The Leopard 2 is a main battle tank developed by Krauss-Maffei in the 1970s for the West German Army. The tank first entered service in 1979 and succeeded the earlier Leopard 1 as the main battle tank of the German Army, it is armed with a 120 mm smoothbore cannon, is powered by a V-12 twin-turbo diesel engine. Various versions have served in the armed forces of Germany and 12 other European countries, as well as several non-European nations, including Canada, Indonesia and Turkey; the Leopard 2 was used in Kosovo with the German Army, has seen action in Afghanistan with the Dutch and Canadian contributions to the International Security Assistance Force, as well as seeing action in Syria with the Turkish Armed Forces against ISIS and the YPG. There are two main development batches of the tank: the original models up to Leopard 2A4, which have vertically faced turret armour, the improved batch, namely the Leopard 2A5 and newer versions, which have angled arrow-shaped turret appliqué armour together with other improvements.
All models feature digital fire control systems with laser rangefinders, a stabilised main gun and coaxial machine gun, advanced night vision and sighting equipment. The tank has the ability to engage moving targets while moving over rough terrain; as the Leopard 1 was just entering service, the German military was interested in producing an improved tank in the next decade. This resulted in the start of the MBT-70 development in cooperation with the United States beginning in 1963; however in 1967 it became questionable whether the MBT-70 would enter service at any time in the foreseeable future. Therefore, the German government issued the order to research future upgrade options of the Leopard 1 to the German company Porsche in 1967; this study was named vergoldeter Leopard and focused on incorporating advanced technology into the Leopard design. The projected upgrades added an autoloader, a coaxial autocannon and an independent commander's periscope; the anti-air machine gun could be operated from inside the vehicle and a TV surveillance camera was mounted on an expendable mast.
The shape of the turret and hull was optimised using cast steel armour, while the suspension and the engine exhaust vents were improved. Following the end of Gilded Leopard study in 1967, the West-German government decided to focus on the Experimentalentwicklung as feasibility study and to develop new components for upgrading the Leopard 1 and for use on a future main battle tank programme. At first 25 million DM were invested, but after the industry came to the conclusion that with such a low budget the development of the two projected testbeds was not possible, a total of 30 to 32 million DM was invested; the experimental development was contracted to the company Krauss-Maffei, but with the obligation to cooperate with Porsche for the development of the chassis and with Wegmann for the development of the turret. Two prototypes with differing components were built with the aim to improve the conception of the Leopard 1 in such a way that it would match the firepower requirements of the MBT-70.
A high first-hit probability at ranges of 2,000 metres and the ability to engage targets on the move thanks to a computerised fire control system were the main goals of the experimental development. The resulting vehicles were nicknamed Keiler. Two prototypes of the Keiler were built in 1969 and 1970, both of them being powered by the MB 872 engine; the MBT-70 was a revolutionary design, but after large cost overruns and technological problems, Germany withdrew from the project in 1969. After unsuccessful attempts of saving the MBT-70 by conceptual changes in order to eliminate the biggest issue—the driver being seated in the turret—it became clear in late 1969 that Germany would stop the bi-national development; the assistant secretary of the military procurement division of the German Ministry of Defence suggested reusing as much technologies developed for the MBT-70 as possible in a further programme, nicknamed Eber due to him being named Eberhardt. The Eber used a modified MBT-70 hull, with the driver being seated in the hull.
Only a wooden mock-up was made. One year a choice was made to continue the development based on the earlier Keiler project of the late 1960s, instead of finishing the development of the Eber. In 1971, the name of the design was determined as Leopard 2 with the original Leopard retroactively becoming the Leopard 1, Paul-Werner Krapke became the project officer of the Leopard 2 program. Two versions were projected: the gun-armed Leopard 2K and the Leopard 2FK, which would be armed with the XM150 gun/launcher weapon of the MBT-70; that year 17 prototypes were ordered, but only 16 hulls were built as the production of hull PT12 was cancelled. Ten were ordered before another seven were ordered; the 17 turrets were designated T1 to T17, the hulls were designated PT1 to PT11 and PT13 to PT17. To test a larger number of components and concepts, each prototype was fitted with components not found on the other prototypes. Ten of the turrets were equipped with 105 mm smoothbore guns, the other seven prototypes were equipped with a 120 mm smoothbore gun.
Hulls PT11 and PT17 were fitted with a hydropneumatic suspension based on the MBT-70 design. The running gears of these two hulls had only six road wheels. Different types of APUs were mounted in the prototypes. All turrets were equipped with a machine gun for air-defence except the turret mounted on PT11, where a 20 mm remotely operated autocannon was mounted. With the exception of hulls PT07, PT09, PT1
M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System
The M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System is an armored, self-propelled, multiple rocket launcher. Since the first M270s were delivered to the U. S. Army in 1983, the MLRS has been adopted by several NATO countries; some 1,300 M270 systems have been manufactured in the United States and in Europe, along with more than 700,000 rockets. The production of the M270 ended in 2003. In the early 1970s, the Soviet Union had a clear advantage over U. S. and NATO forces in terms of rocket artillery. Soviet tactics of bombardment by large numbers of truck-mounted MRLs, such as the BM-21, would saturate a target area with thousands of rockets, ensuring some would hit specific targets while delivering a psychological impact. By contrast, American artillerists favored cannon artillery for its relative accuracy and ammunition conservation over "area fire" rockets, as a result were left with a small amount of WW2-vintage rocket artillery; this mindset began to change following the 1973 Yom Kippur War, which saw high loss rates from rear-area weapons like Surface-to-Air Missiles, as well as the effective Israeli tactic of hitting such sites with MRLs.
This combined with the realization that such an experience would happen on a larger scale in the event of war in Europe, the U. S. Army wrote a requirement for a new rocket launcher in March 1974 called the General Support Rocket System, it would be used to engage enemy air defenses and for counterbattery fire, freeing cannon units to provide close support for ground forces. NATO allies including the United Kingdom and West Germany were consulted on the project, since they had been looking to create a similar system independently, their name for it was adopted, changing GSRS to MLRS. Development began in September 1977 by Boeing and Vought Aerospace, first production models were delivered in August 1982; the first operational M270 battery was formed in March 1983, the first unit was sent to West Germany that September. A battery consisted of three platoons with three launchers each for nine launchers per battery. In the 1990s, a battery was reduced to six launchers. MLRS was developed jointly by the United Kingdom, United States, West Germany and Italy, developed from the older General Support Rocket System.
The M270 MLRS weapons system is collectively known as the M270 MLRS Self-propelled Loader/Launcher. The SPLL is composed of three primary subsystems: the M269 Loader Launcher Module, which houses the electronic Fire Control System, is mated to the M993 Carrier Vehicle; the M993 is a derivative of the Bradley Fighting Vehicle chassis. Cold War doctrine for the M270 was for the vehicles to spread out individually and hide until needed move to a firing position and launch their rockets move away to a reloading point move to a new hiding position near a different firing point; these shoot-and-scoot tactics were planned to avoid susceptibility to Soviet counterbattery fire. One M270 firing 12 M26 rockets would drop 7,728 bomblets, one MLRS battery firing 108 rockets had the equivalent firepower of 33 battalions of cannon artillery; the system can fire rockets or MGM-140 ATACMS missiles. Each pod contains one guided ATACMS missile; the LLM can hold two pods at a time. All twelve rockets or two ATACMS missiles can be fired in under a minute.
One launcher firing twelve rockets can blanket one square kilometer with submunitions. For this reason, the MLRS is sometimes referred to as the "Grid Square Removal System". Or informally among artillery personnel as "the finger of God", since a single launcher can sanitize an entire grid square, about the size of a fingertip on a typical map. A typical MLRS cluster salvo consisted of three M270 vehicles each firing all 12 rockets. With each rocket containing 644 M77 grenades, the entire salvo would drop 23,184 grenades in the target area. However, with a two percent dud rate, that would leave 400 undetonated bombs scattered over the area, which could endanger friendly troops and civilians. In 2006, MLRS was upgraded to fire guided rounds. Phase I testing of a guided unitary round was completed on an accelerated schedule in March 2006. Due to an Urgent Need Statement, the guided unitary round was fielded and used in action in Iraq. Lockheed Martin received a contract to convert existing M30 DPICM GMLRS rockets to the XM31 unitary variant.
The M31 GMLRS Unitary rocket transformed the M270 into a point target artillery system for the first time. Due to GPS guidance and a single 200 lb high-explosive warhead, the M31 could hit targets with less chance of collateral damage while needing fewer rockets to be fired, reducing logistical requirements; the unitary warhead made the MLRS able to be used in urban environments. The M31 had a dual-mode fuse with point detonation and delay options to defeat soft targets and fortified bunkers with the upgraded M31A1 equipped with a multi-mode fuse adding a proximity airburst mode for use against personnel in the open; the GMLRS has a minimum engagement range of 15 km and can hit a target out to 70 km, impacting at a speed of Mach 2.5. A German developmental artillery system, called the Artillery Gun Module, has used the MLRS chassis on its developmental vehicles. In 2012, a contract was issued to improve the armor of the M
Mannesmann was a German industrial conglomerate. It was established as a manufacturer of steel pipes in 1890 under the name "Deutsch-Österreichische Mannesmannröhren-Werke AG".. In the twentieth century, Mannesmann's product range grew and the company expanded into numerous sectors – starting from various steel products and trading to mechanical and electrical engineering and telecommunications. From 1955, the conglomerate's management holding with headquarters in Düsseldorf was named Mannesmann AG; the particular success of the corporate activities in the area of telecommunications that started in 1990 was the predominant reason for the takeover of Mannesmann by the British telecommunications company Vodafone in 2000 – still one of the largest-ever company takeovers worldwide. Back the Mannesmann Group had 130,860 employees worldwide and revenues of €23.27 billion. The name Mannesmann ceased to exist in the engineering and telecommunications sectors soon after Vodafone purchased the company.
It lives on in the steel industry in the steel tube and pipe industry, as the German steel manufacturer Salzgitter AG bought the pipe production division of Mannesmannröhren-Werke AG, as well as the Mannesmann brand. In 1886, the German brothers Reinhard and Max Mannesmann received the world's first patent for their invention of a process for rolling seamless steel pipes. Between 1887 and 1889 they founded tube mills with several different business partners in Bous, Germany, in Komotau/Bohemia, in Landore/Wales and in their home town Remscheid/Germany. In 1890, due to technical and financial start-up problems, the tube and pipe mills existing on the continent were folded into Deutsch-Österreichische Mannesmannröhren-Werke AG; the new company had its headquarters in Berlin. Reinhard and Max Mannesmann formed the first board of directors but left it in 1893. In that year the company headquarters were moved to Düsseldorf - at that time the center of the German tube and pipe industry; the company was renamed Mannesmannröhren-Werke AG in 1908.
In the following years the company's position in the export business, important from the beginning, was consolidated and expanded by the acquisition of the Mannesmann tube mill in Landore/Wales and by the founding of a Mannesmann tube mill in Dalmine/Italy. Branch offices for storage and direct sales business, sometimes with tube processing workshops and pipeline construction capacities, were set up in cooperation with well-established companies all over the world in South America and South Africa. In addition, Mannesmannröhren-Werke took up the production of welded steel pipes, stainless steel pipes and other type of pipes and tubes; the company became the worldwide leading manufacturer of steel tube and pipe In the first decades of its existence, Mannesmann was a pure manufacturer and therefore dependent on third-party deliveries of starting material. To reduce the associated risk, the company started to broaden into a vertically integrated iron and steel group in the first half of the twentieth century.
The group had its own ore and coal production, steel manufacturers and processors as well as an integrated trading division. In the 1950s Mannesmann established pipe mills in Brazil and Turkey In 1955, the group's management holding was renamed Mannesmann AG; the group continued to develop into a diversified conglomerate. The corporate sectors engineering and automotive founded in the late 1960s comprised famous companies as e.g. Rexroth, Dematic, Sachs, VDO, Kienzle, Krauss-Maffei, Hartmann & Braun and Tally. Within the Mannesmann Group several of these companies evolved into world market leaders in their respective business sectors. In 1990, following the liberalization of the German telecommunications market, Mannesmann set up a new business sector and established Germany's first cellular network carrier in private ownership known as D2 Mannesmann; the network company was called Mannesmann Mobilfunk GmbH. It was the main competitor to Germany's incumbent carrier, Deutsche Telekom's T-Mobile known as D1.
Additionally, Mannesmann extended its telecommunications division with integrated services covering mobile and fixed network telephony and TeleCommerce with companies in Germany, Italy, UK and Austria The Europe-wide telecommunication branch of Mannesmann was extraordinarily successful and so in 1999 the Mannesmann Group hatched a plan to spin off the other divisions. Through a stock exchange flotation under the name of Mannesmann Atecs AG, these industrial divisions were to be combined in a separate enterprise that would be one of the largest companies listed in the German stock index DAX. However, before these plans could materialize, a historic takeover battle lasting several months ended with the acquisition of Mannesmann by the British mobile phone company Vodafone in 2000. On 4 February 2000 Mannesmann's supervisory board agreed to a takeover price of 190 billion €, the largest takeover price paid until that date and still is the highest; the telecommunications division of Mannesmann was subsequently incorporated into the Vodafone Group.
The other divisions were resold to various companies soon after the deal. The origins of Mannesmann, the pipe production activities of Mannesmannröhren-Werke AG, were sold to Salzgitter AG along with the brand name Mannesmann. During the Second World War, when the company was chaired by nazi party activist Wilhelm Zangen, slave labour was employed at their tube rolling mills. Zangen served four months in prison for his involvement, although he remained a leading figure with Mannesmann until his retirement in 1966. I
The Fennek, named after the fennec, or LGS Fennek, with LGS being short for Leichter Gepanzerter Spähwagen in German, is a four-wheeled armed reconnaissance vehicle produced by the German company Krauss-Maffei Wegmann and Dutch Defence Vehicle Systems. The Turkish company FNSS Defence Systems acquired the right for licence production in 2004, it was developed for both the German Army and Royal Netherlands Army to replace their current vehicles. In April 2000, the prototype vehicle finished field trials and in December 2001 a combined order was placed; the Royal Netherlands Army ordered 410 and the German Bundeswehr ordered 222. More Fenneks for the German Army will be procured from 2015 on. Germany plans an overall purchase of 300 Fenneks; the first vehicle was delivered to the Netherlands in July 2003 and the first to Germany in December of the same year. Deliveries will continue until 2011; the Dutch SP Aerospace company, which produced the Fennek for the Dutch military, was declared bankrupt in August 2004.
A new company called Dutch Defence Vehicle Systems was created to continue the production of the vehicles for the Royal Netherlands Army. The Fennek has four wheels with selectable four wheel drive, it has a Deutz diesel engine producing 179 kW. Tire pressure can be regulated by the driver from inside the vehicle to suit terrain conditions; the primary mission equipment is an observation package mounted on an extendable mast. Sensors include daylight camera and a laser rangefinder. Combined with the vehicle's GPS and inertial navigation system the operator can mark targets or points of interest and pass that data to the digital battlefield network; the sensor head of the observation package can be removed and mounted on a tripod for concealed operation, as can the control unit from the vehicle should the crew want to use the entire system dismounted. Many Fenneks of the German Army are equipped with Aladin miniature UAVs. Various weapons can be fitted, such as a 12.7 mm machine gun for the Dutch reconnaissance version, a Rafael Spike anti-tank missile on the Dutch MRAT version or a 40 mm automatic grenade launcher or Rheinmetall MG3 for the German vehicles.
The Royal Netherlands Army placed an order at the Turkish company Aselsan for 18 Raytheon Stinger surface-to-air missile launchers to be fitted on the Fennek. The launcher in this case is the Stinger Weapon Platform, with four Stinger missiles intended for mid-range air defence; the launcher can be controlled from on board the vehicle, or else remotely as part of a distributed air defense system. On the Dutch Fennek the primary weapon is the 12.7 mm machine gun. The vehicle is protected all-round against 7.62 mm rounds and additional armour can be added if the mission requires. The air conditioning system provides protection against nuclear and chemical warfare and the crew compartment is protected against anti-personnel mines. Both Germany and the Netherlands have deployed Fennek reconnaissance vehicles to Afghanistan in support of ISAF. On 3 November 2007 a Dutch Fennek was hit by an improvised explosive device killing one and wounding two other occupants; the vehicle and its crew were taking part in an offensive operation targeting the Taliban in the province of Uruzgan, Afghanistan.
In another incident a German Fennek was hit by a rocket-propelled grenade. Its hollow charge jet penetrated the vehicle through the right front wheel rim, passed through the vehicle and blew the left door off the hinge. Thanks to the spall liner the crew sustained only negligible injuries. Germany German Army - 222, to be increased to 248 Netherlands Royal Netherlands Army - 365 Qatar Qatari Emiri Land Force - 32 "Combat Reconnaissance/Patrol Vehicle" with rear engine: RBY MK 1 D-442 FÚG ABC-79M BRDM-2 Textron Tactical Armoured Patrol VehicleOthers: Armoured fighting vehicle List of modern armoured fighting vehicles Dutch Cavalry Museum has a prototype of the Fennek in its collection
The Flugabwehrkanonenpanzer Gepard is an all-weather-capable German self-propelled anti-aircraft gun. It was developed in the 1960s and fielded in the 1970s, has been upgraded several times with the latest electronics, it constituted a cornerstone of the air defence of the German Army and a number of other NATO countries. In Germany, the Gepard was phased out in late 2010 to be replaced by "Leichtes Flugabwehrsystem", a mobile and stationary air defence system using the LFK NG missile and the new MANTIS gun system; the mobile platform of SysFla will be based on the GTK Boxer. The vehicle is based on the hull of the Leopard 1 tank with a large rotating turret carrying the armament—a pair of 35 mm Oerlikon KDA autocannons and the two radar dishes—a general search radar at the rear of the turret and the tracking radar, a laser rangefinder, at the front between the guns; each gun has a firing rate of 550 rounds/min. The guns are 90 calibres long, with a muzzle velocity of 1,440 m/s, giving an effective range of 5,500 m.
The KDA autocannon can take two different ammunition types. Combined rate of fire is 1,100 rounds/min; the electrically driven turret is powered by a 40 kW generator driven by a 4-cylinder, 3.8 litre Mercedes-Benz OM 314 multi-fuel engine. Since the eighties, Stinger teams have been accompanying the Gepard units to take advantage of their long-range scanning capacity. To combine this capacity in a single unit, a missile system upgrade that mounts the NATO ManPad Stinger surface-to-air missile to the autocannons was developed; the system was tested by the German Bundeswehr but not bought due to budget restrictions and the fielding of the Ozelot Light Flak System. The Gepard was developed from 1963 onwards. In 1969, construction began of four A prototypes testing both 35 mm guns. On 25 June 1970, it was decided to use the 35 mm type. In 1971, twelve second phase B prototypes were ordered; the Germans made a small preseries of both the B1and B2R. On 5 February 1973, the political decision was made to produce the type.
Each vehicle would thus be about three times the price of a normal Leopard 1. The first was delivered in December 1976. Belgium ordered 55 vehicles; the Dutch ordered 95 vehicles, split into three batches, which were equipped with Philips radar systems. The Gepard is based on a modified chassis of the Leopard 1 main battle tank, including the complete drive unit with a 37.4-liter 10-cylinder multi-fuel engine with two mechanical superchargers built by MTU. The V-engine with a cylinder angle of 90 degrees has 610 kW at 2200 RPM and consumes, depending on the surface and driving style, around 150 liters per 100 kilometers. To ensure a steady supply of oil in difficult terrain and under extreme skew, the engine is provided with a dry sump forced lubrication; the gearbox from ZF Friedrichshafen and the exhaust system with fresh air admixture to reduce the infrared signature were taken from the Leopard 1 MBT. The Gepard is equipped with a Daimler-Benz 4-cylinder diesel auxiliary engine for the energy supply system.
This engine is on the front left of the vehicle, located where the Leopard 1 has an ammunition magazine. The engine, which has a 3.8 liter capacity, is designed as a multi-fuel engine and produces 66 kW. It consumes, depending on the operational status of between 10 and 20 liters per hour; the auxiliary engine is coupled with five generators to operate at different speeds: Two Metadyn machines in tandem with a flywheel for the power of the elevation and traverse drives, two 380-Hz three-phase generators with a capacity of 20 kVA for the ventilation, fire control and radar systems, a 300-A 28-volt direct current generator for the electrical system. The fuel capacity is 985 liters, which ensures a combined operating time of 48 hours; the chassis and the track were taken directly from the Leopard 1. It has torsion, they are connected to the torsion bars on swing arms. Drive is through the drive sprockets located at the rear; the Rubber-mounted shocks were modified to achieve better stability during firing.
The track is manufactured by the company Diehl, rubber track pads fitted, is "live" track with rubber bushings between the track links and pins. Grouser/icecleats can replace the rubber pads on some track links to increase traction on slippery surfaces; the hull only had slight modifications, i.e. a modified roadwheel distance and the transfer of additional batteries in battery boxes at the rear. The batteries and the electrical system operate at 24 volts DC. There are two variants of Gepard in service. Germany Search radar: S band, 15 km range Tracking radar: Ku band, 15 km range Laser rangefinder Netherlands Search radar: X band, 15 km range Tracking radar: X/Ka band, 13 km rangeT
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers; the most common type of bus is the single-deck rigid bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker and articulated buses, smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses. Many types of buses, such as city transit buses and inter-city coaches, charge a fare. Other types, such as elementary or secondary school buses or shuttle buses within a post-secondary education campus do not charge a fare. In many jurisdictions, bus drivers require a special licence above and beyond a regular driver's licence. Buses may be used for scheduled bus transport, scheduled coach transport, school transport, private hire, or tourism. Horse-drawn buses were used from the 1820s, followed by steam buses in the 1830s, electric trolleybuses in 1882; the first internal combustion engine buses, or motor buses, were used in 1895. Interest has been growing in hybrid electric buses, fuel cell buses, electric buses, as well as ones powered by compressed natural gas or biodiesel.
As of the 2010s, bus manufacturing is globalised, with the same designs appearing around the world. Bus is a clipped form of the dative plural of omnis-e; the theoretical full name is in French voiture omnibus. The name originates from a mass-transport service started in 1823 by a French corn-mill owner named Stanislas Baudry in Richebourg, a suburb of Nantes. A by-product of his mill was hot water, thus next to it he established a spa business. In order to encourage customers he started a horse-drawn transport service from the city centre of Nantes to his establishment; the first vehicles stopped in front of the shop of a hatter named Omnés, which displayed a large sign inscribed "Omnes Omnibus", a pun on his Latin-sounding surname, omnes being the male and female nominative and accusative form of the Latin adjective omnis-e, combined with omnibus, the dative plural form meaning "for all", thus giving his shop the name "Omnés for all". His transport scheme was a huge success, although not as he had intended as most of his passengers did not visit his spa.
He turned the transport service into his principal lucrative business venture and closed the mill and spa. Nantes citizens soon gave the nickname "omnibus" to the vehicle. Having invented the successful concept Baudry moved to Paris and launched the first omnibus service there in April 1828. A similar service was introduced in London in 1829. Regular intercity bus services by steam-powered buses were pioneered in England in the 1830s by Walter Hancock and by associates of Sir Goldsworthy Gurney, among others, running reliable services over road conditions which were too hazardous for horse-drawn transportation; the first mechanically propelled omnibus appeared on the streets of London on 22 April 1833. Steam carriages were much less to overturn, they travelled faster than horse-drawn carriages, they were much cheaper to run, caused much less damage to the road surface due to their wide tyres. However, the heavy road tolls imposed by the turnpike trusts discouraged steam road vehicles and left the way clear for the horse bus companies, from 1861 onwards, harsh legislation eliminated mechanically propelled vehicles from the roads of Great Britain for 30 years, the Locomotive Act of that year imposing restrictive speed limits on "road locomotives" of 5 mph in towns and cities, 10 mph in the country.
In parallel to the development of the bus was the invention of the electric trolleybus fed through trolley poles by overhead wires. The Siemens brothers, William in England and Ernst Werner in Germany, collaborated on the development of the trolleybus concept. Sir William first proposed the idea in an article to the Journal of the Society of Arts in 1881 as an "...arrangement by which an ordinary omnibus...would have a suspender thrown at intervals from one side of the street to the other, two wires hanging from these suspenders. Although this experimental vehicle fulfilled all the technical criteria of a typical trolleybus, it was dismantled in the same year after the demonstration. Max Schiemann opened a passenger-carrying trolleybus in 1901 in Germany. Although this system operated only until 1904, Schiemann had developed what is now the standard trolleybus current collection system. In the early days, a few other methods of current collection were used. Leeds and Bradford became the first cities to put trolleybuses into service in Great Britain on 20 June 1911.
In Siegerland, two passenger bus lines ran but unprofitably, in 1895 using a six-passenger motor carriage developed from the 1893 Benz Viktoria. Another commercial bus line using the same model Benz omnibuses ran for a short time in 1898 in the rural area around Llandudno, Wales. Daimler produced one of the earliest motor-bus models in 1898, selling a double-decker bus to the Motor Traction Company, first used on the streets of London on 23 April 1898; the vehicle had a maximum speed of 18 km/h and accommodated up to 20 passengers, in an enclosed area below and on an open-air pl
Georg Krauß, from 1905 Ritter von Krauß was a German industrialist and the founder of the Krauss Locomotive Works in Munich and Linz, Upper Austria. The spelling of the company name was changed from Krauß to Krauss, once the form of the name in capital letters on the company's emblems had become established. Krauß was born in Augsburg as the eldest child of four, to master weaver, Johann Georg Friedrich Krauß and his wife Anna Margarethe, née Stahl. After attending primary school, he went to the Royal Polytechnic School, founded in 1833. After completing his education he worked temporarily in the Maffei Locomotive Works in Munich for the Royal Bavarian State Railways in Hof, Germany and Lindau. A decisive step in his development was his job as a master machinist with the Northeast Railway in Zurich, where he built his first four locomotives. From on he was preparing for the founding of his factory in Munich. In spite of strong opposition from the established Joseph Anton von Maffei he obtained the necessary capital to found the factory on the Marsfeld in Munich-Neuhausen on 17 July 1866, a satellite factory at Munich South station in 1872 and another works in 1880 in Linz in order to avoid the high import taxes of the Danube monarchy.
Krauß was not just a successful locomotive manufacturer, but supported other technological developments, like the first refrigerators by Linde. He took part in the expansion of railway lines in the Saxony and Alsace, in the conversion of the horse-drawn tramways to steam operations in Munich and Vienna, the building of the Chiemsee Railway and the establishment of the Lokalbahn AG. In addition in 1876 he was one of the founders of the present day Institute of German Engineers, the VDI, in 1903 generously supported the creation of the Deutsches Museum with 100,000 marks and the repurchase of his first lokomotive "Landwührden". In 1876 his first wife Lydia died and so too did his only son, after an accident in 1885, whereupon Krauß converted his firm into public limited company and drew back from active business leadership, he remained chairman of the board until his death, however. As early as 1880 he was awarded the Knight's Cross 1st Class of the Grand Duchy of Saxony-Weimar, as well as the title of Royal Bavarian Industrialist from King Ludwig II of Bavaria for his services.
In 1903 followed the Order of Merit of Holy Michael 3rd Class, with the conferral of the Knights Cross of the Royal Order of Merit of the Bavarian Crown he rose on 6 March 1905 to ranks of the nobility. The Technical University of Munich awarded him the title of Doctor of Engineering honoris causa and the VDI gave him the Grashof commemorative coin. In 1905 Krauß decided to move the location of the factory from the crowded town centre out to Allach, from where its successor organisation still operates today. Sadly he did not live to see either the move to Allach. On 5 November 1906 the manufacturer Georg von Krauß died shortly before his 80th birthday in Munich, his friend and one of his first co-workers, Carl von Linde, took over the chair of the board. His factory made 7,186 locomotives from 1866 until its merger with the bankrupt Maffei locomotive works in 1931. List of railway pioneers Siegfried Baum: Die Augsburger Localbahn, EK Reihe Regionale Verkehrsgeschichte Band 30. Georg R. v. Krauss +, in: Die Lokomotive, Jahrgang 1906, Seite 213 Alois Auer: Krauss-Maffei.
Lebenslauf einer Münchner Fabrik und ihrer Belegschaft. 3K-Verlag, Kösching 1988. Https://web.archive.org/web/20070930083707/http://www.verein-der-ingenieure.de/ueber_uns/geschichte.html http://www.werkbahn.de/eisenbahn/lokbau/museum/pres_krauss.htm http://www.dampflokomotiven.net/Html/Krauss.html Karl Schmidt, Krauss-Maffei, in: Historisches Lexikon Bayerns http://www.historisches-lexikon-bayerns.de/artikel/artikel_44907>