William Ben Hogan was an American professional golfer, considered to be one of the greatest players in the history of the game. He was born within six months of Sam Snead and Byron Nelson, who were two other acknowledged golf greats of the 20th century. Hogan is notable for his profound influence on golf swing theory and his legendary ball-striking ability, his nine career professional major championships tie him with Gary Player for fourth all-time, trailing only Jack Nicklaus, Tiger Woods and Walter Hagen. He is one of only five golfers to have won all four major championships: the Masters Tournament, The Open, the U. S. Open, the PGA Championship; the other four are Nicklaus, Woods and Gene Sarazen. Hogan was born in Stephenville, the third and youngest child of Chester and Clara Hogan, his father was a blacksmith and the family lived ten miles southwest in Dublin until 1921, when they moved 70 miles northeast to Fort Worth. When Hogan was nine years old in 1922, his father Chester committed suicide with a self-inflicted gunshot at the family home.
By some accounts, Chester committed suicide in front of him, which some have cited as the cause of his introverted personality in years. The family incurred financial difficulties after his father's suicide, the children took jobs to help their seamstress mother make ends meet. Older brother Royal quit school at age 14 to deliver office supplies by bicycle, nine-year-old Ben sold newspapers after school at the nearby train station. A tip from a friend led him to caddying at the age of 11 at Glen Garden Country Club, a nine-hole course seven miles to the south. One of his fellow caddies at Glen Garden was Byron Nelson a tour rival; the two would tie for the lead at the annual Christmas caddie tournament in December 1927, when both were 15. Nelson sank a 30-foot putt to tie on the final hole. Instead of sudden death, they played another nine holes; the following spring, Nelson was granted the only junior membership offered by the members of Glen Garden. Club rules did not allow caddies age 16 and older, so after August 1928, Hogan took his game to three scrubby daily-fee courses: Katy Lake, Worth Hills, Z-Boaz.
Hogan dropped out of Central High School during the final semester of his senior year. He turned pro in the golf industry six months shy of his 18th birthday at the Texas Open in San Antonio, in late January 1930. Hogan met Valerie Fox in Sunday school in Fort Worth in the mid-1920s, they reacquainted in 1932 when he landed a low-paying club pro job in Cleburne, where her family had moved, they married in April 1935 at her parents' home. Hogan's early years as a pro were difficult, he did not win his first tournament until March 1940, when he won three consecutive tournaments in North Carolina. Although it took a decade for Hogan to secure his first victory, his wife Valerie believed in him, this helped see him through the tough years when he battled a hook that he cured. Despite finishing 13th on the money list in 1938, Hogan had to take an assistant pro job at Century Country Club in Purchase, New York, he worked at Century as an assistant and as the head pro until 1941, when he took the head pro job at Hershey Country Club in Hershey, Pennsylvania.
During Hogan's prime years of 1938 through 1959, he won 63 professional golf tournaments despite the interruption of his career by World War II and a near-fatal car accident. Hogan served in the U. S. Army Air Forces from March 1943 to June 1945. Hogan and his wife Valerie survived a head-on collision with a Greyhound bus on a fog-shrouded bridge, early in the morning, east of Van Horn, Texas on February 2, 1949. Hogan threw himself across Valerie, he would have been killed had he not done so, because the steering column punctured the driver's seat. This accident left Hogan, age 36, with a double-fracture of the pelvis, a fractured collar bone, a left ankle fracture, a chipped rib, near-fatal blood clots: he would suffer lifelong circulation problems and other physical limitations, his doctors said. While Hogan was in the hospital, his life was endangered by a blood clot problem that led doctors to tie off the vena cava. Hogan left the hospital on 59 days after the accident. Hogan regained his strength by extensive walking and resumed his golf activities in November 1949.
He returned to the PGA Tour to start the 1950 season at the Los Angeles Open, where he tied with Sam Snead over 72 holes, but lost the 18-hole playoff. The win at Carnoustie was only a part of Hogan's watershed 1953 season, a year in which he won five of the six tournaments he entered, including three major championships, it still stands among the greatest single seasons in the history of professional golf. Hogan, 40, was unable to enter—and win—the 1953 PGA Championship because its play overlapped the play of the British Open at Carnoustie, which he won, it was the only time that a golfer had won three major professional championships in a year until Tiger Woods won the final three majors in 2000. Hogan declined to play in the PGA Championship. There were two reasons for this. First, the PGA Championship was, until 1958, a match play event, Hogan's particular skill was "shooting a number"—meticulously
Women's British Open
The Women's British Open is a major championship in women's professional golf. It is recognized by both the Ladies European Tour as a major; the reigning champion is Georgia Hall, who won by two shots at Royal Lytham & St Annes in 2018 to earn her first major title. Since it became an LPGA major in 2001 it has been played in late July or early August; the 2012 edition was scheduled for mid-September, due to the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, while the 2014 event was played in mid-July, the week prior to the Open Championship. In 2019 it will be known as the AIG Women's British Open. From 2007 to 2018, it was called the Ricoh Women's British Open while the previous twenty editions were sponsored by Weetabix, a breakfast cereal; the Women's British Open was established by the Ladies' Golf Union in 1976 and was intended to serve as the women's equivalent of The Open Championship. At first, it was difficult for the organisers to get the most prestigious courses to agree to host the event, with the exception of Royal Birkdale, which hosted it twice during its early days — in 1982 and 1986.
After nearly folding in 1983, the tournament was held at the best of the "second-tier" courses, including Woburn Golf and Country Club for seven straight years, 1990 through 1996, as well as in 1984 and 1999. As its prestige continued to increase, more of the links courses that are in the rotation for The Open Championship, such as Turnberry and Royal Lytham & St Annes hosted the tournament, in addition to Royal Birkdale. In 2007, the tournament took place at the Old Course at St Andrews for the first time. In the 2010s, two additional Open Championship venues became first-time hosts for the women's event: Carnoustie and Royal Liverpool; the tournament has yet to be played at four Open Championship courses: Muirfield and Royal Troon in Scotland, Royal St. George's in southeastern England, Royal Portrush in Northern Ireland. Unlike its male counterpart, the Women's British Open has not adopted a links-only policy; this increases the number of potential venues the number close to the major population centres of England.
Through 1993, the tournament was an official stop only on the Ladies European Tour, with the exception of the 1984 edition, co-sanctioned by the LPGA Tour. Starting in 1994, it became a permanent LPGA Tour event, which increased both the quality of the field and the event's prestige, it has been an official LPGA major since 2001. In 2005, the starting field size was increased to 150, but only the low 65 survive the cut after the second round. In both 2007 and 2008 the prize fund was £1.05 million. Starting in 2009, the prize fund changed from being fixed in pounds to U. S. dollars, is now $3.25 million. Tied for most victories in the Women's British Open with three each are Karrie Webb of Australia and Sherri Steinhauer of the United States. Both won the tournament twice. Yani Tseng of Taiwan and Jiyai Shin of South Korea are the multiple winners as a major championship; the other multiple winner is Debbie Massey of the U. S. with consecutive wins well. Winners of the championship as an LPGA major: Winners as a co-sanctioned LPGA tournament, but not an LPGA major: Winners before the tournament became an LPGA tournament: In 1992 the second day was washed-out and the event reduced to 54 holes.
In 1990 Alfredsson won with a par at the fourth extra hole. In 1988 Dibnah won with a birdie at the second extra hole; the 1984 tournament was co-sanctioned by the LPGA Tour. Prize money for this event was in US dollars; the 1977 event was decided on "countback". Saunders won the title. Denotes amateur This table lists the total number of titles won by golfers of each nationality as an LPGA major. Source: The Smyth Salver is awarded to the leading amateur, provided that the player completes all 72 holes, for one year; the winner receives a silver medal. The salver was donated by a past president of the Ladies' Golf Union. Official website Coverage on the LPGA official site Coverage on the Ladies European Tour official site
Annika Sörenstam is a retired Swedish American professional golfer. She is regarded as one of the best golfers in history. Before stepping away from competitive golf at the end of the 2008 season, she had won 90 international tournaments as a professional, making her the female golfer with the most wins to her name, she has won 72 official LPGA tournaments including ten majors and 18 other tournaments internationally, she tops the LPGA's career money list with earnings of over $22 million—over $2 million ahead of her nearest rival while playing 149 fewer events. Since 2006, Sörenstam has held dual Swedish citizenship; the winner of a record eight Player of the Year awards, six Vare Trophies given to the LPGA player with the lowest seasonal scoring average, she is the only female golfer to shoot a 59 in competition. She holds various all-time scoring records including the lowest season scoring average: 68.6969 in 2004. Representing Europe in the Solheim Cup on eight occasions between 1994 and 2007, Sörenstam was the event's all-time leading points earner until her record was surpassed by England's Laura Davies during the 2011 Solheim Cup.
In 2003, Sörenstam played in the Bank of America Colonial tournament to become the first woman to play in a PGA Tour event since 1945. Born in Bro near Stockholm, Sweden, Sörenstam's father Tom is a retired IBM executive and her mother Gunilla worked in a bank, her younger sister Charlotta is a professional golfer. Annika and Charlotta Sörenstam are the only two sisters to have both won $1 million on the LPGA; as a child, Sörenstam was a talented all-round sportsgirl. She was a nationally ranked junior tennis player, played association football in her hometown team Bro IK, was such a good skier that the coach of the Swedish national ski team suggested the family move to northern Sweden to improve her skiing year round. At the age of 12, she switched to golf, sharing her first set of golf clubs with her sister—Annika got the odd numbered clubs and Charlotta the even—and earned her first handicap of 54, she was so shy as a junior she used to deliberately three-putt at the end of a tournament to avoid giving the victory speech.
The coaches noticed and at the next tournament both the winner and the runner-up had to give a speech. Sörenstam decided that if she were going to have to face the crowd anyway she might as well win and the deliberate misses stopped, her successful amateur career included a win in the St. Rule Trophy played at St. Andrews and a runner-up finish in the Swedish national mother/daughter golf tournament; as a member of the Swedish National Team from 1987 to 1992, she played in the 1990 and 1992 Espirito Santo Trophy World Amateur Golf Team Championships, becoming World Amateur champion in 1992. While waiting to start college in Sweden, Sörenstam worked as a personal assistant at the Swedish PGA and played on the Swedish Ladies Telia Tour, winning three tournaments during 1990/1991. After a coach spotted Sörenstam playing in a collegiate event in Tokyo, she moved to the U. S. to play college golf at the University of Arizona in Tucson. She won seven collegiate titles and in 1991, became the first non-American and first freshman to win the individual NCAA Division I Championship.
Sörenstam was 1991 NCAA Co-Player of the Year with Kelly Robbins, runner-up in the 1992 NCAA championship, 1992 Pac-10 champion and a 1991–92 NCAA All-American. She qualified for the U. S. Women's Open at Oakmont in July, made the cut, tied for 63rd. A few weeks at the U. S. Women's Amateur at Kemper Lakes near Chicago, she was the runner-up to Vicki Goetze, bogeying the last hole in the 36-hole final. Sörenstam turned professional in 1992, but missed her LPGA Tour card at the final qualifying tournament by one shot, began her professional career on the Ladies European Tour known as the WPGET, she was invited to play in three LPGA Tour events in 1993, where she finished T38th, 4th, T9th, earning more than $47,000. She finished second four times on the Ladies European Tour and was 1993 Ladies European Tour Rookie of the Year. By tying for 28th at the LPGA Final Qualifying Tournament she earned non-exempt status for the 1994 season. Sörenstam's first professional win came at the 1994 Holden Women's Australian Open on the ALPG Tour.
In the United States, Sörenstam was LPGA Rookie of the Year, had three top-10 finishes including a tie for second at the Women's British Open and made her Solheim Cup debut. Her breakout year was 1995, when she won her first LPGA Tour title at the U. S. Women's Open, she was the first non-American winner of the Vare Trophy. She became the second player to be Player of the Year and Vare Trophy winner the year after being Rookie of the Year. A win at the 1995 Australian Ladies Masters and two other wins on the Ladies European Tour put her top of the LET Order of Merit and made her the first player to top both the European and LPGA Tour money lists in the same season, her success worldwide resulted in her winning the Jerringpriset award in Sweden, the country's most prestigious award in sports as well as being awarded the Svenska Dagbladet Gold Medal.1996 saw Sörenstam win her home LET tournament, the Trygg Hansa Ladies' Open in Sweden and three LPGA tournaments including the U. S. Women's Open. In defending her title, she became the first non-American to win back to back U.
S. Women's Open titles, passed the $1 million mark in LPGA career earnings, won her second consecutive Vare Trophy, she won six tour events in 1997, regaining the money player of the year titles. Internationally, she defended her home LET title at the renamed Compaq Open, she became the first player in LPGA history to finish a seaso
Sioux Falls, South Dakota
Sioux Falls is the most populous city in the U. S. state of South Dakota and the 143rd-most populous city in the United States. It is the county seat of Minnehaha County and extends into Lincoln County to the south, proximate with the Minnesota state line, it is the 47th-fastest-growing city in the United States and the fastest-growing metro area in South Dakota, with a population increase of 22% between 2000 and 2010. As of 2019, Sioux Falls had an estimated population of 187,200; the metropolitan population of 259,094 accounts for 29% of South Dakota's population. It is the primary city of the Sioux Falls-Sioux City Designated Market Area, a larger media market region that covers parts of four states and has a population of 1,043,450. Chartered in 1856 on the banks of the Big Sioux River, the city is situated in the rolling hills at the junction of Interstate 90 and Interstate 29; the history of Sioux Falls revolves around the cascades of the Big Sioux River. The falls were created about 14,000 years ago during the last ice age.
The lure of the falls has been a powerful influence. Ho-Chunk, Otoe, Omaha, Kansa, Arikira and Cheyenne people inhabited and settled the region previous to Europeans and European descendants. Numerous burial mounds still exist on the high bluffs near the river and are spread throughout the general vicinity. Indigenous people maintained an agricultural society with fortified villages, the arrivals rebuilt on many of the same sites that were settled. Lakota populate urban and reservation communities in the contemporary state and many Lakota and numerous other Indigenous Americans reside in Sioux Falls today. French voyagers/explorers visited the area in the early 18th century; the first documented visit by an American was by Philander Prescott, who camped overnight at the falls in December 1832. Captain James Allen led a military expedition out of Fort Des Moines in 1844. Jacob Ferris described the Falls in his 1856 book "The States and Territories of the Great West". Two separate groups, the Dakota Land Company of St. Paul and the Western Town Company of Dubuque, Iowa organized in 1856 to claim the land around the falls, considered a promising townsite for its beauty and water power.
Each worked together for mutual protection. They built a temporary barricade of turf which they dubbed "Fort Sod", in response to hostilities threatened by native tribes. Seventeen men spent "the first winter" in Sioux Falls; the following year the population grew to near 40. Although conflicts in Minnehaha County between Native Americans and white settlers were few, the Dakota War of 1862 engulfed nearby southwestern Minnesota; the town was evacuated in August of that year when two local settlers were killed as a result of the conflict. The settlers and soldiers stationed here traveled to Yankton in late August 1862; the abandoned townsite was burned. Fort Dakota, a military reservation established in present-day downtown, was established in May 1865. Many former settlers returned and a new wave of settlers arrived in the following years; the population grew to 593 by 1873, a building boom was underway in that year. The Village of Sioux Falls, consisting of 1,200 acres, was incorporated in 1876 and was granted a city charter by the Dakota Territorial legislature on March 3, 1883.
The arrival of the railroads ushered in the great Dakota Boom decade of the 1880s. The population of Sioux Falls mushroomed from 2,164 in 1880 to 10,167 at the close of the decade; the growth transformed the city. A severe plague of grasshoppers and a national depression halted the boom by the early 1890s; the city grew by only 89 people from 1890 to 1900. But prosperity returned with the opening of the John Morrell meat packing plant in 1909, the establishment of an airbase and a military radio and communications training school in 1942, the completion of the interstate highways in the early 1960s. Much of the growth in the first part of the 20th century was fueled by agriculturally based industry, such as the Morrell plant and the nearby stockyards. In 1955 the city decided to consolidate the neighboring incorporated city of South Sioux Falls. At the time South Sioux Falls had a population of nearly 1,600 inhabitants, according to the 1950 census, it was third largest city in the county after Sioux Dell Rapids.
By October 18, 1955 South Sioux Falls residents voted 704 in favor and 227 against to consolidate with Sioux Falls. On the same issue, Sioux Falls residents voted on November 15 by the vote 2,714 in favor and 450 against. In 1981, to take advantage of relaxed state usury laws, Citibank relocated its primary credit card center from New York City to Sioux Falls; some claim that this event was the primary impetus for the increased population and job growth rates that Sioux Falls has experienced over the past quarter century. Others point out that Citibank's relocation was only part of a more general transformation of the city's economy from an industrially based one to an economy centered on health care and retail trade. Sioux Falls has grown at a rapid pace since the late 1970s, with the city's population increasing from 81,000 in 1980 to 183,200 in 2018. Sioux Falls is located at 43°32'11" North, 96°43'54" West. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 73.47 square miles, of which 72.96 square miles is land and 0.51 square miles is water.
The city is in extreme eastern South Dakota, about 15 miles west of the Minnesota border. Sioux Falls has been assigned
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Anne Elisabeth Jane Claiborne was an American fashion designer and businesswoman. Her success was built upon stylish yet affordable apparel for career women featuring colorfully tailored separates that could be mixed and matched. Claiborne is best known for co-founding Liz Claiborne Inc. which in 1986 became the first company founded by a woman to make the Fortune 500 list. Claiborne was the first woman to become CEO of a Fortune 500 company. Claiborne was born in Brussels to American parents, she came from a prominent Louisiana family with an ancestor, William C. C. Claiborne, who served as Louisiana's first governor after statehood, during the War of 1812. In 1939, at the start of World War II, the family returned to New Orleans. Claiborne attended St. Timothy's School for Girls, a small boarding school in Catonsville, in Stevenson, Maryland. Rather than finishing high school, Claiborne went to Europe to study art in the studios of painters, her father did not believe that she needed an education, so she studied art informally.
In 1949, Claiborne won the Jacques Heim National Design Contest, moved to Manhattan where she worked for years in the Garment District on Seventh Avenue, as a sketch artist at the sportswear house, Tina Leser. She worked for the former Hollywood costume designer turned fashion designer, Omar Kiam, she worked as a designer for Dan Keller and Youth Group Inc. Claiborne became frustrated by the failure of the companies that employed her to provide clothes for working women, so, with Art Ortenberg, Leonard Boxer, Jerome Chazen, she launched her own design company, Liz Claiborne Inc. in 1976. It was an immediate success, with sales of $2 million in 1976 and $23 million in 1978. By 1988, it had acquired one-third of the American women's upscale sportswear market. Marketing strategies Claiborne developed changed the nature of retail stores. For example, Claiborne insisted that her line of clothing be displayed separately, as a department to itself and including all of the items she offered; this was the first time customers were able to select many types of clothing articles by brand name alone in one location of a department store.
That tradition for the grouping of special brands has become the typical arrangement for name brands in contemporary stores. In 1980, Liz Claiborne Accessories was founded through employee Nina McLemore. Liz Claiborne Inc. went public in 1981 and made the Fortune 500 list in 1986 with retail sales of $1.2 billion. Claiborne listed all employees in her corporate directory in alphabetical order, to circumvent what she perceived as male hierarchies, she controlled meetings by ringing a glass bell and became famous for her love of red—"Liz Red." She sometimes would pose as a saleswoman to see. Claiborne's first marriage was to Ben Shultz. In 1957, she married her textile executive Arthur Ortenberg, she had a son from her first marriage, Alexander G. Schultz, two stepchildren from her second marriage, Neil Ortenberg and Nancy Ortenberg. Claiborne retired from active management in 1989. By that stage, she had acquired other companies, notably Kayser-Roth, which produced Liz Claiborne accessories, her husband retired at the same time.
In retirement and Ortenberg established a foundation that distributed millions in funding to environmental causes, including funding the television series Nature on PBS and nature conservancy projects around the world. She received an Honorary Doctorate of Fine Arts from the Rhode Island School of Design. Claiborne had been advised in May 1997 that she had a rare form of cancer affecting the lining of the abdomen. Liz Claiborne died on June 26, 2007, following a long battle with the cancer. Jerome Chazen became the company's chairman in 1989 and held that role until 1996, when Paul Charron became chairman and C. E. O. and held that position until 2006. On May 15, 2012, Liz Claiborne Inc. became Fifth & Pacific, Inc. shifted focus, launched new brands, began marketing directly to customers. The original brand was sold. Chazen, Jerome A. "Notes from the apparel industry: Two decades at Liz Claiborne." Columbia Journal of World Business 31.2: 40–43. Dalby, Jill S. and M. Therese Flaherty. "Liz Claiborne, Inc. and Ruentex Industries, Ltd."
Harvard Business School, Case 9: 690–748. Daria, Irene; the Fashion Cycle: A Behind the Scenes Look at a Year with Bill Blass, Liz Claiborne, Donna Karan, Arnold Scaasi, Adrienne Vittadini. Siggelkow, Nicolaj. "Change in the presence of fit: The rise, the fall, the renaissance of Liz Claiborne." Academy of Management Journal 44.4: 838–857. Influential article online. Liz Claiborne Website Liz Claiborne Art Ortenberg Foundation Liz Claiborne at FMD
The Ladies Professional Golf Association is an American organization for female professional golfers. The organization is headquartered at the LPGA International in Daytona Beach, is best known for running the LPGA Tour, a series of weekly golf tournaments for elite female golfers from around the world. Other "LPGAs" exist in other countries, each with a geographical designation in its name, but the U. S. organization is the first and best known. The LPGA is an organization for female club and teaching professionals; this is different from the PGA Tour, which runs the main professional tours in the U. S. and, since 1968, has been independent of the club and teaching professionals' organization, the PGA of America. The LPGA administers an annual qualifying school similar to that conducted by the PGA Tour. Depending on a golfer's finish in the final qualifying tournament, she may receive full or partial playing privileges on the LPGA Tour. In addition to the main LPGA Tour, the LPGA owns and operates the Symetra Tour the Futures Tour, the official developmental tour of the LPGA.
Top finishers at the end of each season on that tour receive playing privileges on the main LPGA Tour for the following year. In its 70th season in 2019, the LPGA is the oldest continuing women's professional sports organization in the United States, it was founded in 1950 by a group of 13 golfers: Alice Bauer, Patty Berg, Bettye Danoff, Helen Dettweiler, Marlene Bauer Hagge, Helen Hicks, Opal Hill, Betty Jameson, Sally Sessions, Marilynn Smith, Shirley Spork, Louise Suggs, Babe Zaharias. The LPGA succeeded the WPGA, founded in 1944 but stopped its limited tour after the 1948 season and ceased operations in December 1949. In 2001, Jane Blalock's JBC Marketing established the Women's Senior Golf Tour, now called the Legends Tour, for women professionals aged 45 and older; this is affiliated with the LPGA, but is not owned by the LPGA. Michael Whan became the eighth commissioner of the LPGA in October 2009, succeeding the ousted Carolyn Bivens. Whan is a former marketing executive in the sporting goods industry.
After a lawsuit filed by golfer Lana Lawless, the rules were changed in 2010 to allow transgender competitors. In 2013, trans woman Bobbi Lancaster faced local scorn for attempting playing in Arizona's Cactus Tour and attempting to qualify in the LPGA Qualifying Tournament. In 2010, total official prize money on the LPGA Tour was $41.4 million, a decrease of over $6 million from 2009. In 2010 there were 24 official tournaments, down from 28 in 2009 and 34 in 2008. Despite the loss in total tournaments, the number of tournaments hosted outside of the United States in 2010 stayed the same, as all four lost tournaments had been hosted in the United States. By 2016, the number of tournaments had risen to 33 with a record-high total prize money in excess of $63 million. In its first four decades, the LPGA Tour was dominated by American players. Sandra Post of Canada became the first player living outside the United States to gain an LPGA tour card in 1968; the non-U. S. Contingent is now large; the last time an American player topped the money list was in 1993, the last time an American led the tour in tournaments won was in 1996, from 2000 through 2009, non-Americans won 31 of 40 major championships.
One of the notable trends seen in the early 21st century in the LPGA is the rise and dominance of Korean golfers. Se Ri Pak's early success in the LPGA sparked the boom in Korean women golfers on the LPGA Tour. In 2009, there were 122 non-Americans from 27 countries on the tour, including 47 from South Korea, 14 from Sweden, 10 from Australia, eight from the United Kingdom, seven from Canada, five from Taiwan, four from Japan. Of the 33 events in 2006, a total of 11 were won by Koreans and only seven were won by Americans. In 2007, Americans saw a relative resurgence. For the first time since 2000, two Americans won majors In 2008, Americans grew in dominance, winning 9 of 34 events, tied with Koreans, but no majors, one of, won by a Mexican player, one by Taiwanese player, the other two by teenage Korean players In 2009, Americans won 5 of 28 official events, including one major, the Kraft Nabisco Championship while Koreans won 11 events Most of the LPGA Tour's events are held in the United States.
In 2010, two tournaments were played in Mexico and one each in Singapore, France, Malaysia, South Korea and Japan. Unofficial events were held in Brazil and Jamaica. In 2011, the unofficial Jamaica event was dropped and a tournament in Mexico was canceled months in advance over security concerns; the Women's British Open rotated from England to Scotland and all other countries retained their tournaments. In addition, events were added in China and Taiwan, while the biennial USA–Europe team competition, the Solheim Cup was played in Ireland. Five of the tournaments held outside North America are co-sanctioned with other professional tours; the Ladies European Tour co-sanctions the Women's British Open, The Evian Championship in France, the Women's Australian Open. The other two co-sanctioned events—the LPGA Hana Bank Championship and Mizuno Classic —are held during the tour's autumn swing to Asia; the LPGA's annual major championships are: ANA Inspiration U. S. Women's Open Women's PGA Ch