Swami Vivekananda, born Narendranath Datta, was an Indian Hindu monk, a chief disciple of the 19th-century Indian mystic Ramakrishna. He was a key figure in the introduction of the Indian philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga to the Western world and is credited with raising interfaith awareness, bringing Hinduism to the status of a major world religion during the late 19th century, he was a major force in the revival of Hinduism in India, contributed to the concept of nationalism in colonial India. Vivekananda founded the Ramakrishna Mission, he is best known for his speech which began with the words - "Sisters and brothers of America..." in which he introduced Hinduism at the Parliament of the World's Religions in Chicago in 1893. Born into an aristocratic Bengali Kayastha family of Calcutta, Vivekananda was inclined towards spirituality, he was influenced by his guru, from whom he learnt that all living beings were an embodiment of the divine self. After Ramakrishna's death, Vivekananda toured the Indian subcontinent extensively and acquired first-hand knowledge of the conditions prevailing in British India.
He travelled to the United States, representing India at the 1893 Parliament of the World's Religions. Vivekananda conducted hundreds of public and private lectures and classes, disseminating tenets of Hindu philosophy in the United States and Europe. In India, Vivekananda is regarded as a patriotic saint, his birthday is celebrated as National Youth Day. Vivekananda was born Narendranath Datta in a Bengali family at his ancestral home at 3 Gourmohan Mukherjee Street in Calcutta, the capital of British India, on 12 January 1863 during the Makar Sankranti festival, he was one of nine siblings. His father, Vishwanath Datta, was an attorney at the Calcutta High Court. Durgacharan Datta, Narendra's grandfather was a Sanskrit and Persian scholar who left his family and became a monk at age twenty-five, his mother, Bhubaneswari Devi, was a devout housewife. The progressive, rational attitude of Narendra's father and the religious temperament of his mother helped shape his thinking and personality. Narendranath was interested in spirituality from a young age and used to meditate before the images of deities such as Shiva, Rama and Mahavir Hanuman.
He was fascinated by wandering monks. Naren was naughty and restless as a child, his parents had difficulty controlling him, his mother said, "I prayed to Shiva for a son and he has sent me one of his ghosts". In 1871, at the age of eight, Narendranath enrolled at Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar's Metropolitan Institution, where he went to school until his family moved to Raipur in 1877. In 1879, after his family's return to Calcutta, he was the only student to receive first-division marks in the Presidency College entrance examination, he was an avid reader in a wide range of subjects, including philosophy, history, social science and literature. He was interested in Hindu scriptures, including the Vedas, the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata and the Puranas. Narendra was trained in Indian classical music, participated in physical exercise and organised activities. Narendra studied Western logic, Western philosophy and European history at the General Assembly's Institution.
In 1881 he passed the Fine Arts examination, completed a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1884. Narendra studied the works of David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Baruch Spinoza, Georg W. F. Hegel, Arthur Schopenhauer, Auguste Comte, John Stuart Mill and Charles Darwin, he became fascinated with the evolutionism of Herbert Spencer and corresponded with him, translating Spencer's book Education into Bengali. While studying Western philosophers, he learned Sanskrit scriptures and Bengali literature. William Hastie wrote, "Narendra is a genius. I have travelled far and wide but I have never come across a lad of his talents and possibilities in German universities, among philosophical students, he is bound to make his mark in life". Narendra was known for the ability at speed reading. Several incidents have been given as examples. In a talk, he once quoted verbatim, three pages from Pickwick Papers. Another incident, given is his argument with a Swedish national where he gave reference to some details on Swedish history that the Swede disagreed with but conceded.
In another incident with Dr. Paul Deussen's at Kiel in Germany, Vivekananda was going over some poetical work and did not reply when the professor spoke to him, he apologized to Dr. Deussen explaining that he was too absorbed in reading and hence did not hear him; the professor was not satisfied with this explanation but Vivekananda quoted and interpreted verses from the text leaving the professor dumbfounded about his feat of memory. Once, he requested some books written by Sir John Lubbock from a library and returned them the next day claiming that he had read them; the librarian refused to believe him until cross examination about the contents convinced him that Vivekananda was being truthful. Some accounts have called Narendra a shrutidhara. In 1880 Narendra joined Keshab Chandra Sen's Nava Vidhan, established by Sen after meeting Ramakrishna and reconverting from Christianity to Hinduism. Narendra became a member of a Freemasonry lodge "at some point before 18
Ramana Maharshi was an Indian sage and jivanmukta. He was born as Venkataraman Iyer, but is most known by the name Bhagavan Sri Ramana Maharshi, he was born in what is now Tamil Nadu, India. In 1895, an attraction to the sacred hill Arunachala and the 63 Nayanars was aroused in him, in 1896, at the age of 16, he had a "death-experience" where he became aware of a "current" or "force" which he recognised as his true "I" or "self", which he identified with "the personal God, or Iswara", that is, Shiva; this resulted in a state that he described as "the state of mind of Iswara or the jnani". Six weeks he left his uncle's home in Madurai, journeyed to the holy mountain Arunachala, in Tiruvannamalai, where he took on the role of a sannyasin, remained for the rest of his life, he soon attracted devotees who regarded him as an avatar and came to him for darshan, in years an ashram grew up around him, where visitors received upadesa by sitting silently in his company asking questions. Since the 1930s his teachings have been popularized in the West, resulting in his worldwide recognition as an enlightened being.
Ramana Maharshi approved a number of paths and practices, but recommended self-enquiry as the principal means to remove ignorance and abide in Self-awareness, together with bhakti or surrender to the Self. Ramana Maharshi was born Venkataraman Iyer on 30 December 1879 in the village Tiruchuzhi near Aruppukkottai, Madurai in Tamil Nadu, South India, he was the second of four children in an orthodox Hindu Brahmin family. His father was Sundaram Iyer, from the lineage of Parashara, his mother was Azhagammal, he had two brothers Nagasundaram, along with a younger sister Alamelu. Venkataraman's father was a court pleader. Both a paternal uncle of his father and his father's brother had become sannyasins. Venkataraman's family belonged to the Smarta denomination, regular worship of Lord Siva, Lord Vishnu, Lord Ganesa, Lord Surya and Goddess Shakti took place in their home; when Venkataraman was seven he had his upanayana, the traditional initiation of the three upper varnas into Brahmanical learning and the knowledge of Self.
He had a good memory, was able to recall information after hearing it once, an ability he used to memorise Tamil poems. Narasimha notes that Venkataraman used to sleep deeply, not waking up from loud sounds, nor when his body was beaten by others; when he was about twelve years old, he may have experienced spontaneous deep meditative states. Sri Ramana Vijayam, the Tamil biography that first appeared in the 1920s, describes a period a few years before the death-experience in Madurai: Some incomplete practice from a past birth was clinging to me. I would be putting attention within, forgetting the body. Sometimes I would be sitting in one place, but when I regained normal consciousness and got up, I would notice that I was lying down in a different narrow space; when he was about eleven his father sent him to live with his paternal uncle Subbaiyar in Dindigul as he wanted his sons to be educated in the English language so that they would be eligible to enter government service. Only Tamil was taught at the village school in Tiruchuzhi.
In 1891, when his uncle was transferred to Madurai and his elder brother Nagaswami moved with him. In Dindigul, Venkataraman attended a Hindu School where English was taught, stayed there for a year, his father, Sundaram Iyer, died on 18 February 1892. After his father's death, the family split up. Venkataraman first attended Scott's Middle School and the American Mission High School where he became acquainted with Christianity. In November 1895 Venkataraman realized that the sacred mountain, was a real place, he had known of its existence from an early age, was overwhelmed by the realisation that it existed. During this time he read Sekkizhar's Periyapuranam, a book that describes the lives of the 63 Nayanars, which "made a great impression" on him, revealed to him that "Divine Union" is possible. According to Osborne, a new current of awareness started to awaken during his visits to the Meenakshi Temple at Madurai, "a state of blissful consciousness transcending both the physical and mental plane and yet compatible with full use of the physical and mental faculties".
But Ramana stated that he remained uninterested in religion or spirituality until his awakening eight months later. According to Narasimha, in July 1896, at age 16, a sudden fear of death befell him, he was struck by "a flash of excitement" or "heat", like some avesam, a "current" or "force" that seemed to possess him, while his body became rigid. He initiated a process of self-enquiry asking himself, he concluded that the body dies, but that this "current" or "force" remains alive, recognised this "current" or "force" as his Self, which he identified with "the personal God, or Iswara".}}In one of his rare written comments on this process Ramana Maharshi wrote, "Enquiring within Who is the seer? I saw. No thought arose to say. How could the thought arise to say I did not see."Later in life, he called his death experience akrama mukti, "sudden liberation", as opposed to the krama mukti, "gradual liberation" as in the Vedanta path of jnana yoga. It resulted in a state of mind which he described as "the state of mind of Iswara or the jnani:" After reading the language of the sacre
Ramakrishna Paramahansa Ramkṛiṣṇa Pôromôhongśa. Ramakrishna experienced spiritual ecstasies from a young age, was influenced by several religious traditions, including devotion toward the goddess Kali, Tantra and Advaita Vedanta. Reverence and admiration for him among Bengali elites led to the formation of the Ramakrishna Mission by his chief disciple Swami Vivekananda. Ramakrishna was born on 18 February 1836, in the village of Kamarpukur, in the Hooghly district of West Bengal, into a poor and orthodox Brahmin family. Kamarpukur was untouched by the glamour of the city and contained rice fields, tall palms, royal banyans, a few lakes, two cremation grounds, his parents were Chandramani Devi. According to his followers, Ramakrishna's parents experienced supernatural incidents and visions before his birth. In Gaya his father Khudiram had a dream in which Lord Gadadhara, said that he would be born as his son. Chandramani Devi is said to have had a vision of light entering her womb from Shiva's temple.
Although Ramakrishna attended a village school with some regularity for 12 years, he rejected the traditional schooling saying that he was not interested in a "bread-winning education". Kamarpukur, being a transit-point in well-established pilgrimage routes to Puri, brought him into contact with renunciates and holy men, he became well-versed in the Puranas, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Bhagavata Purana, hearing them from wandering monks and the Kathaks—a class of men in ancient India who preached and sang the Purāṇas. He could write in Bengali; the name Sri Ramakrishna was taken up by himself. Ramakrishna describes his first spiritual ecstasy at the age of six: while walking along the paddy fields, a flock of white cranes flying against a backdrop of dark thunder clouds caught his vision, he became so absorbed by this scene that he lost outward consciousness and experienced indescribable joy in that state. Ramakrishna had experiences of similar nature a few other times in his childhood—while worshipping the goddess Vishalakshi, portraying god Shiva in a drama during Shivaratri festival.
From his 10th or 11th year of school on, the trances became common, by the final years of his life, Ramakrishna's samādhi periods occurred daily. Early on, these experiences have been interpreted as epileptic seizures, an interpretation, rejected by Ramakrishna himself. Ramakrishna's father died in 1843, after which family responsibilities fell on his elder brother Ramkumar; this loss drew him closer to his mother, he spent his time in household activities and daily worship of the household deities and became more involved in contemplative activities such as reading the sacred epics. When Ramakrishna was in his teens, the family's financial position worsened. Ramkumar started a Sanskrit school in Kolkata and served as a priest. Ramakrishna moved to Kolkata in 1852 with Ramkumar to assist in the priestly work. In 1855 Ramkumar was appointed as the priest of Dakshineswar Kali Temple, built by Rani Rashmoni—a rich woman of Kolkata who belonged to the kaivarta community. Ramakrishna, along with his nephew Hriday, became assistants to Ramkumar, with Ramakrishna given the task of decorating the deity.
When Ramkumar died in 1856, Ramakrishna took his place as the priest of the Kali temple. After Ramkumar's death Ramakrishna became more contemplative, he began to look upon the image of the goddess the mother of the universe. Ramakrishna had a vision of the goddess Kali as the universal Mother, which he described as "... houses, doors and everything else vanished altogether. And what I saw was an infinite shoreless sea of light; however far and in whatever direction I looked, I saw shining waves, one after another, coming towards me." Rumors spread to Kamarpukur that Ramakrishna had become unstable as a result of his spiritual practices at Dakshineswar. Ramakrishna's mother and his elder brother Rameswar decided to get Ramakrishna married, thinking that marriage would be a good steadying influence upon him—by forcing him to accept responsibility and to keep his attention on normal affairs rather than his spiritual practices and visions. Ramakrishna himself mentioned that they could find the bride at the house of Ramchandra Mukherjee in Jayrambati, three miles to the north-west of Kamarpukur.
The five-year-old bride, Saradamani Mukhopadhyaya was found and the marriage was duly solemnised in 1859. Ramakrishna was 23 at this point, they spent three months together in Kamarpukur. Sarada Devi was fourteen. Ramakrishna became a influential figure in Sarada's life, she became a strong follower of his teachings. After the marriage, Sarada stayed at Jayrambati and joined Ramakrishna in Dakshineswar at the age of 18. By the time his bride joined him, Ramakrishna had embraced the monastic life of a sannyasi; as a priest Ramakrishna performed the ritual ceremony—the Shodashi Puja –where Sarada Devi was worshiped as the Divine Mother. Ramakrishna regarded Sarada as the Divine Mother in person, addressing her as the Holy Mother, it was by this name that she was known to Ramakrishna's disciples. Sarada Devi outlived Ramakrishna by 34 years and played an important role in the nascent relig
Vedanta or Uttara Mīmāṃsā is one of the six schools of Hindu philosophy. Vedanta means "end of the Vedas", reflecting ideas that emerged from the speculations and philosophies contained in the Upanishads, it does not stand for one unifying doctrine. Rather it is an umbrella term for many sub-traditions, ranging from dualism to non-dualism, all of which developed on the basis of a common textual connection called the Prasthanatrayi; the Prasthanatrayi is a collective term for the Principal Upanishads, the Brahma Sutras and the Bhagavad Gita. All Vedanta schools, in their deliberations, concern themselves with the following three categories but differ in their views regarding the concept and the relations between them: Brahman – the ultimate metaphysical reality, Ātman / Jivātman – the individual soul or self, Prakriti – the empirical world, ever-changing physical universe and matter; some of the better known sub-traditions of Vedanta include Advaita and Dvaita. Most other Vedantic sub-traditions are subsumed under the term Bhedabheda.
Over time, Vedanta adopted ideas from other orthodox schools like Yoga and Nyaya, through this syncretism, became the most prominent school of Hinduism. Many extant forms of Vaishnavism and Shaktism have been shaped and influenced by the doctrines of different schools of Vedanta; the Vedanta school has had a central influence on Hinduism. The word Vedanta means the end of the Vedas and referred to the Upanishads. Vedanta was concerned with the jñānakāṇḍa or Vedic knowledge part called the Upanishads; the denotation of Vedanta subsequently widened to include the various philosophical traditions based on to the Prasthanatrayi. The Upanishads may be regarded as the end of Vedas in different senses: These were the last literary products of the Vedic period; these mark. These were debated last, in the Brahmacharya stage. Vedanta is one of the six orthodox schools of Indian philosophy, it is called Uttara Mīmāṃsā, the'latter enquiry' or'higher enquiry'. Pūrva Mīmāṃsā deals with the karmakāṇḍa or rituals part in the Vedas.
The Upanishads, the Bhagavadgita and the Brahma Sutras constitute the basis of Vedanta. All schools of Vedanta propound their philosophy by interpreting these texts, collectively called the Prasthanatrayi three sources; the Upanishads, or Śruti prasthāna. The Brahma Sutras, or Nyaya prasthana / Yukti prasthana; the Bhagavad Gita, or Smriti prasthāna. The Brahma Sutras attempted to synthesize the teachings of the Upanishads; the diversity in the teaching of the Upanishads necessitated the systematization of these teachings. This was done in many ways in ancient India, but the only surviving version of this synthesis is the Brahma Sutras of Badarayana. All major Vedantic teachers, including Shankara, Ramanuja, Nimbarka and Madhva, have composed commentaries not only on the Upanishads and Brahma Sutras, but on the Bhagavad Gita; the Bhagavad Gita, due to its syncretism of Samkhya and Upanishadic thought, has played a major role in Vedantic thought. The Upanishads present an associative philosophical inquiry in the form of identifying various doctrines and presenting arguments for or against them.
They form Vedanta interprets them through rigorous philosophical exegesis. Varying interpretations of the Upanishads and their synthesis, the Brahma Sutras, led to the development of different schools of Vedanta over time of which three, five or six are prominent. Bhedabheda, as early as the 7th century CE, or the 4th century CE; some scholars are inclined to consider it as a "tradition" rather than a school of Vedanta. Upadhika, founded by Bhaskara in the 9th Century CE Svabhavikabhedabheda or Dvaitādvaita, founded by Nimbarka in the 7th century CE Achintya Bheda Abheda, founded by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Advaita, many scholars of which most prominent are Gaudapada and Adi Shankaracharya Vishishtadvaita, prominent scholars are Nathamuni, Yāmuna and Ramanuja Dvaita, founded by Madhvacharya Suddhadvaita, founded by Vallabha The history of Vedanta is divided into two periods: one prior to the composition of the Brahma Sutras and the other encompassing the schools that developed after the Brahma Sutras were written.
Little is known of schools of Vedanta existing before the composition of the Brahma Sutras. It is clear that Badarayana, the writer of Brahma Sutras, was not the first person to systematize the teachings of the Upanishads, as he quotes six Vedantic teachers before him – Ashmarathya, Audulomi, Kashakrtsna and Atreya. References to other early Vedanta teachers – Brahmadatta, Pandaya and Dravidacharya – are found in secondary literature of periods; the works of these ancient teachers have not survived, but based on the quotes attributed to them in literature, Sharma postulates that Ashmarathya and Audulomi were Bhedabheda scholars and Brahmadatta were Advaita scholars, while Tanka and Dravidacharya were either Advaita or Vishistadvaita scholars. Badarayana summarized and interpreted teachings of the Upanishads in the Brahma Sutras called the Vedanta Sutra "written from a Bhedābhed
Ajivika is one of the nāstika or "heterodox" schools of Indian philosophy. Purportedly founded in the 5th century BCE by Makkhali Gosala, it was a śramaṇa movement and a major rival of vedic religion, early Buddhism and Jainism. Ājīvikas were organised renunciates. Original scriptures of the Ājīvika school of philosophy may once have existed, but these are unavailable and lost, their theories are extracted from mentions of Ajivikas in the secondary sources of ancient Indian literature. Scholars question whether Ājīvika philosophy has been and summarized in these secondary sources, as they were written by groups competing with and adversarial to the philosophy and religious practices of the Ajivikas, it is therefore that much of the information available about the Ājīvikas is inaccurate to some degree, characterisations of them should be regarded and critically. The Ājīvika school is known for its Niyati doctrine of absolute determinism, the premise that there is no free will, that everything that has happened, is happening and will happen is preordained and a function of cosmic principles.
Ājīvikas considered the karma doctrine as a fallacy. Ajivika metaphysics included a theory of atoms, adapted in Vaisheshika school, where everything was composed of atoms, qualities emerged from aggregates of atoms, but the aggregation and nature of these atoms was predetermined by cosmic forces. Ājīvikas were considered as atheists. They believed that in every living being is an ātman -- a central premise of Jainism. Founded in what is now the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, Ājīvika philosophy reached the height of its popularity during the rule of the Mauryan emperor Bindusara, around the 4th century BCE; this school of thought thereafter declined, but survived for nearly 2,000 years through the 14th century CE in the southern Indian states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. The Ājīvika philosophy, along with the Cārvāka philosophy, appealed most to the warrior and mercantile classes of ancient Indian society. Ajivika is derived from Ajiva which means "livelihood, mode of life"; the term Ajivika means "those following special rules with regard to Iivelihood", sometimes connoting "religious mendicants" in ancient Sanskrit and Pali texts.
Aaseevagam can be split as aasu + eevu + agam. Where "aasu" means errorless and available knowledge, "eevu" means solutions and "agam" means the place. Ajivika means a place; the name Ajivika for an entire philosophy resonates with its core belief in "no free will" and complete niyati "inner order of things, self-command, predeterminism", leading to the premise that good simple living is not a means to salvation or moksha, just a means to true livelihood, predetermined profession and way of life. The name came to imply that school of Indian philosophy which lived a good simple mendicant-like livelihood for its own sake and as part of its predeterministic beliefs, rather than for the sake of after-life or motivated by any soteriological reasons; some scholars spell Ajivika as Ajivaka. Ājīvika philosophy is cited in ancient texts of Buddhism and Jainism to Makkhali Gosala, a contemporary of the Buddha and Mahavira. Exact origins of Ājīvika is unknown, but accepted to be the 5th century BCE. Primary sources and literature of the Ājīvikas is lost, or yet to be found.
Everything, known about Ājīvika history and its philosophy is from secondary sources, such as the ancient and medieval texts of India. Inconsistent fragments of Ājīvika history is found in Jain texts such as the Bhagvati Sutra and Buddhist texts such as the Samaññaphala Sutta, Buddhaghosa's commentary on Sammannaphala Sutta, with a few mentions in Hindu texts such as Vayu Purana; the Ājīvikas reached the height of their prominence in the late 1st millennium BCE declined, yet continued to exist in south India until the 14th Century CE, as evidenced by inscriptions found in southern India. Ancient texts of Buddhism and Jainism mention a city in the 1st millennium BCE named Savatthi as the hub of the Ājīvikas. In part of the common era, inscriptions suggests that the Ājīvikas had a significant presence in the South Indian state of Karnataka, prominently in Kolar district and some places of Tamil Nadu; the Ājīvika philosophy spread in ancient South Asia, with a Sangha Geham for Ājīvikas on the island now known as Sri Lanka and extending into the western state of Gujarat by the 4th century BCE, the era of the Maurya Empire.
Riepe refers to Ājīvikas as a distinct heterodox school of Indian tradition. Raju states that "Ājīvikas and Cārvākas can be called Hindus", adds that "the word Hinduism has no definite meaning". Epigraphical evidence suggests that emperor Ashoka, in the 3rd century BCE, considered Ājīvikas to be more related to the schools of Hinduism than to Buddhists, Jainas or other Indian schools of thought. Makkhali Gosala is considered as the founder of the Ājīvika movement; some sources state that Gosala was only a leader of a large Ājīvika congregation of ascetics, but not the founder of the movement himself. The Swiss Indologist Jarl Charpentier and others suggest the Ājīvika tradition existed in India well before the birth of Makkhali Gosala, citing a variety of ancient Indian texts. Gosala was believed to be born in Tiruppatur of Tiruchirappalli district in Tamil Nadu and was the son of Mankha, a professional mendica
The Nyāya Sūtras is an ancient Indian Sanskrit text composed by Akṣapāda Gautama, the foundational text of the Nyaya school of Hindu philosophy. The date when the text was composed, the biography of its author is unknown, but variously estimated between 6th-century BCE and 2nd-century CE; the text may have been composed over a period of time. The text consists of five books, with two chapters in each book, with a cumulative total of 528 aphoristic sutras, about rules of reason, logic and metaphysics; the Nyāya Sūtras is a Hindu text, notable for focusing on knowledge and logic, making no mention of Vedic rituals. The first book is structured as a general introduction and table of contents of sixteen categories of knowledge. Book two is about pramana, book three is about prameya or the objects of knowledge, the text discusses the nature of knowledge in remaining books, it set the foundation for Nyaya tradition of the empirical theory of validity and truth, opposing uncritical appeals to intuition or scriptural authority.
The Nyaya sutras cover a wide range of topics, including Tarka-Vidyā, the science of debate or Vāda-Vidyā, the science of discussion. The Nyāya Sutras are related to but metaphysical system. Commentaries expanded and discussed Nyaya sutras, the earlier surviving commentaries being by Vātsyāyana, followed by the Nyāyavārttika of Uddyotakāra, Vācaspati Miśra's Tātparyatīkā, Udayana's Tātparyapariśuddhi, Jayanta's Nyāyamañjarī; the Nyaya-sutras is attributed to Gautama, at least the principal author. According to Karl Potter, this name has been a common Indian name, the author is reverentially referred to as Gotama and Aksapada Gautama. Little is known about Gautama. Scholarly estimates, based on textual analysis, vary from the 6th century BCE, making him a contemporary of Buddha and Mahavira, to as late as the 2nd century CE; some scholars favor the theory that the cryptic text Nyaya-sutras was expanded over time by multiple authors, with the earliest layer from about mid-first millennium BCE, composed by Gautama.
The earliest layer is to be Book 1 and 5 of the text, while Book 3 and 4 may have been added last, but this is not certain. One may sum up the situation pretty safely by saying that we have not the vaguest idea who wrote the Nyayasutras or when he lived, it is states Jeaneane Fowler, that Nyaya and the science of reason stretch back into the Vedic era. The Nyaya school of Hinduism influenced all other schools of Hindu philosophy, as well as Buddhism. Despite their differences, these scholars studied with each other and debated ideas, with Tibetan records suggesting that Buddhist scholars spent years residing with Hindu Nyaya scholars to master the art of reasoning and logic; this cooperation has enabled scholars to place the surviving version of the Nyayasutras, to a terminus ante quem date of about the 2nd century CE, because one of the most famous and established Buddhist scholars of that era, explicitly states, "sutra 4.2.25 is addressed against the Madhyamika system" of Buddhism. Other ancient Buddhist texts confirm that Nyayasutras existed before them, the text is considered the primary text of old Nyaya school of Hinduism.
The text is written in sutra genre. A sutra is a Sanskrit word that means "string, thread", represents a condensed manual of knowledge of a specific field or school; each sutra is any short rule, like a theorem distilled into few words or syllables, around which "teachings of ritual, grammar or any field of knowledge" can be woven. Sutras were compiled to be remembered, used as reference and to help teach and transmit ideas from one generation to the next; the Nyayasutra is divided into each book subdivided into two chapters each. The structure of the text is, states Potter, a layout of ahnikas or lessons served into daily portions, with portion consisting of a number of sutras or aphorisms; the architecture of the text is split and collated into prakaranas or topics, which commentators such as Vatsyayana and Vacaspati Misra utilized to compose their bhasya, ancient texts that have survived into the modern era. There are several surviving manuscripts of the Nyayasutras, with a slight difference in number of sutras, of which the Chowkhamba edition is studied.
The first sutra 1.1.1 of the text asserts its scope and the following sixteen categories of knowledge as a means to gain competence in any field of interest: Perfection is attained by the correct knowledge about true nature of sixteen categories: means of right knowledge. These sixteen categories cover many sections of the text; the verse 1.1.2 of the Nyāya Sūtra declares the text's goal is to study and describe the attainment of liberation of soul from wrong knowledge and sorrow, through the application of above sixteen categories of perfecting knowledge. The Nyaya-sutras assert the premise that "all k
In Indian religions and society, an acharya is a preceptor or instructor in religious matters. The designation has different meanings in Hinduism and secular contexts. Acharya is sometimes used to address a teacher or a scholar in any discipline, e.g.: Bhaskaracharya, the mathematician. The term "acharya" is most said to include the root "char" or "charya", thus it connotes "one who teaches by conduct", i.e. an exemplar. In Hinduism, an acharya is a formal title of a teacher or guru, who has attained a degree in Veda and Vedanga. Prominent acharyas in the Hindu tradition are as given below: Adi Sankaracharya Ramanujacharya Madhvacharya Nimbarkacharya VallabhacharyaChaitanya MahaprabhuAcharya Sandipani Bhadreshdas Swami In Buddhism, acharya is a senior teacher. Notable acharyas: Pema Chödrön acharya at Gampo Abbey In Jainism, an acharya is the highest leader of a Jain order. Acharya is one of the Pañca-Parameṣṭhi and thus worthy of worship, they are the final authority in the monastic order and has the authority to ordain new monks and nuns.
They are authorized to consecrate new idols, although this authority is sometimes delegated to scholars designated by them. An acharya, like any other Jain monk, is expected to wander except for the Chaturmas. Bhaṭṭārakas, who head institutions, are technically junior monks, thus permitted to stay in the same place. Bhaskaracharya Mahaviracharya Bhaskaracharya I In Sanskrit institutions, acharya is a post-graduate degree. A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada Srikanta Acharya Scriptural References to'acarya' Jain Monks and Aryikas Dr. K. C. Jain