Burkhard Christoph von Münnich
Burkhard Christoph Graf von Münnich was a German general who became a field marshal and political figure in the Russian Empire. He was the major Russian Army reformer and founder of several elite military formations during the reign of Anna of Russia; as a statesman, he is regarded as the founder of Russian Philhellenism. Münnich was a hereditary engineer and a specialist in hydrotechnology, he had the grade of count of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. Münnich was born at Neuenhuntorf in the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg in the military family of Anton Günther Mönnich. Beside the knowledge of the native Low German language he learned the Latin and French languages, he entered the French service at 17. Thence he transferred successively to the armies of Hesse-Darmstadt and of Saxony where he earned the rank of a colonel and Major General. In 1721, he was invited by the Russian ambassador in Warsaw Grigoriy Dolgorukov for engineering projects of the newly acquired northern territories. Around that time his father has died.
Upon arrival to Russia he presented Peter I plans for the fortification of Kronstadt fortress, with which pleasantly surprised the Russian emperor, the Annenkrone fortification in Vyborg. He was promoted to the Lieutenant General in 1722. Among his first undertakings was the completion of the costly Ladoga Canal, under construction for more than a decade. For his engineering and military-engineering achievements he was promoted to the rank of the General-in-Chief in 1726 by Catherine I, awarded the Order of Saint Alexander Nevsky. In 1727, Münnich was appointed the Governor of Saint Petersburg city while the Imperial court was temporarily transferred to Moscow by Peter II. From 1728 to 1734 he was a General-Governor of Ingria and Finland as well as was awarded the title of a count. During his governorship Münnich improved the local ports, reinforced the newly established Peter and Paul Fortress, was thinking of building a bridge towards Stockholm. Upon the coronation of Anna of Russia, he was instructed to prepare the city for the return of Imperial court.
After accomplishing that Münnich was promoted to a General-Fieldmarshal, was appointed to the position of president of Russian War Collegiate in 1732 as well as given an order to re-organize the Russian army. Münnich became a founder of the Leib-Guard Cavalry Regiment, the Izmaylovsky Regiment, the Shlyakhetskiy Cadet Corps, destined to supply the future generations of officers. Münnich reformed numerous other military formations as well as the War Collegiate itself, he established a new formation for the Russian army at that time, the Corps which consisted of 12 regiments Cuirassier Cavalry as well as the first Hussar regiments. Münnich revised the table of ranks and evened the salary of the Russian officers with the invited foreign military specialists, he was the first to introduce the sapper regiments to the Russian army as well as founded the Engineer School for Officers. During his administration some 50 other fortresses were erected which improved the well-being of the Russian Armed Forces at that time.
Due to the Andrey Osterman affairs, he was released of his duties. In 1734, by the reference of Ernst Johann von Biron he was sent to take the city of Danzig and after a prolonged siege and evasion of Stanisław Leszczyński was reproached. However, after that in 1733, the Russian Empire was able to install Augustus III of Poland as the King of Poland. In 1736, as the Commander of the Russian army he headed the Turkish campaigns besieging the important ports of Azak and Özi. On 21 May 1735 he stormed and sacked Or Qapı penetrating into the Crimea peninsula. Münnich destroyed the important Tatar cities of Kezlev and Bakhchisaray, he was forced out of the peninsula due to poor logistics and battle fatigue of his formations, while another General, Count Peter von Lacy, took Azak earning himself a rank of the General-Fieldmarshal. Münnich refused to resume the campaign the next year, but he returned to the lower Dnieper steppes in 1737, on 2 July took the fortress of Özi with the help of the Russian artillery.
During the sack of Özi, he manually raised the regimental banner of the Izmailovsky Regiment on one of the towers of fortress after a successful attack. The siege of Özi was later mentioned in the humorous stories about Baron Munchausen, based on the adventures of the page to Duke Anthony Ulrich of Brunswick, Hieronymus von Münchhausen. Due to the heavy losses, the campaign was paused again while conducting negotiations in Nemirov without much result. In 1739, Münnich won the Battle of Stavuchany, took Khotyn two days and established himself in Moldavia, his victory in this campaign was mentioned in one of the Lomonosov's odes, considered to be the first poem of Russian literature. Threatening to burn down the capital of Moldavia, the city of Iași, he forced the Moldavian boyars to sign the annexation of Moldavia. After the Ottoman war he was awarded the Order of the Golden Weapon for Courage. Due to military losses of the Habsburg monarchy and worsening of the relationship with the Swedish Hats, the Russian Empire had to sign the Treaty of Niš by which it had to return the newly acquired Nogai steppes while keeping the fortress of Azak.
Marshal Münnich now began to take an active part in political affairs, the particular tone of, given by his rivalry with Biron, duke of Courland. Münnich's activity was brought to a close by the revolution of 1741. Brought out for exe
Red Square is a city square in Moscow, Russia. It separates the Kremlin, the former royal citadel and now the official residence of the President of Russia, from a historic merchant quarter known as Kitai-gorod. Red Square is considered to be the central square of Moscow since the city's major streets, which connect to Russia's major highways, originate in the square; the name Red Square originates neither from the pigment of the surrounding bricks nor from the link between the colour red and communism. Rather, the name came about because the Russian word красная, which means "red" is related to the word красивая meaning "beautiful," was applied to a small area between St. Basil's Cathedral, the Spassky Tower of the Kremlin, the herald's platform called Lobnoe Mesto, Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich extended the name to the entire square, called Pozhar, or "burnt-out place", in reference to the fact that several buildings had to be burned down to make place for the square. Several ancient Russian towns, such as Suzdal and Pereslavl-Zalessky, have their main square named Krasnaya ploshchad.
The rich history of Red Square is reflected in many paintings by Vasily Surikov, Konstantin Yuon and others. The square was meant to serve as Moscow's main marketplace, it was the site of various public ceremonies and proclamations, a coronation for Russia's Tsars would take place. The square has been built up since that point and has been used for official ceremonies by all Russian governments since it was established; the East side of the Kremlin triangle, lying adjacent to Red Square and situated between the rivers Moskva and the now underground Neglinnaya River was deemed the most vulnerable side of the Kremlin to attack, since it was neither protected by the rivers, nor any other natural barriers, as the other sides were. Therefore, the Kremlin wall was built to its greatest height on this side, the Italian architects involved in the building of these fortifications convinced Ivan the Great to clear the area outside of the walls to create a field for shooting; the relevant decrees were issued in 1493 and 1495.
They called for the demolition of all buildings within 110 sazhens of the wall. From 1508 to 1516, the Italian architect Aloisio the New arranged for the construction of a moat in front of the Eastern wall, which would connect the Moskva and Neglinnaya and be filled in with water from Neglinnaya; this moat, known as the Alevizov moat having a length of 541 metres, width of 36 metres, a depth of 9.5–13 m was lined with limestone and, in 1533, fenced on both sides with low, 4‑metre thick cogged brick walls. Three square gates existed on this side of the wall, which in the 17th century, were known as: Konstantino-Eleninsky, Nikolsky; the last two are directly opposite Red Square, while the Konstantino-Elenensky gate was located behind Saint Basil's Cathedral. In the early 19th century, the Arch of Konstantino-Elenensky gate was paved with bricks, but the Spassky Gate was the main front gate of the Kremlin and used for royal entrances. From this gate and stone bridges stretched across the moat. Books were sold on this bridge and stone platforms were built nearby for guns – "raskats".
The Tsar Cannon was located on the platform of the Lobnoye mesto. The square was called Veliky Torg or Torg Troitskaya by the name of the small Troitskaya Church, burnt down in the great fire during the Tatar invasion in 1571. After that, the square held the name Pozhar, which means "burnt", it was not until 1661 -- 62. Red Square was the landing trade centre for Moscow. Ivan the Great decreed that trade should only be conducted from person to person, but in time, these rules were relaxed and permanent market buildings began appearing on the square. After a fire in 1547, Ivan the Terrible reorganised the lines of wooden shops on the Eastern side into market lines; the streets Ilyinka and Varvarka were divided into the Upper lines, Middle lines and Bottom lines, although Bottom Lines were in Zaryadye). After a few years, the Cathedral of Intercession of the Virgin known as Saint Basil's Cathedral, was built on the moat under the rule of Ivan IV; this was the first building. In 1595, the wooden market lines were replaced with stone.
By that time, a brick platform for the proclamation of the tsar's edicts, known as Lobnoye Mesto, had been constructed. Red Square was considered a sacred place. Various festive processions were held there, during Palm Sunday, the famous "procession on a donkey" was arranged, in which the patriarch, sitting on a donkey, accompanied by the tsar and the people went out of Saint Basil's Cathedral in the Kremlin. During the expulsion of Poles from Moscow in 1612, Prince Dmitry Pozharsky entered the Kremlin through the square. In memory of this event, he built the Kazan Cathedral – in honour of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God, followed his army in a campaign. At the same time, Spasskaya tower received contemporary tent roofs; this was done on the proposal and the draught of Christopher Galloway from Scotland, summoned to design the new tower's clock and suggeste
Grand Kremlin Palace
The Grand Kremlin Palace translated Great Kremlin Palace, was built from 1837 to 1849 in Moscow, Russia on the site of the estate of the Grand Princes, established in the 14th century on Borovitsky Hill. Designed by a team of architects under the management of Konstantin Thon, it was intended to emphasise the greatness of Russian autocracy. Konstantin Thon was the architect of the Kremlin Armoury and the Cathedral of Christ the Savior; the Grand Kremlin Palace was the tsar's Moscow residence. Its construction involved the demolition of the previous Baroque palace on the site, designed by Rastrelli, the Church of St. John the Baptist, constructed to a design by Aloisio the New in place of the first church built in Moscow. Thon's palace is 125 metres long, 47 metres high, has a total area of about 25,000 square metres, it includes the earlier Terem Palace, nine churches from the 14th, 16th, 17th centuries, the Holy Vestibule, over 700 rooms. The buildings of the Palace form a rectangle with an inner courtyard.
The building appears to be three stories, but is two. The upper floor has two sets of windows; the west building of the Palace held state reception halls and the imperial family's private chambers. Its five reception halls are named for orders of the Russian Empire: the Orders of St. George, Alexander and Catherine. Georgievsky Hall is used today for state and diplomatic official ceremonies. International treaties are signed at the Vladimirsky Hall, it leads to the Palace of Facets, Tsarina's Golden Chamber, Terem Palace, the Winter Palace, the Palace of Congresses. Aleksandrovsky Hall and Andreyevsky Hall were combined in Soviet times to be used for meetings and conferences of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, it is the official residence of the President of the Russian Federation though it is used for this purpose. Russian site on the Kremlin palaces Official Kremlin Museums Site Большой Кремлевский дворец