Lohari Gate, Lahore
The Lahori Gate is located within Walled City of Lahore in Pakistan. Lahori Gate is one of the 13 gates of the Walled City of Lahore. Being one of the oldest gates of the old city, Lahori Gate is known as Lohari gate. According to some historians, the original city of Lahore was located near Ichhra, this gate opened towards that side. Hence the name, Lahori gate; the name traces back its roots to the language of Urdu, in which, “Lohar” means Blacksmith. This could be another reason behind naming it this way. However, there are no concrete evidences available that blacksmiths used to work here; the bazar inside Lohari gate is known as Lohari Mandi, one of the oldest markets of South Asia. In the distant past and travelers coming from Multan used to enter the city from this gate. According to historians, behind Lohari Gate once stood a brick fort called Kacha Kot, the first fortified city of Lahore founded by Malik Ayaz. During the Mughal rule, the two famous divisions of the Walled City, namely Guzar Bahar Khan and Guzar Machhi Hatta, were connected by this Gate.
During the anarchic rule of the 18th century, all the city gates, except Lohari Gate along with two other gates were walled up. The current building of Lohari gate was rebuilt in 1864 by Sir Robert Montgomery, the Governor of Punjab. Lahore Lahore Fort Walled City of Lahore Badshahi Mosque Walled City Has thirteen gates
Rai Bahadur Sir Ganga Ram CIE, MVO was an Indian civil engineer and architect. His extensive contributions to the urban fabric of Lahore, in modern Pakistan, have earned him the nickname “father of modern Lahore.” Ganga Ram was born in 1851 in a village of Punjab Province in British India. His father, Doulat Ram, was a junior subinspector at a police station in Mangtanwala, he shifted to Amritsar and became a copy-writer of the court. Here, Ganga Ram passed his matriculation examination from the Government High School and joined the Government College, Lahore in 1869. In 1871, he obtained a scholarship to the Thomason Civil Engineering College at Roorkee, he passed the final lower subordinate examination with the gold medal in 1873. He was appointed assistant engineer and called to Delhi to help in the building of the Imperial Assemblage. In 1873, after a brief Service in Punjab P. W. D devoted himself to practical farming, he obtained on lease from Government 50,000 acres of barren, unirrigated land in Montgomery District, within three years converted that vast desert into smiling fields, irrigated by water lifted by a hydroelectric plant and running through a thousand miles of irrigation channels, all constructed at his own cost.
This was the biggest private enterprise of the kind and unthought-of in the country before. Sir Ganga Ram earned millions. In the words of Sir Malcolm Hailey, the Governor of Punjab, "he won like a hero and gave like a Saint", he was a great philanthropist. In 1900, Ganga Ram was selected by Lord Curzon to act as superintendent of works in the Imperial Durbar to be held in connection with the accession of King Edward VII, he finished the work at the Darbar managing its manifold challenges. He retired prematurely from service in 1903, he received the title of Rai Bahadur in 1903, was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire on 26 June 1903 for his services at the Delhi Durbar. On 12 December 1911, in a special honours list after the 1911 Delhi Durbar, he was appointed a Member Fourth Class of the Royal Victorian Order, he was knighted in the 1922 Birthday Honours list, on 8 July was invested with his honour at Buckingham Palace by the King-Emperor George V. He designed and built General Post Office, Lahore Museum, Aitchison College, Mayo School of Arts, Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore 1921, Lady Mclagan Girls High School, the chemistry department of the Government College University, the Albert Victor wing of Mayo Hospital, Sir Ganga Ram High School, the Hailey College of Commerce, Ravi Road House for the Disabled, the Ganga Ram Trust Building on "The Mall" and Lady Maynard Industrial School.
He constructed Model Town and Gulberg town, once the best localities of Lahore, the powerhouse at Renala Khurd as well as the railway track between Pathankot and Amritsar. After the partition of Indian and Pakistan, another hospital Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi was built in 1951 in his memory, he became Superintending Engineer in Patiala State for the capital's reconstruction project after his retirement. Amongst his works were Moti Bagh Palace, Secretariat Building, New Delhi, Victoria Girls School, the law courts and police station. In Tehsil Jaranwala of district Lyalpur, Ganga Ram built Ghoda Train, it was a railway line from Buchiana Railway station to the village of Gangapur. It remained in use for decades after Independence, it became useless for need of repair in 1980s. It was unique of its kind, it was two simple trollies pulled on a narrow rail track with horse instead of railway engine. The same was resumed in 2010 by the Faisalabad District Authorities giving it a status of cultural heritage.
He was a promising agriculturist, too. He purchased thousands acres of barren land in Lyallpur on lease and by using engineering skills and modern irrigation methods, turned the arid lands into fertile fields, he established a Maynard-Ganga Ram award of Rs 3000 with a Rs 25000 endowment. The award was to be made every three years for anyone who made an innovation that increased agricultural production in Punjab, he died in London on 10 July 1927. His body was cremated and his ashes were brought back to India. A portion of the ashes were consigned to Ganges River and the rest buried in Lahore on the bank of the Ravi River. A marble statue of Sir Ganga Ram once stood in a public square on Mall Road in Lahore. Famous Urdu writer Saadat Hasan Manto wrote a satire on persons who were trying to obliterate any memory of any Hindu in Lahore after Pakistan came into existence. In his story "Garland" based on a true incident on the frenzy of religious riots of 1947, an inflamed mob in Lahore, after attacking a residential area, turned to attacking the statue of Sir Ganga Ram, the great Hindu philanthropist of Lahore.
They first pelted the statue with stones. A man made a garland of old shoes climbed up to put it round the neck of the statue; the police opened fire. Among the injured was the fellow with the garland of old shoes; as he fell, the mob shouted: “Let us rush him to Sir Ganga Ram Hospital” forgetting that they were trying to obliterate the memory of the person who had founded the hospital where the person was to be taken for saving his life. A student hostel, Ganga Bhawan was established at IIT Roorkee on 26 November 1957 in his honour
Bibi Pak Daman
Bibi Pāk Dāman is the mausoleum of Ruqayyah bint Ali located in Lahore, Pakistan. Legend has it. Ruqayyah bint Ali ibn Abu Talib was the daughter of Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law Ali ibn Abu Talib with his wife Sahba' bint Rabi'a al-Taghlibiyya. Ruqayah bint Ali was the Half sister of Al-Abbas ibn Ali and the wife of Muslim ibn Aqeel. Others are said to be Muslim ibn Aqil's sister and daughters, it is said that these ladies came here after the event of the battle of Karbala on the 10th day of the month of Muharram in 61 AH. Bibi Pak Daman, which means the "chaste lady", is the collective name of the six ladies believed to interred at this mausoleum, though it is popularly used to refer to the personage of Ruqayyah bint Ali alone, they were among the women who brought Islam to South Asia and engaging in missionary activity in the environs of Lahore. It is said that Data Ganj Bakhsh, considered a great Sufi saint of the South Asia, was himself a devotee of the Bibi Pak Daman shrine and received holy knowledge from this auspicious shrine.
Some scholars consider Ruqayah to have been the daughter of Sayid Ahmed Tokhta. Bibi Paak Daaman is located between Railway Station area; the easiest way to go to Bibi Paak Daaman is from the Empress Road and from there, take the small road opposite Police Lines and the first left-turn. Government of Pakistan is considering approval of the expansion of the Bibi Pak Daman's shrine. After the events at Karbala five Muslim women, led by Ruqayyah bint Ali, left Mecca to settle and proselytize in Lahore, as a result of which a sizable portion of the Hindu community entered Islam. According to one school of thought among historians such as S. M. Latif, Molvi Noor Ahmad Chishti and Mufti Ghulam Server the daughters of Ali were instructed by their father to go to Sind and Hind to preach the Islamic faith, it was prophesied. The events of the massacre at Karbala caused many relatives of Muhammad including Ruqayyah to migrate to Makran where she preached Islam for several years; the Hindu Raja of Jaisalmer felt threatened by her missionary work.
Umayyad rulers were displeased and a number of Umayyad spies were dispatched to assassinate her. Among such potential assassins had been Muhammad Bin Qasim who switched allegiances and became a supporter of Ruqayyah after learning of the sufferings experienced by the family of Muhammad. However, continued threats to Ruqayyah's life caused her to cross the Indus River to settle in Lahore; the local Hindu ruler there attempted to arrest her but this failed when his son, the prince Bakrama Sahi, accepted Islam and became impressed with Ruqayyah's work. This enabled Ruqayyah to continue her missionary activities in peace for some more time. Fearing disgrace at the hands of the Hindu Raja's army when they were again dispatched to arrest her and the other five ladies, she gathered her female kin and made a collective prayer for rescue; as a fulfillment of their wishes, the ground split and their camp went underground. A shawl remained to mark the spot of that event. Another school of thought among historians, including Kanhya Lal, Muhammad Aslam and Tanveer Anjum, argue that there was no reason for these Muslim women to settle in the Hindu-ruled Lahore.
Seven ladies and four men are traceable from history, as it is found that she introduced herself stating that “ I am widow of Martyr Muslim bin Aqeel, daughter of Ali and sister of commander-in-chief Abbas of Imam Hussain's Army and other five ladies were my sisters in law, whereas the sixth one was our maid “Halima” but she was equal to us in status. She introduced further telling the names of men that they were our guards and belonged to our tribes namely Abb-ul-Fatah Abb-ul-Fazal Abb-ul-Mukaram, Abdullah; the name of first Mujawir was Baba Khaki. Besides two names “ Ruqaya and Halima” Dr. Masood Raza Khaki, the Deputy Director General in the Education Department, Government of Punjab, traces the five names from historical records as: Umm-e-Hani Umm-e-Luqman Asma Ramla ZainabHistorically, the first proper Khanqah was constructed by Malik Ayaz in the period of 11th Century and reconstructed in the regime of Akbar the great. There is a famous misconception in indian subcontinent regarding Syeda Ruqayyah bint Ali which states that This Holy lady is the Daughter of Umm ul-Banin and full sister of Abbas ibn Ali.
Which in reality is a misconception. The shrine is visited by both Sunnis. In the Islamic month of Jumada al-Thani three days urs of Bibi Pak Daman from 7 to 9 is celebrated; the urs proceedings are a Sunni affair while Shias visit the shrine most during Muharram and Safar. Many Shias visit during the urs; the street and shrine area remain filled with devotees all the day from all over Pakistan. On the eve of Urs, the shrine is more crowded. People from across the subcontinent from Provinces of Punjab and Sindh, come to the shrine to pay their homage and make a wish which they believe more would come true. A narrow lane that leads to the shrine has shops on both sides containing Muharram-related items. Imam Ali, Imam Hassan, Imam Hussain and literature on the history of Karbala, Khak-e-Shifa and CDs of Nohas are available at the shops. A reverence event of urs includes a ritual in which women devotees bring water for ablution of the graves at the shrine of Bibi; the Tourism Development Corporat
The Mochi Gate locally known as Mochi Darwaza is located within the Walled City of Lahore in Lahore, Pakistan. Mochi Gate is a historical gate built by the Mughals, it is at the site of one of the thirteen gates of the old walled city of Lahore. The Darwaza used to exist next to a prominent landmark at the entrance point. In Urdu, Mochi means cobbler which indicates that the bazaar was a market for shoes and repair shops. Mochi Gate is known for ancient Mosque of Muhammad Saleh Kamboh, teacher of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. According to a legend it is named after Moti, a guard of the gate during the Mughal era, who guarded and looked after the gate all his life; the most origin of its name, seems to be from the word Morchi, which means trench soldier. The Governor's "Piada"; this is further borne by the fact that the different streets which still bear their old names are the Mohalla Teer-garan, Mohalla Kaman-garan. The bazaar around the Mochi gate is renowned for its shops of Dried fruit and fireworks Further inside is the Mohalla Shia, where the traditional Shia of Lahore still gather annually, at Moharram to carry out the Majaalis and Maatum to commemorate the martyrdom of Imam Hussain, the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
A number of Imaam Bargahs in the form of Haveli's are situated here. Apart from their religious significance, some are a masterpiece depicting the architecture of their times. Mubarak Haveli, Nisar Haveli and Laal Haveli a few examples. A Kebab Shop, a sweet mart and an Old Khoo are some of the well known features of Mohalla Shia. In front of the Laal Haveli is the Mochi Baagh. This, until was a lush green patch with shady trees, it is barren now due to its landscaping to become a "speaker's corner" in the light of its history of it having numerous renowned political leaders addressing the crowds at this place. Now this Baagh/Garden is used for wedding ceremonies by locals and for playing cricket by the local boys. Mochi Baagh/Garden is Pakistan's most famous political rally spot. Mochi Baagh is located on the immediate right of Mochi Gate. Many renowned political leaders of Pakistan and the pre-independence era have delivered speeches here; until the late 1980s, it was held that unless a politician could deliver a speech to a packed Mochi Baagh crowd s/he was not worth his/her political salt.
Mochi Baagh has been spoiled by the right half of it being encroached upon by heavy duty truck drivers using it as a parking stand in violation of public area laws. In March 2007, the PHA announced. Works proposed include the construction of a 27x33 stage, maintenance of stairs around the park, setting up of fountains, jogging tracks, the installation of benches and lights and the planting of grass. In response to the opposition chanting slogans in the Pakistan assembly, the speaker Chaudhry Amir Hussain said “This is no Mochi Gate, Such slogans should not be raised in the assembly,”. Lahore Lahore Fort Muhammad Saleh Kamboh Walled City of Lahore Badshahi Mosque A Detailed Guide to Mochi Gate A Brief Guide to Mochi Gate Lal Khoo Visit of Lahore
Gulberg is an administrative town in Lahore, Pakistan. It forms one of the 10 municipalities of Lahore City District. Gulberg is the name of a union council, it has developed into a commercial area in Lahore. It is called land of Flowers. Beautiful parks are existed in Gulberg, Lahore Lahore City District Metropolitan Commission Lahore https://web.archive.org/web/20080423211622/http://www.lahore.gov.pk/town-administration/gulberg-town.aspx Town Government Page Google. "Gulberg, Lahore". Google Maps. Google. Retrieved 23 February 2018
Anarkali Bazaar is a major bazaar in Lahore, Pakistan. Anarkali serves as a neighbourhood and union council of Data Gunj Buksh Tehsil of Lahore. Anarkali remains one of the oldest surviving markets in South Asia, dating back at least 200 years and derives its name from the nearby mausoleum thought to be that of a courtesan girl named Anārkalī, who was'chased out of town' by order of the Mughal Emperor Akbar for having a love affair with his son, Prince Salīm, who would become Emperor Jahāngīr. Anarkali sells textiles, garments and many other items; the bazaar is now divided into two sections: the'Old Anarkali Bazaar' and the'New Anarkali Bazaar'. The Old Anarkali Bazaar is noted for its traditional food items while the New Anarakli Bazaar is noted for its traditional handicraft and embroidery; the mausoleum of Sultan Qutb ud-Din Aibak of Mamluk Sultanate is located at Anarkali Bazaar. In the early 1970s, the mausoleum was renovated at the orders of the Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. Bazaar History of marketing Ichhra Market Naulakha Bazaar Retail
Hindus are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism. The term has been used as a geographical and religious identifier for people indigenous to the Indian subcontinent; the historical meaning of the term Hindu has evolved with time. Starting with the Persian and Greek references to the land of the Indus in the 1st millennium BCE through the texts of the medieval era, the term Hindu implied a geographic, ethnic or cultural identifier for people living in the Indian subcontinent around or beyond the Sindhu river. By the 16th century, the term began to refer to residents of the subcontinent who were not Turkic or Muslims; the historical development of Hindu self-identity within the local South Asian population, in a religious or cultural sense, is unclear. Competing theories state that Hindu identity developed in the British colonial era, or that it developed post-8th century CE after the Islamic invasion and medieval Hindu-Muslim wars.
A sense of Hindu identity and the term Hindu appears in some texts dated between the 13th and 18th century in Sanskrit and regional languages. The 14th- and 18th-century Indian poets such as Vidyapati and Eknath used the phrase Hindu dharma and contrasted it with Turaka dharma; the Christian friar Sebastiao Manrique used the term'Hindu' in religious context in 1649. In the 18th century, the European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus, in contrast to Mohamedans for Mughals and Arabs following Islam. By the mid-19th century, colonial orientalist texts further distinguished Hindus from Buddhists and Jains, but the colonial laws continued to consider all of them to be within the scope of the term Hindu until about mid-20th century. Scholars state that the custom of distinguishing between Hindus, Buddhists and Sikhs is a modern phenomenon. Hindoo is an archaic spelling variant. At more than 1.03 billion, Hindus are the world's third largest group after Muslims.
The vast majority of Hindus 966 million, live in India, according to India's 2011 census. After India, the next 9 countries with the largest Hindu populations are, in decreasing order: Nepal, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, United States, United Kingdom and Myanmar; these together accounted for 99% of the world's Hindu population, the remaining nations of the world together had about 6 million Hindus in 2010. The word Hindu is derived from the Indo-Aryan and Sanskrit word Sindhu, which means "a large body of water", covering "river, ocean", it was used as the name of the Indus river and referred to its tributaries. The actual term'hindu' first occurs, states Gavin Flood, as "a Persian geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus", more in the 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I; the Punjab region, called Sapta Sindhu in the Vedas, is called Hapta Hindu in Zend Avesta. The 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I mentions the province of Hidush, referring to northwestern India; the people of India were referred to as Hinduvān and hindavī was used as the adjective for Indian in the 8th century text Chachnama.
The term'Hindu' in these ancient records is an ethno-geographical term and did not refer to a religion. The Arabic equivalent Al-Hind referred to the country of India. Among the earliest known records of'Hindu' with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by the Buddhist scholar Xuanzang. Xuanzang uses the transliterated term In-tu whose "connotation overflows in the religious" according to Arvind Sharma. While Xuanzang suggested that the term refers to the country named after the moon, another Buddhist scholar I-tsing contradicted the conclusion saying that In-tu was not a common name for the country. Al-Biruni's 11th-century text Tarikh Al-Hind, the texts of the Delhi Sultanate period use the term'Hindu', where it includes all non-Islamic people such as Buddhists, retains the ambiguity of being "a region or a religion". The'Hindu' community occurs as the amorphous'Other' of the Muslim community in the court chronicles, according to Romila Thapar.
Wilfred Cantwell Smith notes that'Hindu' retained its geographical reference initially:'Indian','indigenous, local', virtually'native'. The Indian groups themselves started using the term, differentiating themselves and their "traditional ways" from those of the invaders; the text Prithviraj Raso, by Chanda Baradai, about the 1192 CE defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan at the hands of Muhammad Ghori, is full of references to "Hindus" and "Turks", at one stage, says "both the religions have drawn their curved swords. In Islamic literature,'Abd al-Malik Isami's Persian work, Futuhu's-salatin, composed in the Deccan in 1350, uses the word'hindi' to mean Indian in the ethno-geographical sense and the word'hindu' to mean'Hindu' in the sense of a follower of the Hindu religion"; the poet Vidyapati's poem Kirtilata contrasts the cultures of Hindus and Turks in a city and concludes "The Hindus and the Turks live close together. One of the earliest uses of word'Hindu' in religious context in a European language, was the publication in 1649 by Sebastiao Manrique.
Other prominent mentions of'Hindu' include the epigraphical inscriptions from Andhra Pradesh kingdoms who battled military expansion of Muslim dynasties in the 14th century, where the word'Hindu' implies a religious identity in contrast to'Turks' or Islam