A tennis court is the venue where the sport of tennis is played. It is a firm rectangular surface with a low net stretched across the center; the same surface can be used to play. A variety of surfaces can be used to create a tennis court, each with its own characteristics which affect the playing style of the game; the dimensions of a tennis court are defined and regulated by the International Tennis Federation governing body and are written down in the annual'Rules of Tennis' document. The court is 78 feet long, its width is 36 feet for doubles matches. The service line is 21 feet from the net. Additional clear space around the court is needed in order for players to reach overrun balls for a total of 60 feet wide and 120 feet long. A net is stretched across the full width of the court, parallel with the baselines, dividing it into two equal ends; the net is 3 feet 6 inches high at the posts, 3 feet high in the center. The net posts are 3 feet outside the doubles court on each side or, for a singles net, 3 feet outside the singles court on each side.
The ITF's Play and Stay campaign promotes playing on smaller courts with slower red and green balls for younger children. This gives children more time and control so they can serve and score from the first lesson on courts that are sized to fit their bodies; the ITF has mandated that official competition for children aged 10 years and under should be played on "Orange" courts 18 m long by 6.4 m wide. Competition for children under 8 years is played on "Red" courts that are 5.5 m wide. The net is always 0.8 m high in the center. Tennis is played on a variety of surfaces and each surface has its own characteristics which affect the playing style of the game. There are four main types of courts depending on the materials used for the court surface: clay courts, hard courts, grass courts and carpet courts; the International Tennis Federation lists different surfaces and properties and classifies surfaces into one of five pace settings: Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 Category 5 Of the current four Grand Slam tournaments, the Australian and US Open use hard courts, French Open is played on clay, Wimbledon, the only Grand Slam to have always been played on the same surface, is played on grass.
The Australian Open switched from grass to hard courts in 1988 and in its early years the French championship alternated between clay and sand/rubble courts. The US Open is the only major to have been played on three surfaces. ITF uses the following classification for tennis court surface types: Clay courts are made of crushed shale, stone or brick; the French Open is the only Grand Slam tournament to use clay courts. Clay courts produce a high bounce in comparison to grass or hard courts. For this reason, the clay court takes away many of the advantages of big serves, which makes it hard for serve-based players to dominate on the surface. Clay courts are cheaper to construct than other types of tennis courts, but a clay surface costs more to maintain. Clay courts need to be rolled to preserve flatness; the clay's water content must be balanced. Clay courts are more common in Europe and Latin America than in North America, tend to favour baseline players. For the Grand Slams clay courts have been used at the US Open from 1975 to 1977 and the French Open since 1891.
Grass courts are the fastest type of courts in common use. They consist of grass grown on hard-packed soil, which adds additional variables: bounces depend on how healthy the grass is, how it has been mowed, the wear and tear of recent play. Points are very quick where fast, low bounces keep rallies short, the serve plays a more important role than on other surfaces. Grass courts tend to favour serve-and-volley tennis players. Grass courts were once among the most common tennis surfaces, but are now rare due to high maintenance costs as they must be watered and mown and take a longer time to dry after rain than hard courts; the grass surface, however, is the most physically forgiving to the human body because of its softness. For the Grand Slams grass courts have been used at the Australian Open from 1905 to 1987, the US Open from 1881 to 1974, Wimbledon since 1877. Hard courts are made of uniform rigid material covered with an acrylic surface layer to offer greater consistency of bounce than other outdoor surfaces.
Hard courts can vary in speed. The quantity of sand added to the paint can affect the rate at which the ball slows down; the US Open is played on DecoTurf while the Australian Open is played on Plexicushion, both acrylic-topped hard court surfaces. For the Grand Slams hard courts have been used at the Australian Open since 1988 and the US Open since 1978. "Carpet" in tennis means any removable court covering. Indoor arenas store rolls of rubber-backed court surfacing and install it temporarily for tennis events, but they are not in use any more for professional events. A short piled form of artificial turf infilled with sand is used for some outdoor courts in Asia. Carpet is a fast surface, faster than hardcourt, with low bounce. Notable tennis tournaments previously
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Barbara Schett Eagle is an Austrian former tennis player, who reached her highest singles ranking of world No. 7 in September 1999. She ended her career at the 2005 Australian Open. Between 1993 and 2004 she played in 48 matches for the Austria Fed Cup team, winning 30, she represented Austria at the 2000 Sydney Olympics in singles and doubles reaching the quarterfinals in the singles. She now works for Eurosport as a presenter. Barbara Schett made her debut at the WTA Tour as a wildcard entrant for the tournament in Kitzbühel, she played at the ITF Circuit, won the ITF tournament in Zaragoza in 1992. In 1993, Schett broke into the top 200, reached the quarterfinals at Kitzbühel and Montpellier. In Kitzbühel, Schett defeated world No. 17 Katerina Maleeva in the third round, lost in the quarterfinals to Judith Wiesner. In 1994, Schett played her first Grand Slam tournament, she fell in the second round of qualifications. Schett reached her first semifinal at the WTA Tour at the Generali Ladies Linz, losing to Sabine Appelmans.
She was defeated in the first round. On 4 April 1994, Schett broke into the top 100 at No. 99. The following year, she reached the semifinal of the Internazionali Femminili di Palermo and the quarterfinal of the ECM Prague Open, made her Fed Cup debut for Austria versus the United States. Having started the season playing at the ASB Classic in Auckland, the Medibank International in Sydney, Schett reached the fourth round at the Australian Open, losing to German player Anke Huber. In the third round, she defeated Helena Suková; the year's singles highlights of Schett include the quarterfinal of the Bausch & Lomb Championships in Amelia Island, her first title at the Internazionali Femminili di Palermo, the first Tier I semifinal at the Kremlin Cup in Moscow, the defeat over world No. 8 Magdalena Maleeva at the Bausch & Lomb Championships. That was her first victory over the top-10 player, she played for Austria in the Fed Cup versus Germany, losing her singles match to Steffi Graf. Schett reached the semifinals of the Mutua Madrileña, the Palermo title and the final of the Tier I Kremlin Cup.
This was the first year that Schett finished as a top 50 player, at the No. 38. She started the season with the loss at the first round of ASB Classic in Auckland, lost at the Hobart International in the first round, she reached the third round of the Australian Open, losing to the fourth seed and eventual winner Martina Hingis. Schett made the chain of three consecutive first-round losses, at the Open Gaz de France, in Hanover and at the Pacific Life Open, she reached the fourth round of Miami Masters and the third round in Hilton Head. Schett reached the second round of Bausch & Lomb Championships, the quarterfinals in Hamburg, the second round of the Italian Open and the second round of the German Open. Playing with Silvia Farina Elia, Schett reached the semifinals of the women's doubles tournament in Paris, the quarterfinals of Hanover and Rome. At the second Grand Slam tournament of the season, the French Open, Schett retired from her first-round match, her next tournament was at Wimbledon.
Schett reached her first consecutive final at Palermo, but lost to the second seed Sandrine Testud. She lost in the first round of J&S Cup in Warsaw to Virginia Ruano Pascual. Schett won her second tournament at the WTA Austria tournament in her native Austria, in Maria Lankowitz, she defeated Henrieta Nagyová in the final. She made the chain of four consecutive second round losses, at the Atlanta tournament, US Open, in Leipzig and in Filderstadt. Schett finished the 1997 season at the Zurich Open, she retired from her match of the first round, played against Ai Sugiyama. Schett lost in the first round of ASB Classic to Julie Halard-Decugis, she reached the fourth round of the Australian Open, but was defeated by Conchita Martínez in straight sets, 6–3, 6–3. After losses in early phases of the tournaments, Schett reached the semifinal in Hamburg. In Hamburg, she captured the doubles title with Patty Schnyder. Schett lost in the second round of both the Italian Open and the German Open, but reached the semifinals of Mutua Madrileña.
She lost to Adriana Gerši in the first round of French Open, to Venus Williams in the second round of Wimbledon Championships. Schett reached the quarterfinal of WTA Austria, she reached her fourth consecutive final at the Internazionali Femminili di Palermo, but was defeated by Patty Schnyder. In Boston, she lost to Mariaan de Swardt. After the first round losses at the Du Maurier Open and Pilot Pen Tennis New Heaven, she lost to Amanda Coetzer in the third round of US Open. Schett lost in the first round of Filderstadt to An
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Olympic Stadium (Moscow)
Olympic Stadium is an indoor arena, located in Moscow, Russia. It was built for the 1980 Summer Olympics and, divided into two separated halls, hosted the basketball and boxing events. A part of the "Olimpiyskiy Sports Complex", it makes up one architectural ensemble with another venue, constructed at the same time, the Swimming Pool, its capacity is 80,000 people. And the stadium can hold up to 16,000 people for televised events. In May 2014, the Government of Moscow auctioned 65% of shares in the stadium that it controlled. Oil company ZAO Neftegazprod won the auction. Sporting events held at the stadium have included the Davis Cup finals and the Kremlin Cup tennis tournament, it was the world's first indoor bandy arena, has hosted the Bandy World Championships in 1989 and 2008. When smaller indoor sports are held at the venue, such as tennis or basketball, only a quarter of the floor space is used. Capacity in this configuration can vary between 16,000 people; the arena hosted the 2005 Euroleague Final Four.
The arena hosted the Eurovision Song Contest 2009, the first time Russia hosted the competition. The 2013 European Artistic Gymnastics Championships were held in the stadium between 17–23 April 2013. On September 15, 2018, the stadium hosted the first UFC event in Russia, UFC Fight Night: Hunt vs. Oliynyk. SC Olympiyskiy is one of the largest in Europe. Many international artists played concerts here as part of their world tours, such as 30 Seconds to Mars, Beyoncé, Britney Spears, Black Sabbath, Depeche Mode, Enrique Iglesias, George Michael, Imagine Dragons, Iron Maiden, Justin Bieber, Justin Timberlake, Kylie Minogue, Lady Gaga, Linkin Park, Muse, Paul McCartney, Pink Floyd, Roger Waters, Robbie Williams, Whitney Houston and more; the venue hosted the Eurovision Song Contest 2009, the first time Russia hosted the competition. List of tennis stadiums by capacity Official website Information on venue
The Czech Republic known by its short-form name, Czechia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast. The Czech Republic covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres with a temperate continental climate and oceanic climate, it is a unitary parliamentary republic, with 10.6 million inhabitants. Other major cities are Brno, Ostrava and Pilsen; the Czech Republic is a member of the European Union, NATO, the OECD, the United Nations, the OSCE, the Council of Europe. It is a developed country with an advanced, high income export-oriented social market economy based in services and innovation; the UNDP ranks the country 14th in inequality-adjusted human development. The Czech Republic is a welfare state with a "continental" European social model, a universal health care system, tuition-free university education and is ranked 14th in the Human Capital Index, it ranks as the 6th safest or most peaceful country and is one of the most non-religious countries in the world, while achieving strong performance in democratic governance.
The Czech Republic includes the historical territories of Bohemia and Czech Silesia. The Czech state was formed in the late 9th century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire. After the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power transferred from Moravia to Bohemia under the Přemyslid dynasty. In 1002, the duchy was formally recognized as an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire along with the Kingdom of Germany, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, numerous other territories, becoming the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198 and reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century. Beside Bohemia itself, the King of Bohemia ruled the lands of the Bohemian Crown, holding a vote in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor. In the Hussite Wars of the 15th century driven by the Protestant Bohemian Reformation, the kingdom faced economic embargoes and defeated five consecutive crusades proclaimed by the leaders of the Catholic Church. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the whole Crown of Bohemia was integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy alongside the Archduchy of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Protestant Bohemian Revolt against the Catholic Habsburgs led to the Thirty Years' War. After the Battle of the White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule, eradicated Protestantism and reimposed Catholicism, adopted a policy of gradual Germanization; this contributed to the anti-Habsburg sentiment. A long history of resentment of the Catholic Church followed and still continues. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Bohemian Kingdom became part of the German Confederation 1815-1866 as part of Austrian Empire and the Czech language experienced a revival as a consequence of widespread romantic nationalism. In the 19th century, the Czech lands became the industrial powerhouse of the monarchy and were subsequently the core of the Republic of Czechoslovakia, formed in 1918 following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I. Czechoslovakia remained the only democracy in this part of Europe in the interwar period. However, the Czech part of Czechoslovakia was occupied by Germany in World War II, while the Slovak region became the Slovak Republic.
Most of the three millions of the German-speaking minority were expelled following the war. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the 1946 elections and after the 1948 coup d'état, Czechoslovakia became a one-party communist state under Soviet influence. In 1968, increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in a reform movement known as the Prague Spring, which ended in a Soviet-led invasion. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed and market economy was reintroduced. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia; the Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004. The traditional English name "Bohemia" derives from Latin "Boiohaemum", which means "home of the Boii"; the current English name comes from the Polish ethnonym associated with the area, which comes from the Czech word Čech. The name comes from the Slavic tribe and, according to legend, their leader Čech, who brought them to Bohemia, to settle on Říp Mountain.
The etymology of the word Čech can be traced back to the Proto-Slavic root *čel-, meaning "member of the people. The country has been traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia in the west, Moravia in the east, Czech Silesia in the northeast. Known as the lands of the Bohemian Crown since the 14th century, a number of other names for the country have been used, including Czech/Bohemian lands, Bohemian Crown and the lands of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas; when the country regained its independence after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian empire in 1918, the new name of Czechoslovakia was coined to reflect the union of the Czech and Slovak nations within the one country. After Czechoslovakia dissolved in 1992, the Czech part lac
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t