The terms foobar, or foo and others are used as placeholder names in computer programming or computer-related documentation. They have been used to name entities such as variables and commands whose exact identity is unimportant and serve only to demonstrate a concept; the etymology of foo is obscure. Its use in connection with bar is traced to the World War II military slang FUBAR bowdlerised to foobar; the word foo on its own was used earlier. Between about 1930 and 1952 it appeared in the comic Smokey Stover by Bill Holman, who stated that he used the word due to having seen it on the bottom of a jade Chinese figurine in Chinatown, San Francisco, purportedly signifying "good luck"; this may be related to the Chinese word fu, which can mean blessing. The first known use of the terms in print in a programming context appears in a 1965 edition of MIT's Tech Engineering News. Foobar may have come about as a result of the pre-existing "Foo" being conjoined with "bar", an addition borrowed from the military's FUBAR.
The use of foo in a programming context is credited to the Tech Model Railroad Club of MIT from circa 1960. In the complex model system, there were scram switches located at numerous places around the room that could be thrown if something undesirable was about to occur, such as a train going full-bore at an obstruction. Another feature of the system was a digital clock on the dispatch board; when someone hit a scram switch, the clock stopped and the display was replaced with the word "FOO". Because of this, an entry in the 1959 Dictionary of the TMRC Language went something like this: "FOO: The first syllable of the misquoted sacred chant phrase'foo mane padme hum.' Our first obligation is to keep the foo counters turning." One book describing the MIT train room describes two buttons by the door: labeled "foo" and "bar". These were general purpose buttons and were re-purposed for whatever fun idea the MIT hackers had at the time, hence the adoption of foo and bar as general purpose variable names.
An entry in the Abridged Dictionary of the TMRC Language states: Multiflush: stop-all-trains-button. Next best thing to the red door button. Called FOO. Displays "FOO" on the clock when used; the term foobar was propagated through computer science circles in the 1960s and early 1970s by system manuals from Digital Equipment Corporation. Foobar was used as a variable name in the Fortran code of Colossal Cave Adventure; the variable FOOBAR was used to contain the player's progress in saying the magic phrase "Fee Fie Foe Foo". In this Hello World code sample in C, foo and bar are used to illustrate string concatenation: Foo Camp is an annual hacker convention. BarCamp, an international network of user generated conferences During the United States v. Microsoft Corp. trial, some evidence was presented that Microsoft had tried to use the Web Services Interoperability organization as a means to stifle competition, including e-mails in which top executives including Bill Gates referred to the WS-I using the codename "foo".
Foobar2000 is an audio player. Google uses. Xyzzy Foo was here Category:Variable The Jargon File entry on "foobar", catb.org RFC 1639 – FTP Operation Over Big Address Records
VAX is a discontinued instruction set architecture developed by Digital Equipment Corporation in the mid-1970s. The VAX-11/780, introduced on October 25, 1977, was the first of a range of popular and influential computers implementing that architecture. A 32-bit system with a complex instruction set computer architecture based on DEC's earlier PDP-11, VAX was designed to extend or replace DEC's various Programmed Data Processor ISAs; the VAX architecture's primary features were its orthogonal instruction set. VAX was succeeded by the DEC Alpha instruction set architecture. VAX has been perceived as the quintessential CISC ISA, with its large number of assembly-language-programmer-friendly addressing modes and machine instructions orthogonal architecture, instructions for complex operations such as queue insertion or deletion and polynomial evaluation; the name "VAX" originated as an acronym for virtual address extension, both because the VAX was seen as a 32-bit extension of the older 16-bit PDP-11 and because it was an early adopter of virtual memory to manage this larger address space.
Early versions of the VAX processor implement a "compatibility mode" that emulates many of the PDP-11's instructions, are in fact called VAX-11 to highlight this compatibility and that VAX-11 was an outgrowth of the PDP-11 family. Versions offloaded the compatibility mode and some of the less used CISC instructions to emulation in the operating system software; the VAX instruction set was designed to be orthogonal. When it was introduced, many programs were written in assembly language, so having a "programmer-friendly" instruction set was important. In time, as more programs were written in higher-level language, the instruction set became less visible, the only ones much concerned about it were compiler writers. One unusual aspect of the VAX instruction set is the presence of register masks at the start of each subprogram; these are arbitrary bit patterns that specify, when control is passed to the subprogram, which registers are to be preserved. Since register masks are a form of data embedded within the executable code, they can make linear parsing of the machine code difficult.
This can complicate optimization techniques. The "native" VAX operating system is Digital's VAX/VMS; the VAX architecture and OpenVMS operating system were "engineered concurrently" to take maximum advantage of each other, as was the initial implementation of the VAXcluster facility. Other VAX operating systems have included various releases of BSD UNIX up to 4.3BSD, Ultrix-32, VAXELN, Xinu. More NetBSD and OpenBSD have supported various VAX models and some work has been done on porting Linux to the VAX architecture. OpenBSD discontinued support for the architecture in September 2016; the first VAX model sold was the VAX-11/780, introduced on October 25, 1977 at the Digital Equipment Corporation's Annual Meeting of Shareholders. Bill Strecker, C. Gordon Bell's doctoral student at Carnegie Mellon University, was responsible for the architecture. Many different models with different prices, performance levels, capacities were subsequently created. VAX superminicomputers were popular in the early 1980s.
For a while the VAX-11/780 was used as a standard in CPU benchmarks. It was described as a one-MIPS machine, because its performance was equivalent to an IBM System/360 that ran at one MIPS, the System/360 implementations had been de facto performance standards; the actual number of instructions executed in 1 second was about 500,000, which led to complaints of marketing exaggeration. The result was the definition of a "VAX MIPS," the speed of a VAX-11/780. Within the Digital community the term VUP was the more common term, because MIPS do not compare well across different architectures; the related term cluster VUPs was informally used to describe the aggregate performance of a VAXcluster. The VAX-11/780 included a subordinate stand-alone LSI-11 computer that performed microcode load and diagnostic functions for the parent computer; this was dropped from subsequent VAX models. Enterprising VAX-11/780 users could therefore run three different Digital Equipment Corporation operating systems: VMS on the VAX processor, either RSX-11M or RT-11 on the LSI-11.
The VAX went through many different implementations. The original VAX 11/780 was implemented in TTL and filled a four-by-five-foot cabinet with a single CPU. CPU implementations that consisted of multiple ECL gate array or macrocell array chips included the VAX 8600 and 8800 superminis and the VAX 9000 mainframe class machines. CPU implementations that consisted of multiple MOSFET custom chips included the 8100 and 8200 class machines; the VAX 11-730 and 725 low-end machines were built using bit-slice components. The MicroVAX I represented a major transition within the VAX family. At the time of its design, it was not yet possible to implement the full VAX architecture as a single VLSI chip. Instead, the MicroVAX I was the first VAX implementation to move some of the more complex VAX instructions (such as th
Eric S. Raymond
Eric Steven Raymond referred to as ESR, is an American software developer, author of the cited 1997 essay and 1999 book The Cathedral and the Bazaar and other works, open-source software advocate. He wrote a guidebook for the Roguelike game NetHack. In the 1990s, he edited and updated the Jargon File in print as The New Hacker's Dictionary. Raymond was lived in Venezuela as a child, his family moved to Pennsylvania in 1971. He has suffered from cerebral palsy since birth. Raymond began his programming career writing proprietary software, between 1980 and 1985. In 1990, noting that the Jargon File had not been maintained since about 1983, he adopted it. Paul Dourish maintains an archived original version of the Jargon File, because, he says, Raymond's updates "essentially destroyed what held it together."In 1996 Raymond took over development of the open-source email software "popclient", renaming it to Fetchmail. Soon after this experience, in 1997, he wrote the essay "The Cathedral and the Bazaar", detailing his thoughts on open-source software development and why it should be done as as possible.
The essay was based in part on his experience in developing Fetchmail. He first presented his thesis at the annual Linux Kongress on May 27, 1997, he expanded the essay into a book, The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary, in 1999. The internal white paper by Frank Hecker that led to the release of the Mozilla source code in 1998 cited The Cathedral and the Bazaar as "independent validation" of ideas proposed by Eric Hahn and Jamie Zawinski. Hahn would describe the 1999 book as "clearly influential". From the late 1990s onward, due in part to the popularity of his essay, Raymond became a prominent voice in the open source movement, he co-founded the Open Source Initiative in 1998, taking on the self-appointed role of ambassador of open source to the press and public. He remains active in OSI, stepped down as president of the initiative in February 2005. In 1998 Raymond received and published a Microsoft document expressing worry about the quality of rival open-source software.
Eric named this document, together with others subsequently leaked, "the Halloween Documents". In 2000–2002 he created CML2, a source code configuration system. Raymond attributed this rejection to "kernel list politics". Linus Torvalds on the other hand said in a 2007 mailing list post that as a matter of policy, the development team preferred more incremental changes, his 2003 book The Art of Unix Programming discusses user tools for programming and other tasks. Raymond is the administrator of the project page for the GPS data tool gpsd; some versions of NetHack include his guide. He has contributed code and content to the free software video game The Battle for Wesnoth. Raymond coined an aphorism he dubbed "Linus's Law", inspired by Linus Torvalds: "Given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow", it first appeared in his book the Bazaar. Raymond has refused to speculate on whether the "bazaar" development model could be applied to works such as books and music, not wanting to "weaken the winning argument for open-sourcing software by tying it to a potential loser".
Raymond has had a number of public disputes with other figures in the free software movement. As head of the Open Source Initiative, he argued that advocates should focus on the potential for better products; the "very seductive" moral and ethical rhetoric of Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation fails, he said, "not because his principles are wrong, but because that kind of language... does not persuade anybody". In a 2008 essay he "defended the right of programmers to issue work under proprietary licenses because I think that if a programmer wants to write a program and sell it, it's neither my business nor anyone else's but his customer's what the terms of sale are". In the same essay he said that the "logic of the system" puts developers into "dysfunctional roles", with bad code the result. Raymond is a member of the Libertarian Party, he is a gun rights advocate. He has endorsed the open source firearms organization Defense Distributed, calling them "friends of freedom" and writing "I approve of any development that makes it more difficult for governments and criminals to monopolize the use of force.
As 3D printers become less expensive and more ubiquitous, this could be a major step in the right direction."In 2015 Raymond accused the Ada Initiative and other women in tech groups of attempting to entrap male open source leaders and accuse them of rape, saying "Try to avoid being alone because there is a chance that a'women in tech' advocacy group is going to try to collect your scalp."Raymond is known for claiming that “Gays experimented with unfettered promiscuity in the 1970s and got AIDS as a consequence” and that “Police who react to a random black male behaving suspiciously who might be in the critical age range as though he is an near-imminent lethal threat, are being rational, not racist.” Progressive campaign The Great Slate was successful in raising funds for candidates in part by asking for contributions from tech workers in return for not posting similar quotes by Raymond. Matasano Security employee and Great Slate fundraiser Thomas Ptacek said, “I’ve been torturing Twitter with lurid Eric S. Raymond quotes for years.
Every time I do, 20 people beg me to stop.” It is estimated that as of March 2018 over $30,000 has been raised in this way
A hoax is a falsehood deliberately fabricated to masquerade as the truth. It is distinguishable from errors in observation or judgment, urban legends and April Fools' Day events that are passed along in good faith by believers or as jokes. Zhang Yingyu's The Book of Swindles, published during the late Ming dynasty, is said to be China's first collection of stories about fraud, swindles and other forms of deception. Although practical jokes have existed for thousands of years, one of the earliest recorded hoaxes in Western history was the drummer of Tedworth in 1661; the communication of hoaxes can be accomplished in any manner that a fictional story can be communicated: in person, via word of mouth, via words printed on paper, so on. As the technology of communication has advanced, the speed at which hoaxes spread has advanced: a rumor about a ghostly drummer, spread by word of mouth, will impact a small area at first grow gradually. However, hoaxes could be spread via chain letters, which became easier as the cost of mailing a letter dropped.
The invention of the printing press in the 15th century brought down the cost of a mass-produced books and pamphlets, the rotary printing press of the 19th century reduced the price further. During the 20th century, the hoax found a mass market in the form of supermarket tabloids, by the 21st century there were fake news websites which spread hoaxes via social networking websites; the English philologist Robert Nares says that the word hoax was coined in the late 18th century as a contraction of the verb hocus, which means "to cheat," "to impose upon" or "to befuddle with drugged liquor." Hocus is a shortening of the magic incantation hocus pocus, whose origin is disputed. Robert Nares defined the word hoax as meaning "to cheat," dating from Thomas Ady's 1656 book A candle in the dark, or a treatise on the nature of witches and witchcraft; the term hoax is used in reference to urban legends and rumors, but the folklorist Jan Harold Brunvand argues that most of them lack evidence of deliberate creations of falsehood and are passed along in good faith by believers or as jokes, so the term should be used for only those with a probable conscious attempt to deceive.
As for the related terms practical joke and prank, Brunvand states that although there are instances where they overlap, hoax tends to indicate "relatively complex and large-scale fabrications" and includes deceptions that go beyond the playful and "cause material loss or harm to the victim."According to Professor Lynda Walsh of the University of Nevada, some hoaxes—such as the Great Stock Exchange Fraud of 1814, labeled as a hoax by contemporary commentators—are financial in nature, successful hoaxers—such as P. T. Barnum, whose Fiji mermaid contributed to his wealth—often acquire monetary gain or fame through their fabrications, so the distinction between hoax and fraud is not clear. Alex Boese, the creator of the Museum of Hoaxes, states that the only distinction between them is the reaction of the public, because a fraud can be classified as a hoax when its method of acquiring financial gain creates a broad public impact or captures the imagination of the masses. One of the earliest recorded media hoaxes is a fake almanac published by Jonathan Swift under the pseudonym of Isaac Bickerstaff in 1708.
Swift predicted the death of John Partridge, one of the leading astrologers in England at that time, in the almanac and issued an elegy on the day Partridge was supposed to have died. Partridge's reputation was damaged as a result and his astrological almanac was not published for the next six years, it is possible to perpetrate a hoax by making only true statements using unfamiliar wording or context, such as in the Dihydrogen monoxide hoax. Political hoaxes are sometimes motivated by the desire to ridicule or besmirch opposing politicians or political institutions before elections. A hoax differs from a magic trick or from fiction in that the audience is unaware of being deceived, whereas in watching a magician perform an illusion the audience expects to be tricked. A hoax is intended as a practical joke or to cause embarrassment, or to provoke social or political change by raising people's awareness of something, it can emerge from a marketing or advertising purpose. For example, to market a romantic comedy movie, a director staged a phony "incident" during a supposed wedding, which showed a bride and preacher getting knocked into a pool by a clumsy fall from a best man.
A resulting video clip of Chloe and Keith's Wedding was uploaded to YouTube and was viewed by over 30 million people and the couple was interviewed by numerous talk shows. Viewers were deluded into thinking that it was an authentic clip of a real accident at a real wedding. Governments sometimes spread false information to facilitate their objectives, such as going to war; these come under the heading of black propaganda. There is a mixture of outright hoax and suppression and management of information to give the desired impression. In wartime and times of international tension rumors abound, some of which may be deliberate hoaxes. Examples of politics-related hoaxes: Belgium is a country with a Flemish-speaking region and a French-speaking region. In 2006 French-speaking television channel RTBF interrupted programming with a spoof report claiming that the country had split in two and the royal family had fled. On Saturday 13 March 2010 the Imedi television station in Georgia broadcast a f
Konstantin Ustinovich Chernenko was a Soviet politician and the fifth General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. He led the Soviet Union from 13 February 1984 until his death thirteen months on 10 March 1985. Chernenko was Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet from 11 April 1984 until his death. Chernenko was born to a poor family in the Siberian village of Bolshaya Tes on 24 September 1911, his father, Ustin Demidovich, worked in copper mines and gold mines while his mother took care of the farm work. Chernenko joined the Komsomol in 1929, became a full member of the Communist Party in 1931. From 1930 to 1933, he served in the Soviet frontier guards on the Soviet–Chinese border. After completing his military service, he returned to Krasnoyarsk as a propagandist. In 1933 he worked in the Propaganda Department of the Novosyolovsky District Party Committee. A few years he was promoted to head of the same department in Uyarsk Raykom. Chernenko steadily rose through the Party ranks, becoming the Director of the Krasnoyarsk House of Party Enlightenment in 1939 the Deputy Head of the Agitprop Department of Krasnoyarsk Territorial Committee, in 1941 Secretary of the Territorial Party Committee for Propaganda.
In the 1940s he established a close relationship with Fyodor Kulakov. In 1945, he acquired a diploma from a party training school in Moscow, in 1953 he finished a correspondence course for schoolteachers; the turning point in Chernenko’s career was his assignment in 1948 to head the Communist Party’s propaganda department in the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic. There, he met and won the confidence of Leonid Brezhnev, the first secretary of the Moldavian SSR from 1950 to 1952 and future leader of the Soviet Union. Chernenko followed Brezhnev in 1956 to fill a similar propaganda post in the CPSU Central Committee in Moscow. In 1960, after Brezhnev was named chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, Chernenko became his chief of staff. In 1964, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev was deposed, succeeded by Brezhnev. During Brezhnev's tenure as Party leader, Chernenko's career continued successfully, he was nominated in 1965 as head of the General Department of the Central Committee, given the mandate to set the Politburo agenda and prepare drafts of numerous Central Committee decrees and resolutions.
He monitored telephone wiretaps and covert listening devices in various offices of the top Party members. Another of his jobs was to sign hundreds of Party documents daily, a job he did for the next 20 years. After he became General Secretary of the Party, he continued to sign papers referring to the General Department. In 1971, Chernenko was promoted to full membership in the Central Committee: Overseeing Party work over the Letter Bureau, dealing with correspondence. In 1976, he was elected secretary of the Letter Bureau, he became Candidate in 1977, in 1978 a full member of the Politburo, second to the General Secretary in the Party hierarchy. During Brezhnev's final years, Chernenko became immersed in ideological Party work: heading Soviet delegations abroad, accompanying Brezhnev to important meetings and conferences, working as a member of the commission that revised the Soviet Constitution in 1977. In 1979, he took part in the Vienna arms limitation talks. After Brezhnev's death in November 1982, there was speculation that the position of General Secretary would fall to Chernenko, but he was unable to rally enough support for his candidacy within the Party.
KGB chief Yuri Andropov, more mindful of Brezhnev's failing health, succeeded to the position. Yuri Andropov died after just 15 months in office. Chernenko was elected to replace Andropov though Andropov himself stated he wanted Gorbachev to succeed him. Additionally, Chernenko was terminally ill himself. Despite these factors, Yegor Ligachev writes in his memoirs that Chernenko was elected general secretary without a hitch. At the Central Committee plenary session on 13 February 1984, four days after Andropov's death, the Chairman of the Council of Ministers and Politburo member Nikolai Tikhonov moved that Chernenko be elected general secretary, the Committee duly voted him in. Arkady Volsky, an aide to Andropov and other general secretaries, recounts an episode that occurred after a Politburo meeting on the day following Andropov's demise: As Politburo members filed out of the conference hall, either Andrei Gromyko or Dmitriy Ustinov is said to have put his arm round Nikolai Tikhonov's shoulders and said: "It's okay, Kostya is an agreeable guy, one can do business with him...."
The Politburo failed to pass the decision for Gorbachev, nominally Chernenko's second in command, to run the meetings of the Politburo itself in the absence of Chernenko. As Nikolai Ryzhkov describes it in his memoirs, "every Thursday morning he would sit in his office like a little orphan – I would be present at this sad procedure – nervously awaiting a telephone call from the sick Chernenko: Would he come to the Politburo himself or would he ask Gorbachev to stand in for him this time again?" At Andropov's funeral, he could read the eulogy. Those present strained to catch the meaning of, he spoke swallowed his wor
Usenet is a worldwide distributed discussion system available on computers. It was developed from the general-purpose Unix-to-Unix Copy dial-up network architecture. Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis conceived the idea in 1979, it was established in 1980. Users post messages to one or more categories, known as newsgroups. Usenet resembles a bulletin board system in many respects and is the precursor to Internet forums that are used today. Discussions are threaded, as with web forums and BBSs, though posts are stored on the server sequentially; the name comes from the term "users network". A major difference between a BBS or web forum and Usenet is the absence of a central server and dedicated administrator. Usenet is distributed among a large changing conglomeration of servers that store and forward messages to one another in so-called news feeds. Individual users may read messages from and post messages to a local server operated by a commercial usenet provider, their Internet service provider, employer, or their own server.
Usenet is culturally significant in the networked world, having given rise to, or popularized, many recognized concepts and terms such as "FAQ", "flame", "spam". Usenet was conceived in 1979 and publicly established in 1980, at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University, over a decade before the World Wide Web went online and the general public received access to the Internet, making it one of the oldest computer network communications systems still in widespread use, it was built on the "poor man's ARPANET", employing UUCP as its transport protocol to offer mail and file transfers, as well as announcements through the newly developed news software such as A News. The name Usenet emphasized its creators' hope that the USENIX organization would take an active role in its operation; the articles that users post to Usenet are organized into topical categories known as newsgroups, which are themselves logically organized into hierarchies of subjects. For instance, sci.math and sci.physics are within the sci.* hierarchy, for science.
Or, talk.origins and talk.atheism are in the talk.* hierarchy. When a user subscribes to a newsgroup, the news client software keeps track of which articles that user has read. In most newsgroups, the majority of the articles are responses to some other article; the set of articles that can be traced to one single non-reply article is called a thread. Most modern newsreaders display the articles arranged into subthreads; when a user posts an article, it is only available on that user's news server. Each news server talks to one or more other exchanges articles with them. In this fashion, the article is copied from server to server and should reach every server in the network; the peer-to-peer networks operate on a similar principle, but for Usenet it is the sender, rather than the receiver, who initiates transfers. Usenet was designed under conditions when networks were not always available. Many sites on the original Usenet network would connect only once or twice a day to batch-transfer messages in and out.
This is because the POTS network was used for transfers, phone charges were lower at night. The format and transmission of Usenet articles is similar to that of Internet e-mail messages; the difference between the two is that Usenet articles can be read by any user whose news server carries the group to which the message was posted, as opposed to email messages, which have one or more specific recipients. Today, Usenet has diminished in importance with respect to Internet forums, mailing lists and social media. Usenet differs from such media in several ways: Usenet requires no personal registration with the group concerned; the groups in alt.binaries are still used for data transfer. Many Internet service providers, many other Internet sites, operate news servers for their users to access. ISPs that do not operate their own servers directly will offer their users an account from another provider that operates newsfeeds. In early news implementations, the server and newsreader were a single program suite, running on the same system.
Today, one uses separate newsreader client software, a program that resembles an email client but accesses Usenet servers instead. Some clients such as Mozilla Thunderbird and Outlook Express provide both abilities. Not all ISPs run news servers. A news server is one of the most difficult Internet services to administer because of the large amount of data involved, small customer base, a disproportionately high volume of customer support incidents; some ISPs outsource news operation to specialist sites, which will appear to a user as though the ISP ran the server itself. Many sites carry a restricted newsfeed, with a limited number of newsgroups. Omitted from such a newsfeed are foreign-language newsgroups and the alt.binaries hierarchy which carries software, music and images, accounts for over 99 percent of article data. There are Usenet providers that specialize in offering service to users whose ISPs do not carry news, or that carry a restricted feed. See news server operation for an overview of how news systems are implemented.
Newsgroups are accessed with newsreaders: applications that allow users to read and reply to postings in newsgro
The Moscow Kremlin, or the Kremlin, is a fortified complex in the center of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, the Alexander Garden to the west. It is the best known of the kremlins and includes five palaces, four cathedrals, the enclosing Kremlin Wall with Kremlin towers. In addition, within this complex is the Grand Kremlin Palace, the Tsar's Moscow residence; the complex now serves as the official residence of the President of the Russian Federation and as a museum with 2,746,405 visitors in 2017. The name "Kremlin" means "fortress inside a city", is also used metonymically to refer to the government of the Russian Federation in a similar sense to how "White House" refers to the Executive Office of the President of the United States, it referred to the government of the Soviet Union and its highest members. The term "Kremlinology" refers to the study of Russian politics; the site had been continuously inhabited by Finno-Ugric peoples since the 2nd century BC.
The Slavs occupied the south-western portion of Borovitsky Hill as early as the 11th century, as evidenced by a metropolitan seal from the 1090s, unearthed by Soviet archaeologists in the area. The Vyatichi built a fortified structure on the hill where the Neglinnaya River flowed into the Moskva River. Up to the 14th century, the site was known as the'grad of Moscow'; the word "Kremlin" was first recorded in 1331. The grad was extended by Prince Yuri Dolgorukiy in 1156, destroyed by the Mongols in 1237 and rebuilt in oak in 1339. Dmitri Donskoi replaced the oak walls with a strong citadel of white limestone in 1366–1368 on the basic foundations of the current walls. Dmitri's son Vasily I resumed construction of cloisters in the Kremlin; the newly built Cathedral of the Annunciation was painted by Theophanes the Greek, Andrei Rublev, Prokhor in 1406. The Chudov Monastery was founded by Metropolitan Alexis. Grand Prince Ivan III organised the reconstruction of the Kremlin, inviting a number of skilled architects from Renaissance Italy, including Petrus Antonius Solarius, who designed the new Kremlin wall and its towers, Marcus Ruffus who designed the new palace for the prince.
It was during his reign that three extant cathedrals of the Kremlin, the Deposition Church, the Palace of Facets were constructed. The highest building of the city and Muscovite Russia was the Ivan the Great Bell Tower, built in 1505–08 and augmented to its present height in 1600; the Kremlin walls as they now appear were built between 1485 and 1495. Spasskie gates of the wall still bear a dedication in Latin praising Petrus Antonius Solarius for the design. After construction of the new kremlin walls and churches was complete, the monarch decreed that no structures should be built in the immediate vicinity of the citadel; the Kremlin was separated from the walled merchant town by a 30-meter-wide moat, over which Saint Basil's Cathedral was constructed during the reign of Ivan the Terrible. The same tsar renovated some of his grandfather's palaces, added a new palace and cathedral for his sons, endowed the Trinity metochion inside the Kremlin; the metochion was administrated by the Trinity Monastery and contained the graceful tower church of St. Sergius, described by foreigners as one of the finest in the country.
During the Time of Troubles, the Kremlin was held by the Polish forces for two years, between 21 September 1610 and 26 October 1612. The Kremlin's liberation by the volunteer army of prince Dmitry Pozharsky and Kuzma Minin paved the way for the election of Mikhail Romanov as the new tsar. During his reign and that of his son Alexis and grandson Feodor, the eleven-domed Upper Saviour Cathedral, Armorial Gate, Terem Palace, Amusement Palace and the palace of Patriarch Nikon were built. Following the death of Alexis's son and the Moscow Uprising of 1682, Tsar Peter escaped with much difficulty from the Kremlin and as a result developed a dislike for it. Three decades Peter abandoned the residence of his forefathers for his new capital, Saint Petersburg. Although still used for coronation ceremonies, the Kremlin was abandoned and neglected until 1773, when Catherine the Great engaged Vasili Bazhenov to build her new residence there. Bazhenov produced a bombastic Neoclassical design on a heroic scale, which involved the demolition of several churches and palaces, as well as a portion of the Kremlin wall.
After the preparations were over, construction was delayed due to lack of funds. Several years the architect Matvey Kazakov supervised the reconstruction of the dismantled sections of the wall and of some structures of the Chudov Monastery, built the spacious and luxurious Offices of the Senate, since adapted for use as the principal workplace of the President of Russia. During the Imperial period, from the early 18th and until the late 19th century, the Kremlin walls were traditionally painted white, in accordance with fashion. French forces occupied the Kremlin from 2 September to 11 October 1812, following the French invasion of Russia; when Napoleon retreated from Moscow, he ordered the whole Kremlin to be blown up. The Kremlin Arsenal, several portions of the Kremlin Wall and several wall towers were destroyed by explosions and the Faceted Chamber and other churches were damaged by fire. Explosions continued for