkubumi As Heir Apparent Crown Prince: Kanjeng Gusti Pangeran Adipati Arya Hamengku Negara Sudibyo Raja Putra Nalendra Mataram; as Sultan: Ngarsa Dalem Sampeyan Dalem Ingkang Sinuwun Kangjeng Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono Senapati ing Ngalogo Ngabdurrokhman Sayidin Panatagama Khalifatullah ingkang jumeneng kaping XHis style and title in full English: His Highness Sultan Hamengkubuwono the Tenth, Commander-in-chief in war, Servant of the Most Gracious and Caliph that Safeguards the Religion List of Sunni Muslim dynasties Kejawen YogYes Official Yogyakarta Tourism website Official Website for Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono X Royal Ark on Yogyakarta AsiaWeek - The sultan of Yogyakarta is a modern reformer Joglosemar In Indonesian
Hamengkubuwono is the current ruling royal house of the Yogyakarta Sultanate in the Yogyakarta Special Region of Indonesia. The current Sultan is Hamengkubuwono X; as with many significant historical and respected figures in Javanese culture, the name of a ruler is preceded by honorifics – in most cases the usage is of Sri Sultan before the name. In full titles the first Hamengkubuwono was titled: "Ngarsadalem Sampeyandalem Hingkang Sinuhun Kangjeng Sultan Hamengkubuwono, Senopati Ing Ngalaga Ngabdurrahman Sayidin Panatagama Kalifatulah, Hingkang Jumeneng Kaping I"; the Hamengkubuwonos is considered by Javanese as the true claimant and heir to the throne of the Second Mataram Kingdom and the vast Majapahit Empire, hence the post-Independence special privileges of self-rule allotted to the Hamengkubuwana keraton - not extended to the other three princedoms and fiefdoms of the Treaty of Giyanti For some Javanese, the name has been interpreted as having the following components: Hamangku: pleased to serve the people Hamengku: protect the people in a just way Hamengkoni: ready to take responsibility of a leader Buwono: the Javanese universe Such an explanation does not coincide with strict etymology of the word.
This list is of ruling dates. History of Yogyakarta Susuhunan List of monarchs of Java
Joglo is a type of traditional vernacular house of the Javanese people. The word joglo refers to the shape of the roof. In the hierarchical Javanese culture, the type of the roof of a house reflects the social and economic status of the owners of the house. Joglo roof can be implemented to a pavilion; the joglo roof is the most complex of all Javanese roof types. Different with the other type of Javanese roof such as the limasan and kampung roof, joglo roof does not use king posts. Joglo roof consists of columns; the four innermost main house columns are the tallest, while the outer columns are the lowest. These four innermost house columns support a roof, the steepest of all type of Javanese roof; these four innermost main house columns is surmounted by a unique structural element known as tumpang sari. A tumpang sari is layered beams structure; the basic joglo-type houses can be increased in size by adding extra columns and extending the roof area outwards. Some large joglo roof, such as the roof of the Grand Pendopo of the Mangkunegaran Palace, has a shape reminiscent of a mountain.
Traditionally, joglo roof is used for the pavilion of noble families. In a large house compound of a Javanese noble family, joglo roof covers the center part of the house; the space in the middle of the house, known as the dalem, is considered the most sacred. This sacred space — the area beneath the tumpang sari — is left empty. In modern time, the area has no specific usage, but traditionally an incense was burnt once a week in this area to honor the rice goddess Dewi Sri, or in Central Java, to honor Nyai Roro Kidul; this sacred area is the area where the bride and bridegroom are seated during their marriage ceremony. The joglo roof is an iconic Javanese roof form. Joglo roof has influenced the development of Dutch colonial architecture in Indonesia. Modern buildings in Indonesia, such as big hall or airport terminal buildings, sometimes use the joglo roof. In a structured Javanese society and tradition, the joglo house is traditionally associated with the residence of Javanese aristocrats; the joglo-type houses is reserved for Javanese palace, official residence, government estate, the house of nobles.
There are seven types of joglo building — Joglo Kepuhan, Taraju Mas, Lambang Gantung or Pangrawit, Joglo Wantah, Joglo Ceblokan, Tawon Boni and Semar Tinandu. Joglo buildings are further divided into the male and female. Javanese traditional house Pendopo Indonesian architecture Kraton
Architecture of Indonesia
The architecture of Indonesia reflects the diversity of cultural and geographic influences that have shaped Indonesia as a whole. Invaders, missionaries and traders brought cultural changes that had a profound effect on building styles and techniques. Numbers of Indonesian vernacular houses have been developed throughout the archipelago; the traditional houses and settlements of the several hundreds ethnic groups of Indonesia are varied and all have their own specific history. The houses hold social significance in society and demonstrate local ingenuity in their relations to environment and spatial organisation. Traditionally, the most significant foreign influence has been Indian. However, Chinese and European influences have played significant roles in shaping Indonesian architecture. Religious architecture varies from indigenous forms to mosques and churches; the sultans and other rulers built palaces. There is a substantial legacy of colonial architecture in Indonesian cities. Independent Indonesia has seen the development of new paradigms for postmodern and contemporary architecture.
Ethnic groups in Indonesia are associated with their own distinctive form of rumah adat. The houses are at the centre of a web of customs, social relations, traditional laws, taboos and religions that bind the villagers together; the house provides the main focus for the family and its community, is the point of departure for many activities of its residents. Villagers build their own homes, or a community will pool their resources for a structure built under the direction of a master builder and/or a carpenter; the majority of Indonesian peoples share a common Austronesian ancestry, traditional homes of Indonesia share a number of characteristics with houses from other Austronesian regions. The earliest Austronesian structures were communal timber longhouses on stilts, with steep sloping roofs and heavy gables, as seen in, for example, the Batak rumah adat and the Torajan Tongkonan. Variations on the communal longhouse principle are found among the Dayak people of Borneo, as well as the Mentawai people.
The norm is for a post and lintel structural system that take load straight to the ground with either wooden or bamboo walls that are non-load bearing. Traditionally, rather than nails and tenon joints and wooden pegs are used. Natural materials – timber, bamboo and fibre – make up rumah adat; the traditional house of Nias has post and lintel construction with flexible nail-less joints, non-load bearing walls are typical of rumah adat. Traditional dwellings have developed to respond to Indonesia's wet monsoon climate; as is common throughout South East Asia and the South West Pacific, most rumah adat are built on stilts, with the exception of Java and Bali. Building houses off the ground allows breezes to moderate the hot tropical temperatures; the inclined roof allows the heavy tropical rain to sheet off, large overhanging eaves keep water out of the house and provide shade in the heat. In hot and humid low-lying coastal regions, homes can have many windows providing good cross-ventilation, whereas in cooler mountainous interior areas, homes have a vast roof and few windows.
Some of the more significant and distinctive rumah adat include: Rumoh Aceh, the grandest traditional houses of Aceh. Batak architecture includes the boat-shaped jabu homes of the Toba Batak people, with dominating carved gables and dramatic oversized roof, are based on an ancient model; the Minangkabau of West Sumatra build the Rumah Gadang, distinctive for their multiple gables with upsweeping ridge ends. The homes of Nias peoples include the omo sebua chiefs' houses built on massive ironwood pillars with towering roofs. Not only are they impregnable to attack in former tribal warfare, but flexible nail-less construction provide proven earthquake durability. Rumah Melayu Malay traditional houses built on stilts of Sumatra and Malay Peninsula; the Riau region is characterised by villages built on stilts over waterways. Unlike most South East Asian vernacular homes, Javanese traditional houses are not built on piles, have become the Indonesian vernacular style most influenced by European architectural elements.
The Bubungan Tinggi, with their steeply pitched roofs, are the large homes of Banjarese royalty and aristocrats in South Kalimantan. Traditional Balinese homes are a collection of individual open structures within a high-walled garden compound; the Sasak people of Lombok build lumbung, pile-built bonnet-roofed rice barns, that are more distinctive and elaborate than their houses. Dayak people traditionally live in communal longhouses; the houses can exceed 300 m in length, in some cases forming a whole village. The Toraja of the Sulawesi highlands are renowned for their tongkonan, houses built on piles and dwarfed by massive exaggerated-pitch saddle roofs. Rumah adat on Sumba have distinctive thatched "high hat" roofs and are wrapped with sheltered verandahs; the Papuan Dani traditionally live in small family compounds composed of several circular huts known as honay with thatched dome roofs. The numbers of rumah adat are decreasing across Indonesia; this trend dates from the colonial period, with the Dutch viewing traditional architecture as unhygienic, being based on traditional reli