Church of the Twelve Apostles
For the eponymous structure in Constantinople, see Church of the Holy Apostles. The Church of the Twelve Apostles is a minor cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin, commissioned by Patriarch Nikon as part of his stately residence in 1653 and dedicated to Philip the Apostle three years later, it serves as a part of Moscow Kremlin Museums. Although premises for the Muscovite metropolitan had existed in the Kremlin since the 14th century, Patriarch Nikon, who aspired to rival the tsar in authority and magnificence, had them replaced with a much more ambitious residence, centered on a spacious chamber in the form of the cross, once used as a banqueting hall but now serving as a museum of applied arts. To this structure adjoins from the south a domestic church of the patriarchs consecrated to Philip the Apostle until the dedication was altered to the present one in 1682; the church is as prominent as neighbouring grand cathedrals of the 15th century, due to its placement upon a high podium, pierced by two large arches allowing passage from the Cathedral Square to the patriarch's courtyard.
The exterior walls are decorated with two belts of columned arches which reference both the neighbouring cathedrals of the Cathedral Square and the great churches of the 12th-century Vladimir-Suzdal school, their inspiration. The rigorous outline of five helmeted domes, in keeping with Nikon's conservative architectural tastes, serves to accentuate the church's Byzantine pedigree; the patriarchal residence was damaged when the Bolsheviks shelled the Kremlin in October 1917. Subsequently, the church was restored in order to accommodate the applied arts museum. Little subsists of its original murals, yet there is a delightful 17th-century iconostasis, salvaged from the Ascension Convent cathedral upon its demolition by the Bolsheviks and displaying many fine old icons, notably those by Fyodor Zubov and Simon Ushakov
Taynitsky Garden is an urban park located within the walls of the Moscow Kremlin, in Russia. The park is named after the Taynitskaya Tower in the Kremlin Wall, is part of the portion of the Kremlin, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. During the time of the Russian Empire, the location of the Taynitsky Garden was occupied by a church to Saints Constantine and Helena, dating from the late 14th century, it housed a granary associated with the Cathedral of the Annunciation. On a hill in the area, a monument to Tsar Alexander II was erected in 1898. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, the church was among the historic buildings within the Kremlin ordered to be destroyed by Bolshevicks as part of the state atheism campaign to raze religious structures throughout Russia; the area became a public garden, with the upper portion, bordering Ivanovskaya Square called the Grand Kremlin Public Garden. The garden was the location of the first Subbotnik, or voluntary labor program, in which Lenin publicly participated.
One highlight of this garden was an oak tree named Cosmos, planted by Yuri Gagarin on April 14, 1961, just two days after his return from his historic space flight. From 1967-1995, the area contained a garden with a seated monument to Lenin, opened to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the October Revolution; the statue is now at the Gorki Leninskiye museum. Archaeological investigations at Taynitsky Garden in 2007 uncovered the foundations of ancient houses and artifacts from everyday medieval life. During a state visit to Russia in 2008 Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi lived on a tent set up in the Taynitsky garden. In 2013, a helipad was constructed for the use of Vladimir Putin; this is to help minimize congestion on Moscow roads caused by motorcades. Klein, Mina; the Kremlin: Citadel of History. MacMillan Publishing Company. ISBN 0-02-750830-7 Tropkin, Alexander; the Moscow Kremlin: history of Russia's unique monument. Publishing House "Russkaya Zhizn". ASIN: B0010XM7BQ
Monument to Grand Duke Sergey Alexandrovich
The Monument to Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich is a monument dedicated to Sergei Alexandrovich, it was consecrated on April 2, 1908 in the exact spot of his assassination. After the Bolshevik Revolution, the monument was destroyed in 1918, but was restored in 2017 in honor of his death. In 1905, Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich was assassinated right next to the Kremlin Senate and Nikolskaya Tower, when a terrorist threw a nitroglycerin bomb directly into Sergei's lap, killing him instantly.. A monument was built in 1908 on the exact spot of his assassination, was destroyed in 1918 by the Bolsheviks. In 2017, Vladimir Putin made a speech at the unveiling of the reconsecrated monument in honor of Sergei Alexandrovich's assassination. Putin addressed the history behind the monument, willingness of the Russian people from Russian artist Viktor Vasnetsov, the original designer of the monument
Ivanovskaya Square is the largest Kremlin square. Its name comes from the Ivan the Great Bell Tower. In the 16th and 17th centuries, many government bodies were situated in the Ivanovskaya Square, it was the site of the equivalent of today's Ministries. Yamskoi Prikaz, one of the offices, handled the delivery of private letters. Thus, it became the first postal address in Moscow. Court services and chanceries of various departments were situated here. At the end of the 1920s and early 1930s, the square was enlarged after the demolition of the Lesser Nicholas Palace and the Ascension Convent. Today, the square is cobbled like most of the territory of the Kremlin, it offers a view of one of the three corners of the Kremlin Senate and the facade of the Presidium, one of the Kremlin’s administrative blocks, erected in 1929, in place of the destroyed historic buildings. "About Ivanovskaya Square". Moscow. Info. Retrieved 2007-12-07. "About Ivanovskaya Square". Archived from the original on 2007-11-30. Retrieved 2007-12-07
The Kremlin Arsenal is a former armory built within the grounds of the Moscow Kremlin in Russia. Constructed in 1736, it has been rebuilt several times, it remains in military use to date, unlike the Kremlin Armoury, another arsenal within the walls of the Moscow Kremlin, now a museum. The building is off-limits to tourists, who can view a portion of its short southern façade upon entering the precincts of the Moscow Kremlin; the Kremlin Arsenal is home to the Kremlin Regiment, which forms the main security service for the Russian President, the longer eastern façade is a high secured and restricted area closed to the public. The Kremlin Arsenal is a large elongated trapezoid two-storey building with a large courtyard, it occupies most of the northern corner of the Moscow Kremlin, with its north-west and north-eastern sides directly adjacent to the Kremlin Wall parallel to Red Square, from Trinity Tower to St Nicholas Tower. The building is 300 metres long on its longest side, its brick walls are painted yellow.
Of note are its two rows of spaced, arched windows with deep, white limestone frames. Two entrances to the patio on the south and east facades have arched porticos with baroque ornaments. In the Middle Ages, the spot was occupied by granaries. After they burnt down in the last years of the 17th century, Peter the Great engaged a team of Russian and German architects to construct the Kremlin Arsenal, designed to be one of the largest buildings in Moscow at the time. Construction started in 1702, but was interrupted due to lack of funds during the Great Northern War with Sweden, was only completed in 1736, under supervision of Field-Marshal Burkhard Christoph von Münnich; the new building was gutted by a fire in 1737, only restored from 1786-1796. During Napoleon's invasion of Russia, the retreating French soldiers had the central part of the building blown up, it was restored between 1816 and 1828 to a Neoclassical design in order to house a museum dedicated to the Russian victory over Napoleon.
Accordingly, some 875 cannons captured from the retreating Grande Armée were put on display along the south walls of the Arsenal. Of these, 365 are French, 189 are Austrian, 123 are Prussian, 70 are Italian, 40 are Neapolitan, 34 are Bavarian, 22 are Dutch. Since 1960, Russian carriage-mounted cannons of the 16th and 17th centuries have been displayed along the south wall of the building. Klein, Mina; the Kremlin: Citadel of History. MacMillan Publishing Company. ISBN 0-02-750830-7 Tropkin, Alexander; the Moscow Kremlin: history of Russia's unique monument. Publishing House "Russkaya Zhizn". ASIN: B0010XM7BQ Official webpage The Armory and other sights of Moscow
Ivan the Terrible
Ivan IV Vasilyevich known as Ivan the Terrible, was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547 and the first Tsar of Russia from 1547 to 1584. Ivan was the crown prince of Vasili III, the Rurikid ruler of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, was appointed Grand Prince at three years-old after his father's death. Ivan was proclaimed Tsar of All Rus' in 1547 at the age of seventeen, establishing the Tsardom of Russia with Moscow as the predominant state. Ivan's reign was characterized by Russia's transformation from a medieval state into an empire under the Tsar, though at immense cost to its people and its broader, long-term economy. Ivan conquered the Khanates of Kazan and Sibir, with Russia becoming a multiethnic and multicontinental state spanning 4,050,000 km2, developing a bureaucracy to administer the new territories. Ivan triggered the Livonian War, which ravaged Russia and resulted in the loss of Livonia and Ingria, but allowed him to exercise greater autocratic control over the Russia's nobility, which he violently purged in the Oprichnina.
Ivan was an able diplomat, a patron of arts and trade, the founder of Russia's first publishing house, the Moscow Print Yard. Ivan was popular among Russia's commoners except for the people of Novgorod and surrounding areas who were subject to the Massacre of Novgorod. Historic sources present disparate accounts of Ivan's complex personality: he was described as intelligent and devout, but prone to paranoia and episodic outbreaks of mental instability that increased with age. Ivan is popularly believed to have killed his eldest son and heir Ivan Ivanovich and the latter's unborn son during his outbursts, which left the politically ineffectual Feodor Ivanovich to inherit the throne, whose rule directly led to the end of the Rurikid dynasty and the beginning of the Time of Troubles; the English word terrible is used to translate the Russian word grozny in Ivan's nickname, but this is a somewhat archaic translation. The Russian word grozny reflects the older English usage of terrible as in "inspiring fear or terror.
It does not convey the more modern connotations of English terrible, such as "defective" or "evil". Vladimir Dal defines grozny in archaic usage and as an epithet for tsars: "courageous, magnificent and keeping enemies in fear, but people in obedience". Other translations have been suggested by modern scholars. Ivan was the first son of Vasili III and his second wife, Elena Glinskaya, of half Serbian and half Lipka Tatar descent, the Glinski clan claiming descent from the Mongol ruler Mamai When Ivan was three years old, his father died from an abscess and inflammation on his leg that developed into blood poisoning. Ivan was proclaimed the Grand Prince of Moscow at the request of his father, his mother Elena Glinskaya acted as regent, but she died of what many believe to be assassination by poison, in 1538 when Ivan was only eight years old. The regency alternated between several feuding boyar families fighting for control. According to his own letters, along with his younger brother Yuri felt neglected and offended by the mighty boyars from the Shuisky and Belsky families.
In a letter to Prince Kurbski Ivan remembers, "My brother Iurii, of blessed memory, me they brought up like vagrants and children of the poorest. What have I suffered for want of garments and food!! " It should be noted, that the historian Edward L Keenan has presented compelling reasons to doubt the authenticity of the source in which these quotes are found. On 16 January 1547, at age sixteen, Ivan was crowned with Monomakh's Cap at the Cathedral of the Dormition, he was the first to be crowned as "Tsar of All the Russias", hence claiming the ancestry of Kievan Rus'. Prior to that, rulers of Muscovy were crowned as Grand Princes, although Ivan III the Great, his grandfather, styled himself "tsar" in his correspondence. Two weeks after his coronation, Ivan married his first wife Anastasia Romanovna, a member of the Romanov family, who became the first Russian tsaritsa. By being crowned Tsar, Ivan was sending a message to the world and to Russia: he was now the only supreme ruler of the country, his will was not to be questioned.
"The new title symbolized an assumption of powers equivalent and parallel to those held by former Byzantine Emperor and the Tatar Khan, both known in Russian sources as Tsar. The political effect was to elevate Ivan's position." The new title not only secured the throne, but it granted Ivan a new dimension of power, one intimately tied to religion. He was now a "divine" leader appointed to enact God's will, as "church texts described Old Testament kings as'Tsars' and Christ as the Heavenly Tsar." The newly appointed title was passed on from generation to generation: "succeeding Muscovite rulers... benefited from the divine nature of the power of the Russian monarch... crystallized during Ivan's reign." Despite calamities triggered by the Great Fire of 1547, the early part of Ivan's reign was one of peaceful reforms and modernization. Ivan revised the law code, creating the Sudebnik of 1550, founded a standing army, established the Zemsky Sobor and the council of the nobles, confirmed the position of the Church with the Council of the Hundred Chapters, which unified the rituals and ecclesiastical regulations of the whole c
Kazan Cathedral, Moscow
Kazan Cathedral Russian: Казанский собор, formally known as the "Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan", is a Russian Orthodox church located on the northeast corner of Red Square in Moscow, Russia. The current building is a reconstruction of the original church, destroyed at the direction of General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin, in 1936. Upon recovering Moscow from the armies of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1612 at the close of the Time of Troubles, Prince Dmitry Pozharsky attributed his success to the divine help of the icon Theotokos of Kazan, to whom he had prayed on several occasions. From his private funds, he financed construction of a wooden church to the Virgin of Kazan on Red Square in Moscow, first mentioned in historical records in 1625. After the diminutive shrine was destroyed by a fire in 1632, Tsar Michael I, ordered it replaced with a brick church; the one-domed edifice, featuring several tiers of kokoshniki, a wide gallery, a tented belfry, was consecrated in October 1636.
Kazan Cathedral was considered one of the most important churches in Moscow. Annually on the anniversary of the liberation of Moscow from Poland-Lithuania, a solemn parade led by the Patriarch and the Tsar carried a processional cross from the Kremlin. By the end of the 17th century, the church building was expanded and received a bell tower and a redesigned entrance. Numerous other renovations of the cathedral were undertaken during the imperial period, notably during 1801, 1805, 1865, much of the original design was lost behind additions; the history of the cathedral was tempestuous, as evidenced by the fact that its archpriest Avvakum led the party of religious dissenters, or Old Believers. The distinguished Russian restorer Peter Baranovsky supervised a complete reconstruction of the church's exterior to its original design in 1929–1932; some specialists, criticised the accuracy of this reconstruction. In 1936, when Red Square was being prepared for holding the military parades of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin ordered the square cleared of churches.
Although efforts were made by Baranovsky to save it, he could not prevent the Kazan Cathedral from being demolished. In its place a temporary building housing offices for the Communist International was erected, it was used as a summer café. After the fall of the Soviet Union, the Kazan Cathedral was the first church to be rebuilt after having been destroyed by the Communists; the cathedral's restoration was sponsored by the Moscow city branch of the All-Russian Society for Historic Preservation and Cultural Organization, was based on the detailed measurements and photographs of the original church. However, the icon of the Kazan Virgin in the restored cathedral is a copy. Kazan Cathedral, Moscow