International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
ArXiv is a repository of electronic preprints approved for posting after moderation, but not full peer review. It consists of scientific papers in the fields of mathematics, astronomy, electrical engineering, computer science, quantitative biology, mathematical finance and economics, which can be accessed online. In many fields of mathematics and physics all scientific papers are self-archived on the arXiv repository. Begun on August 14, 1991, arXiv.org passed the half-million-article milestone on October 3, 2008, had hit a million by the end of 2014. By October 2016 the submission rate had grown to more than 10,000 per month. ArXiv was made possible by the compact TeX file format, which allowed scientific papers to be transmitted over the Internet and rendered client-side. Around 1990, Joanne Cohn began emailing physics preprints to colleagues as TeX files, but the number of papers being sent soon filled mailboxes to capacity. Paul Ginsparg recognized the need for central storage, in August 1991 he created a central repository mailbox stored at the Los Alamos National Laboratory which could be accessed from any computer.
Additional modes of access were soon added: FTP in 1991, Gopher in 1992, the World Wide Web in 1993. The term e-print was adopted to describe the articles, it began as a physics archive, called the LANL preprint archive, but soon expanded to include astronomy, computer science, quantitative biology and, most statistics. Its original domain name was xxx.lanl.gov. Due to LANL's lack of interest in the expanding technology, in 2001 Ginsparg changed institutions to Cornell University and changed the name of the repository to arXiv.org. It is now hosted principally with eight mirrors around the world, its existence was one of the precipitating factors that led to the current movement in scientific publishing known as open access. Mathematicians and scientists upload their papers to arXiv.org for worldwide access and sometimes for reviews before they are published in peer-reviewed journals. Ginsparg was awarded a MacArthur Fellowship in 2002 for his establishment of arXiv; the annual budget for arXiv is $826,000 for 2013 to 2017, funded jointly by Cornell University Library, the Simons Foundation and annual fee income from member institutions.
This model arose in 2010, when Cornell sought to broaden the financial funding of the project by asking institutions to make annual voluntary contributions based on the amount of download usage by each institution. Each member institution pledges a five-year funding commitment to support arXiv. Based on institutional usage ranking, the annual fees are set in four tiers from $1,000 to $4,400. Cornell's goal is to raise at least $504,000 per year through membership fees generated by 220 institutions. In September 2011, Cornell University Library took overall administrative and financial responsibility for arXiv's operation and development. Ginsparg was quoted in the Chronicle of Higher Education as saying it "was supposed to be a three-hour tour, not a life sentence". However, Ginsparg remains on the arXiv Scientific Advisory Board and on the arXiv Physics Advisory Committee. Although arXiv is not peer reviewed, a collection of moderators for each area review the submissions; the lists of moderators for many sections of arXiv are publicly available, but moderators for most of the physics sections remain unlisted.
Additionally, an "endorsement" system was introduced in 2004 as part of an effort to ensure content is relevant and of interest to current research in the specified disciplines. Under the system, for categories that use it, an author must be endorsed by an established arXiv author before being allowed to submit papers to those categories. Endorsers are not asked to review the paper for errors, but to check whether the paper is appropriate for the intended subject area. New authors from recognized academic institutions receive automatic endorsement, which in practice means that they do not need to deal with the endorsement system at all. However, the endorsement system has attracted criticism for restricting scientific inquiry. A majority of the e-prints are submitted to journals for publication, but some work, including some influential papers, remain purely as e-prints and are never published in a peer-reviewed journal. A well-known example of the latter is an outline of a proof of Thurston's geometrization conjecture, including the Poincaré conjecture as a particular case, uploaded by Grigori Perelman in November 2002.
Perelman appears content to forgo the traditional peer-reviewed journal process, stating: "If anybody is interested in my way of solving the problem, it's all there – let them go and read about it". Despite this non-traditional method of publication, other mathematicians recognized this work by offering the Fields Medal and Clay Mathematics Millennium Prizes to Perelman, both of which he refused. Papers can be submitted in any of several formats, including LaTeX, PDF printed from a word processor other than TeX or LaTeX; the submission is rejected by the arXiv software if generating the final PDF file fails, if any image file is too large, or if the total size of the submission is too large. ArXiv now allows one to store and modify an incomplete submission, only finalize the submission when ready; the time stamp on the article is set. The standard access route is through one of several mirrors. Sev
In Einstein's theory of general relativity, the Schwarzschild metric is the solution to the Einstein field equations that describes the gravitational field outside a spherical mass, on the assumption that the electric charge of the mass, angular momentum of the mass, universal cosmological constant are all zero. The solution is a useful approximation for describing rotating astronomical objects such as many stars and planets, including Earth and the Sun, it was found by Karl Schwarzschild in 1916, around the same time independently by Johannes Droste, who published his much more complete and modern-looking discussion only four months after Schwarzschild. According to Birkhoff's theorem, the Schwarzschild metric is the most general spherically symmetric vacuum solution of the Einstein field equations. A Schwarzschild black hole or static black hole is a black hole that has neither electric charge nor angular momentum. A Schwarzschild black hole is described by the Schwarzschild metric, cannot be distinguished from any other Schwarzschild black hole except by its mass.
The Schwarzschild black hole is characterized by a surrounding spherical boundary, called the event horizon, situated at the Schwarzschild radius called the radius of a black hole. The boundary is not a physical surface, if a person fell through the event horizon, they would not notice any physical surface at that position. Any non-rotating and non-charged mass, smaller than its Schwarzschild radius forms a black hole; the solution of the Einstein field equations is valid for any mass M, so in principle a Schwarzschild black hole of any mass could exist if conditions became sufficiently favorable to allow for its formation. The Schwarzschild metric is a spherically symmetric Lorentzian metric defined on R × ≅ R × × S 2 where E 3 is 3 dimensional Euclidean space, S 2 ⊂ E 3 is the two sphere; the rotation group S O = S O acts on the E 3 − O or S 2 factor as rotations around the center O, while leaving the first R factor unchanged. The Schwarzschild metric is a solution of Einstein's field equations in empty space, meaning that it is valid only outside the gravitating body.
That is, for a spherical body of radius R the solution is valid for r > R. To describe the gravitational field both inside and outside the gravitating body the Schwarzschild solution must be matched with some suitable interior solution at r = R, such as the interior Schwarzschild metric. In Schwarzschild coordinates the Schwarzschild metric has the form g = − c 2 d τ 2 = − c 2 d t 2 + − 1 d r 2 + r 2 g Ω, where g Ω is the metric on the two sphere, i.e. g Ω =. Furthermore, d τ 2 is positive for time like curves, τ is the proper time, c is the speed of light, t is the time coordinate, r is the radial coordinate, Ω is a point on the two sphere S 2, θ
Charles W. Misner
Charles W. Misner is an American physicist and one of the authors of Gravitation, his specialties include general cosmology. His work has provided early foundations for studies of quantum gravity and numerical relativity. Misner received his B. S. degree from the University of Notre Dame in 1952. He moved to Princeton University where he earned an M. A. in 1954 and completed his Ph. D. in 1957. His dissertation, Outline of Feynman Quantization of General Relativity. Prior to completing his Ph. D. Misner joined the faculty of Princeton Physics Department with the rank of Instructor and was subsequently promoted to assistant professor. In 1963 he moved to the University of Maryland, College Park as an associate professor and achieved full professor status there in 1966. Since 2000, Misner has been Professor Emeritus of Physics, part of the University of Maryland College of Computer and Natural Sciences at the University of Maryland, where he continues to be a member of the Gravitation Theory Group. During his career, Misner advised 22 Ph.
D. students at Princeton and at the University of Maryland. Misner has held visiting positions at the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics. Most of Misner's research falls into the area of general relativity, which describes the gravitational interactions of massive bodies, he has contributed to the early understanding of cosmology where he was one of the first to point out the horizon problem, the role of topology in general relativity, quantum gravity, numerical relativity. In the areas of cosmology and topology, he first studied the mixmaster universe, which he devised in an attempt to better understand the dynamics of the early universe, developed a solution to the Einstein field equation, now known as Misner space. Together with Richard Arnowitt and Stanley Deser, he published a Hamiltonian formulation of the Einstein equation that split Einstein's unified spacetime back into separated space and time; this set of equations, known as the ADM formalism, plays a role in some attempts to unify quantum mechanics with general relativity.
It is the mathematical starting point for most techniques for numerically solving Einstein's equations. Misner, Charles W.. Gravitation. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-0344-0. Misner, Charles W.. Spreadsheet Physics. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-16410-8. Http://www.physics.umd.edu/grt/people/charles.html http://www2.physics.umd.edu/~misner/cwmstud.pdf
Gravitation is a physics book on Einstein's theory of gravity, written by Charles W. Misner, Kip S. Thorne, John Archibald Wheeler and published by W. H. Freeman and Company in 1973, it is abbreviated MTW after its authors' last names. The cover illustration, drawn by Kenneth Gwin, is a line drawing of an apple with cuts in the skin to show geodesics, it contains each beginning with a quotation. The bibliography has other notable books in the field. While this may not be considered the best introductory text because its coverage may overwhelm a newcomer, despite the fact that parts of it are now out-of-date, it remains a highly-valued reference for advanced graduate students and researchers. After a brief review of special relativity and flat spacetime, physics in curved spacetime is introduced and many aspects of general relativity are covered. Segments of history are included to summarize the ideas leading up to Einstein's theory; the book concludes by questioning the nature of spacetime and suggesting possible frontiers of research.
Although the exposition on linearized gravity is detailed, one topic, not covered is gravitoelectromagnetism. Some quantum mechanics is mentioned, but quantum field theory in curved spacetime and quantum gravity are not included; the topics covered are broadly divided into two "tracks", the first contains the core topics while the second has more advanced content. The first track can be read independently of the second track; the main text is supplemented by boxes containing extra information, which can be omitted without loss of continuity. Margin notes are inserted to annotate the main text; the mathematics tensor calculus and differential forms in curved spacetime, is developed as required. An introductory chapter on spinors near the end is given. There are numerous illustrations of advanced mathematical ideas such as alternating multilinear forms, parallel transport, the orientation of the hypercube in spacetime. Mathematical exercises and physical problems are included for the reader to practice.
The prose in the book is conversational. For example, Lorentz transformed coordinates are described as a "squashed egg-crate" with an illustration. Tensors are described as "machines with slots" to insert vectors or one-forms, containing "gears and wheels that guarantee the output" of other tensors. MTW uses the −+++ metric convention, dissuades the use of the ++++ metric and imaginary time coordinate ict. In the front endpapers, the sign conventions for the Einstein field equations are established and the conventions used by many other authors are listed; the book uses geometrized units, the gravitational constant G and speed of light in vacuum c each set to 1. The back endpapers contain a table of unit conversions; the book has been reprinted in English 24 times. Hardback and softcover editions have been published; the original citation is Misner, Charles W.. It has been translated into other languages, including Russian and Japanese; this is a recent reprinting. Misner, Charles W.. Gravitation. Princeton University Press.
ISBN 9780691177793. Reprinting; the book is still considered influential in the physics community, with positive reviews, but with some criticism of the book's length and presentation style. To quote Ed Ehrlich "'Gravitation' is such a prominent book on relativity that the initials of its authors MTW can be used by other books on relativity without explanation."James Hartle notes in his book “Over thirty years since its publication, Gravitation is still the most comprehensive treatise on general relativity. An authoritative and complete discussion of any topic in the subject can be found within its 1300 pages, it contains an extensive bibliography with references to original sources. Written by three twentieth-century masters of the subject, it set the style for many texts on the subject, including this one.”Sean M. Carroll states in his own introductory text “The book that educated at least two generations of researchers in gravitational physics. Comprehensive and encyclopedic, the book is written in an often-idiosyncratic way that you will either like or not.”Pankaj Sharan writes “This large sized, 1272 page book begins at the beginning and has everything on gravity.
There are hundreds of diagrams and special boxes for additional explanations, exercises and bibliographical asides and bibliographical details.”Ray D'Inverno suggests “I would recommend looking at the relevant sections of the text of Misner and Wheeler, known for short as ‘MTW’. MTW is a rich resource and is worth consulting for a whole string of topics. However, its style is not for everyone. MTW has a extensive bibliography.”Many texts on general relativity refer to it in their bibliographies or footnotes. In addition to the four given, other modern references include George al.. Bernard F. Schutz, James Foster et al. Robert Wald, Stephen Hawking et al. Other prominent physics books cite it. For example Classical Mechanics by Herbert Goldstein who comments “This massive treatise (1279 pages! (the pun is irr
John Archibald Wheeler
John Archibald Wheeler was an American theoretical physicist. He was responsible for reviving interest in general relativity in the United States after World War II. Wheeler worked with Niels Bohr in explaining the basic principles behind nuclear fission. Together with Gregory Breit, Wheeler developed the concept of the Breit–Wheeler process, he is best known for linking the term "black hole" to objects with gravitational collapse predicted early in the 20th century, for coining the terms "quantum foam", "neutron moderator", "wormhole" and "it from bit", for hypothesizing the "one-electron universe". Wheeler earned his doctorate at Johns Hopkins University under the supervision of Karl Herzfeld, studied under Breit and Bohr on a National Research Council fellowship. In 1939 he teamed up with Bohr to write a series of papers using the liquid drop model to explain the mechanism of fission. During World War II, he worked with the Manhattan Project's Metallurgical Laboratory in Chicago, where he helped design nuclear reactors, at the Hanford Site in Richland, where he helped DuPont build them.
He returned to Princeton after the war ended, but returned to government service to help design and build the hydrogen bomb in the early 1950s. For most of his career, Wheeler was a professor at Princeton University, which he joined in 1938, remaining until his retirement in 1976. At Princeton he supervised 46 PhDs, more than any other professor in the Princeton physics department. Wheeler was born in Jacksonville, Florida on July 9, 1911 to librarians Joseph Lewis Wheeler and Mabel Archibald Wheeler, he was the oldest of four children, having two younger brothers and Robert, a younger sister, Mary. Joseph earned a Ph. D. from Brown University and a Master of Library Science from Columbia University. Robert earned a Ph. D. in geology from Harvard University and worked as a geologist for oil companies and at colleges. Mary became a librarian, they grew up in Youngstown, but spent a year in 1921 to 1922 on a farm in Benson, where Wheeler attended a one-room school. After they returned to Youngstown he attended Rayen High School.
After graduating from the Baltimore City College high school in 1926, Wheeler entered Johns Hopkins University with a scholarship from the state of Maryland. He published his first scientific paper in 1930, as part of a summer job at the National Bureau of Standards, he earned his doctorate in 1933. His dissertation research work, carried out under the supervision of Karl Herzfeld, was on the "Theory of the Dispersion and Absorption of Helium", he received a National Research Council fellowship, which he used to study under Gregory Breit at New York University in 1933 and 1934, in Copenhagen under Niels Bohr in 1934 and 1935. In a 1934 paper and Wheeler introduced the Breit–Wheeler process, a mechanism by which photons can be transformed into matter in the form of electron-positron pairs; the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill made Wheeler an associate professor in 1937, but he wanted to be able work more with the experts in particle physics. He turned down an offer in 1938 of an associate professorship at Johns Hopkins University in favor of an assistant professorship at Princeton University.
Although it was a lesser position, he felt that Princeton, building up its physics department, was a better career choice. He remained a member of the faculty there until 1976. In a 1937 paper "On the Mathematical Description of Light Nuclei by the Method of Resonating Group Structure", Wheeler introduced the S-matrix – short for scattering matrix – "a unitary matrix of coefficients connecting the asymptotic behavior of an arbitrary particular solution with that of solutions of a standard form." Werner Heisenberg subsequently developed the idea of the S-matrix in the 1940s. Due to the problematic divergences present in quantum field theory at that time, Heisenberg was motivated to isolate the essential features of the theory that would not be affected by future changes as the theory developed. In doing so he was led to introduce a unitary "characteristic" S-matrix, which became an important tool in particle physics. Wheeler did not develop the S-matrix, but joined Edward Teller in examining Bohr's liquid drop model of the atomic nucleus.
They presented their results at a meeting of the American Physical Society in New York in 1938. Wheeler's Chapel Hill graduate student Katharine Way presented a paper, which she followed up in a subsequent article, detailing how the liquid drop model was unstable under certain conditions. Due to a limitation of the liquid drop model, they all missed the opportunity to predict nuclear fission; the news of Lise Meitner and Otto Frisch's discovery of fission was brought to America by Bohr in 1939. Bohr told Leon Rosenfeld. Bohr and Wheeler set to work applying the liquid drop model to explain the mechanism of nuclear fission; as the experimental physicists studied fission, they uncovered puzzling results. George Placzek asked Bohr why uranium seemed to fission with both fast and slow neutrons. Walking to a meeting with Wheeler, Bohr had an insight that the fission at low energies was due to the uranium-235 isotope, while at high energies it was due to the far more abundant uranium-238 isotope, they co-wrote two more papers on fission.
Their first paper appeared in Physical Review on September 1, 1939, the day Germany invaded Poland, starting World War II in Europe. Considering the notion that positrons were electrons that were traveling backwards in time, he came up in 1940 with his one-electron universe postulate: that there was in fact only one electron, bouncing back a
Kip Stephen Thorne is an American theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate, known for his contributions in gravitational physics and astrophysics. A longtime friend and colleague of Stephen Hawking and Carl Sagan, he was the Feynman Professor of Theoretical Physics at the California Institute of Technology until 2009 and is one of the world's leading experts on the astrophysical implications of Einstein's general theory of relativity, he continues to do scientific research and scientific consulting, most notably for the Christopher Nolan film Interstellar. In 2017, Thorne was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics along with Rainer Weiss and Barry C. Barish "for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves". Thorne was born in Logan, Utah on June 1, 1940, his father was a chemist, his mother Alison Thorne, was an economist and the first woman to receive a Ph. D. in the discipline from Iowa State College. Raised in an academic environment, two of his four siblings became professors.
Thorne's parents were members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and raised Thorne in the LDS faith, though he now describes himself as atheist. Regarding his views on science and religion, Thorne has stated: "There are large numbers of my finest colleagues who are quite devout and believe in God There is no fundamental incompatibility between science and religion. I happen to not believe in God."Thorne excelled at academics early in life, winning recognition in the Westinghouse Science Talent Search as a senior at Logan High School and becoming one of the youngest full professors in the history of the California Institute of Technology at age 30. He received his B. S. degree from Caltech in 1962, Ph. D. degree from Princeton University in 1965. He wrote his doctoral thesis, Geometrodynamics of Cylindrical Systems, under the supervision of John Wheeler. Thorne returned to Caltech as an associate professor in 1967 and became a professor of theoretical physics in 1970, the William R. Kenan, Jr.
Professor in 1981, the Feynman Professor of Theoretical Physics in 1991. He was an adjunct professor at the University of Utah from 1971 to 1998 and Andrew D. White Professor at Large at Cornell University from 1986 to 1992. In June 2009 he resigned his Feynman Professorship to pursue a career of movie making, his first film project was Interstellar, on which he worked with Christopher Nolan and Jonathan Nolan. Throughout the years, Thorne has served as a mentor and thesis advisor for many leading theorists who now work on observational, experimental, or astrophysical aspects of general relativity. 50 physicists have received Ph. D.s at Caltech under Thorne's personal mentorship. Thorne is known for his ability to convey the excitement and significance of discoveries in gravitation and astrophysics to both professional and lay audiences. In 1999, Thorne made some speculations on what the 21st century will find as the answers to the following questions: Is there a "dark side of the universe" populated by objects such as black holes?
Can we observe the birth of the universe and its dark side using radiation made from space-time warpage, or so-called "gravitational waves"? Will 21st century technology reveal quantum behavior in the realm of human-size objects? His presentations on subjects such as black holes, gravitational radiation, time travel, wormholes have been included in PBS shows in the U. S. and in the United Kingdom on the BBC. Thorne and Linda Jean Peterson married in 1960, their children are Bret Carter, an architect. Thorne and Peterson divorced in 1977. Thorne and his second wife, Carolee Joyce Winstein, a professor of biokinesiology and physical therapy at USC, married in 1984. Thorne's research has principally focused on relativistic astrophysics and gravitation physics, with emphasis on relativistic stars, black holes and gravitational waves, he is best known to the public for his controversial theory that wormholes can conceivably be used for time travel. However, Thorne's scientific contributions, which center on the general nature of space and gravity, span the full range of topics in general relativity.
Thorne's work has dealt with the prediction of gravitational wave strengths and their temporal signatures as observed on Earth. These "signatures" are of great relevance to LIGO, a multi-institution gravitational wave experiment for which Thorne has been a leading proponent – in 1984, he cofounded the LIGO Project to discern and measure any fluctuations between two or more'static' points. A significant aspect of his research is developing the mathematics necessary to analyze these objects. Thorne carries out engineering design analyses for features of the LIGO that cannot be developed on the basis of experiment and he gives advice on data analysis algorithms by which the waves will be sought, he has provided theoretical support for LIGO, including identifying gravitational wave sources that LIGO should target, designing the baffles to control scattered light in the LIGO beam tubes, – in collaboration with Vladimir Braginsky's research group – inventing quantum nondemolition designs for advanced gravity-wave detectors and ways to reduce the most serious kind of noise in advanced detectors: thermoelastic noise.
With Carlton M. Caves, Thorne invented the back-action-evasion approach to quantum nondemolition measurements of the harmonic oscillators – a technique applicable both in gravitational wave detection and quantum optics