Kavali is a town in Nellore district in Andhra Pradesh of India. It is one of the major towns in Andhra Pradesh, the second largest town in the district, it is the second most populous city located at Nellore district. It is Grade-1 Municipality. Kavali is known as Kanakapatnam, meaning wealth will flow into this place.' This was coined by Potuluri Veerabrahmendra Swami. In the local language it means patrol; this name arises from the fact that in 1515, the Udayagiri king Harihara Rayulu stationed his army at this town. Kavali is located at 14.913001°N 79.992921°E / 14.913001. It has an average elevation of 17 metres. Kavali is the second biggest city in Nellore District of India. Kavali is 8 km from the Bay of Bengal. Government is planning to have a separate district by pulling few mandals from Prakasam and few from Nellore Districts; this is the long lasting proposal and will be closed shortly. As of 2011 Census of India, the city had a population of 1,50,333; the total population is 75,127 females and children.
The average literacy rate stands at 81.09% with 60,497 literates higher than the national average of 73.00%. It is Grade-1. Kavali parliamentary constituency came into existence in 1962 and was lost in 1977. Now it is a part of the Nellore parliament constituency; the reference is Kavali National Highway 16, a part of Golden Quadrilateral highway network, bypasses the city. Kavali railway station is located on Howrah-Chennai main line, it is classified as a B–category station in the Vijayawada railway division of South Central Railway zone. NH 5 passes through the city; the Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation operates bus services from Kavali bus station. The Nearest Sea Port is Ramayyapatnam port; the primary and secondary school education is imparted by government and private schools, under the School Education Department of the state. The medium of instruction followed by different schools are English, Telugu. Visvodaya a group of institutions, Visvodaya Boys High school, Visvodaya Girls High school and Visvodaya preparatory school and Bezawada Gopal Reddy School of Fine Arts were established in 100 acres of land by Mr.
Doddla Ramachandra Reddy - Recotor of institutions. Many eminent scholars like Peddada Rama Swamy, S V Bhujangaraya Sarma, Janamdhi Hanumanth Sastri, Kowta Rammohan Sastri, Vempati Chinna Satyam to name few were worked in these institutions in various capacities; some of the good schools include St Anns English medium high school and St Mary's Public School, spread across multiple acres and provides quality education for the patrons
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India. Situated in the south-east of the country, it is the seventh-largest state in India, covering an area of 162,970 km2; as per the 2011 census, it is the tenth most populous state, with 49,386,799 inhabitants. The largest city in Andhra Pradesh is Visakhapatnam. Telugu, one of the classical languages of India, is the major and official language of Andhra Pradesh. On 2 June 2014, the north-western portion of Andhra Pradesh was separated to form the new state Telangana and the longtime capital of Andhra Pradesh, was transferred to Telangana as part of the division. However, in accordance with the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, Hyderabad was to remain as the acting capital of both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the new riverfront de facto capital, Amaravati, is under the jurisdiction of the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority. Andhra Pradesh has a coastline of 974 km – the second longest coastline among the states of India, after Gujarat – with jurisdiction over 15,000 km2 of territorial waters.
The state is bordered by Telangana in the north-west and Odisha in the north-east, Karnataka in the west, Tamil Nadu in the south, to the east lies the Bay of Bengal. The small enclave of Yanam, a district of Puducherry, lies to the south of Kakinada in the Godavari delta on the eastern side of the state; the state is made up of the two major regions of Rayalaseema, in the inland southwestern part of the state, Coastal Andhra to the east and northeast, bordering the Bay of Bengal. The state comprises thirteen districts in total, nine of which are located in Coastal Andhra and four in Rayalaseema; the largest city and commercial hub of the state are Visakhapatnam, located on the Bay of Bengal, with a GDP of US$43.5 billion. The economy of Andhra Pradesh is the seventh-largest state economy in India with ₹8.70 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹142,000. Andhra Pradesh hosted 121.8 million visitors in 2015, a 30% growth in tourist arrivals over the previous year, making it the third most-visited state in India.
The Tirumala Venkateswara Temple in Tirupati is one of the world's most visited religious sites, with 18.25 million visitors per year. Other pilgrimage centres in the state include the Mallikarjuna Jyotirlinga at Srisailam, the Srikalahasteeswara Temple at Srikalahasti, the Ameen Peer Dargah in Kadapa, the Mahachaitya at Amaravathi, the Kanaka Durga Temple in Vijayawada, Prasanthi Nilayam in Puttaparthi; the state's natural attractions include the beaches of Visakhapatnam, hill stations such as the Araku Valley and Horsley Hills, the island of Konaseema in the Godavari River delta. A tribe named. According to Aitareya Brahmana of the Rig Veda, the Andhra left north India and settled in south India; the Satavahanas have been mentioned by the names Andhra, Andhrara-jateeya and Andhrabhrtya in the Puranic literature. They did not refer themselves as Andhra in any of their inscriptions. Archaeological evidence from places such as Amaravati and Vaddamanu suggests that the Andhra region was part of the Mauryan Empire.
Amaravati might have been a regional centre for the Mauryan rule. After the death of Emperor Ashoka, Mauryan rule weakened around 200 BCE and was replaced by several smaller kingdoms in the Andhra region; the Satavahana dynasty dominated the Deccan region from the 1st century BC to the 3rd century. The Satavahanas made Dharanikota and Amaravathi their capital, which according to the Buddhists is the place where Nagarjuna, the philosopher of Mahayana lived in the 2nd and 3rd centuries; the Andhra Ikshvakus, with their capital at Vijayapuri, succeeded the Satavahanas in the Krishna River valley in the latter half of the 2nd century. Pallavas, who were executive officers under the Satavahana kings, were not a recognised political power before the 2nd century AD and were swept away by the Western Chalukyan invasion, led by Pulakesin II in the first quarter of the 7th century CE. After the downfall of the Ikshvakus, the Vishnukundinas were the first great dynasty in the 5th and 6th centuries, held sway over the entire Andhra country, including Kalinga and parts of Telangana.
They played an important role in the history of Deccan during the 5th and 6th century CE, with Eluru and Puranisangam. The Salankayanas were an ancient dynasty that ruled the Andhra region between Godavari and Krishna with their capital at Vengi from 300 to 440 CE; the Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi, whose dynasty lasted for around five hundred years from the 7th century until 1130 C. E. merged with the Chola empire. They continued to rule under the protection of the Chola empire until 1189 C. E. when the kingdom succumbed to the Hoysalas and the Yadavas. The roots of the Telugu language have been seen on inscriptions found near the Guntur district and from others dating to the rule of Renati Cholas in the fifth century CE. Kakatiyas constructed several forts, they were succeeded by the Musunuri Nayaks. The Reddy dynasty was established by Prolaya Vema Reddi in the early 14th century, who ruled from present day Kondaveedu. Prolaya Vema Reddi was part of the confederation of states that started a movement against the invading Turkic Muslim armies of the Delhi
Coastal Andhra, is a region in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. This region was part of Madras State before 1953 and Andhra State from 1953 to 1956. According to the 2011 census, it has an area of 95,442 square kilometres, 57.99% of the total state area and a population of 34,193,868, 69.20% of Andhra Pradesh state population. This area includes the coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh on the Coromandel Coast between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal, from the northern border with Odisha to Pulicat lake of South. Coastal Andhra has rich agricultural land, owing to the delta of the Godavari Krishna river and Penna; the prosperity of Coastal Andhra can be attributed to its rich agricultural land and an abundant water supply from these three rivers. Rice grown in paddy fields is the main crop, with pulses and coconuts being important; the fishing industry is important to the region. The state of Andhra emerged to a political power during the reign of Maurya Dynasty. Megasthenes mentioned that Andhra was a flourishing empire of the Satavahanas' since before the common era.
Coastal Andhra was ruled by the famous Chalukyas in between the period of the 7th Century and the 10th century CE. This period was followed by the reign of many other dynasties such as the Cholas, the Kakatiyas as well as the Vijayanagar Empire. According to 11th century inscriptions, coastal Andhra is bounded by Mahendragiri mountains, Kalahasti temple, Srisailam temple; the Gajapati and Ganjam districts of Odisha were granted to the French East India Company around 1752. They were transferred by the French to the British. Nellore, which extends as far as Ongole Taluk, was received from the Nawab of Arcot, under an establishment; some parts of present-day Nellore and Chittoor were in the hands of Venkatagiri Rajas. The British made an arrangement with the Raja of Venkatagiri in 1802 to claim power in those territories also; the districts of Andhra and Rayalaseema were ceded by the Nizams to the Britishers, which became part of Madras Presidency. Coastal Andhra is located in the eastern region of the state of Andhra Pradesh on the Coromandel Coast and comprises nine districts.
It borders the states of Telangana, Odisha. The presence of the Krishna River Godavari River and Penna River makes the area fertile for irrigation; the coastal line of this region is the second longest in the country. The area had a total population of 34,195,655 as per 2011 Census of India; the main and most spoken language is Telugu. Kuchipudi is the classical dance form of the state, originated in the Kuchipudi village of Krishna district. Rice is the staple food in the Kosta cuisine and is consumed with a variety of curries and lentil soups or broths; the cuisine of Coastal Andhra is influenced by various seafood varieties. Nine coastal Andhra districts are:Srikakulam, Visakhapatnam, East Godavari, West Godavari, Guntur and Nellore. Chief Ministers from the region are: Tanguturi Prakasam Panthulu – 1st Chief Minister of Andhra State. Bezawada Gopala Reddy – 2nd Chief Minister of Andhra State. Kasu Brahmananda Reddy – 3rd Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh. Bhavanam Venkatarami Reddy – 8th Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh.
N. T. Rama Rao – 10th Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh. Nadendla Bhaskara Rao – 11th Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh. Nedurumalli Janardhana Reddy – 12th Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh. K. Rosaiah – 15th Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh. Visakhapatnam, Guntur, Kakinada, Nellore, Ongole. Other major towns in the region are Vizianagaram, Gudivada, Narasapuram, Srikakulam Kavali, Bhimavaram, Narasaraopet, Chilakaluripet, Chirala Coastal Andhra is one of the major Buddhist hubs in India after the Gangetic plains in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. Many remnants from large monasteries to small stupas are found in this region from Srikakulam district in the North to Nellore district in the South; the major Buddhist Remnant sites in this region are as Amaravati, Ramatheertham, Bavikonda, Kummarilova, Bhattiprolu etc. Andhra Pradesh contains 259 coastal wetlands, covering an area of 18,552 km2, out of which 88 are manmade. Lakes Kolleru and Pulicat are the two major lakes in Coastal Andhra. Kolleru, a natural sweet-water lake, is situated in the West Godavari district and serves as a natural flood-balancing reservoir for the two rivers.
The lake is an important habitat for up to 50,000 resident and migratory birds. The lake was declared a wildlife sanctuary in November 1999 under India's Wildlife Protection Act, designated a wetland of international importance in November 2002 under the international Ramsar Convention. Pulicat is the largest saltwater lake in the country, located in Nellore and spreads between Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu; this is one of the famous attractions in south India. In this region, the river Akhanda Godavari splits into several distributary branches, including the Gouthami, Vasishta and Vruddha Gouthami, before emptying into the Bay of Bengal; the East Coast Railway serves Srikakulam, Vizianagaram District, part of Visakhapatnam district, including Visakhapatnam City. Vijayawada is the one of the busiest railway junctions in India. Buses and trains originate from stations in this region, including
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo. Although situated on a sea coast or estuary, some ports, such as Hamburg and Duluth, are many miles inland, with access from the sea via river or canal. Today, by far the greatest growth in port development is in Asia, the continent with some of the world's largest and busiest ports, such as Singapore and the Chinese ports of Shanghai and Ningbo-Zhoushan. Whenever ancient civilisations engaged in maritime trade, they tended to develop sea ports. One of the world's oldest known artificial harbors is at Wadi al-Jarf on the Red Sea. Along with the finding of harbor structures, ancient anchors have been found. Other ancient ports include Guangzhou during Qin Dynasty China and Canopus, the principal Egyptian port for Greek trade before the foundation of Alexandria. In ancient Greece, Athens' port of Piraeus was the base for the Athenian fleet which played a crucial role in the Battle of Salamis against the Persians in 480 BCE.
In ancient India from 3700 BCE, Lothal was a prominent city of the Indus valley civilisation, located in the Bhāl region of the modern state of Gujarāt. Ostia Antica was the port of ancient Rome with Portus established by Claudius and enlarged by Trajan to supplement the nearby port of Ostia. In Japan, during the Edo period, the island of Dejima was the only port open for trade with Europe and received only a single Dutch ship per year, whereas Osaka was the largest domestic port and the main trade hub for rice. Nowadays, many of these ancient sites no longer function as modern ports. In more recent times, ports sometimes fall out of use. Rye, East Sussex, was an important English port in the Middle Ages, but the coastline changed and it is now 2 miles from the sea, while the ports of Ravenspurn and Dunwich have been lost to coastal erosion. Whereas early ports tended to be just simple harbours, modern ports tend to be multimodal distribution hubs, with transport links using sea, canal, road and air routes.
Successful ports are located to optimize access to an active hinterland, such as the London Gateway. Ideally, a port will grant easy navigation to ships, will give shelter from wind and waves. Ports are on estuaries, where the water may be shallow and may need regular dredging. Deep water ports such as Milford Haven are less common, but can handle larger ships with a greater draft, such as super tankers, Post-Panamax vessels and large container ships. Other businesses such as regional distribution centres and freight-forwarders and other processing facilities find it advantageous to be located within a port or nearby. Modern ports will have specialised cargo-handling equipment, such as gantry cranes, reach stackers and forklift trucks. Ports have specialised functions: some tend to cater for passenger ferries and cruise ships; some third world countries and small islands such as Ascension and St Helena still have limited port facilities, so that ships must anchor off while their cargo and passengers are taken ashore by barge or launch.
In modern times, ports decline, depending on current economic trends. In the UK, both the ports of Liverpool and Southampton were once significant in the transatlantic passenger liner business. Once airliner traffic decimated that trade, both ports diversified to container cargo and cruise ships. Up until the 1950s the Port of London was a major international port on the River Thames, but changes in shipping and the use of containers and larger ships, have led to its decline. Thamesport, a small semi-automated container port thrived for some years, but has been hit hard by competition from the emergent London Gateway port and logistics hub. In mainland Europe, it is normal for ports to be publicly owned, so that, for instance, the ports of Rotterdam and Amsterdam are owned by the state and by the cities themselves. By contrast, in the UK all ports are in private hands, such as Peel Ports who own the Port of Liverpool, John Lennon Airport and the Manchester Ship Canal. Though modern ships tend to have bow-thrusters and stern-thrusters, many port authorities still require vessels to use pilots and tugboats for manoeuvering large ships in tight quarters.
For instance, ships approaching the Belgian port of Antwerp, an inland port on the River Scheldt, are obliged to use Dutch pilots when navigating on that part of the estuary that belongs to the Netherlands. Ports with international traffic have customs facilities; the terms "port" and "seaport" are used for different types of port facilities that handle ocean-going vessels, river port is used for river traffic, such as barges and other shallow-draft vessels. A dry port is an inland intermodal terminal directly connected by road or rail to a seaport and operating as a centre for the transshipment of sea cargo to inland destinations. A fishing port is a harbor for landing and distributing fish, it may be a recreational facility, but it is commercial. A fishing port is the only port that depends on an ocean product, depletion of fish may cause a fishing port to be uneconomical. An inland port is a port on a navigable lake, river, or canal with access to a sea or ocean, which therefore allows a ship to sail from the ocean inland to the port to load or unload its cargo.
An example of this is the St. Lawrence Seaway which allows ships to travel from the Atlantic Ocean several thousand kilometers inland to Great Lakes ports like Toronto, Duluth-Superior, C
Tada, Nellore district
Tada is a village in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh. National Highway 16, a part of Golden Quadrilateral highway network, bypasses the village. Telugu is the official and spoken language of the town.. Tada travel guide from Wikivoyage
Nellore is a city and district headquarters of Nellore district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is the fourth most populous city in the state. A mythological story from Sthala Purana depicts, a lingam in the form of a stone under nelli tree; the place became Nelli-ooru and to present day Nellore. Nellore had been under the rule of Cholas, pandyas, Maurya Dynasty, Kharavela of Chedi dynasty, Kakatiyas, Eastern Gangas of Kalinga Empire, Vijayanagara Empire, Arcot Nawabs and other dynasties. Nellore existed from the times of the Cholas ruled by Rajendra Chola I under Tanjavur Mauryan empire and was ruled by Ashoka in the 3rd century B. C. Nellore was conquered by the Rulers of the Pallava Dynasty and it was under their till the 6th century AD, subsequently the Chola rulers ruled Nellore for a long period of time; the Telugu Cholas met their decline in the 13th Century. Tamil inscriptions indicate that it formed part of Chola kingdom till their decline in the thirteenth century AD It became a part of Kakatiyas, Vijayanagara Empire, Sultanate of Golconda, Mughal Empire and Arcot Nawabdom.
In the 18th century, Nellore was taken over by the British from the Arcot Nawabs and was part of the Madras Presidency of British India. The city had an important role in the emergence of the Telugu language and the formation of the state of Andhra Pradesh. Potti Sriramulu, who fasted until death for the formation of Andhra Pradesh, hailed from Nellore. Nellore is located at 14.44°N 79.98°E / 14.44. It has an average elevation of 18 metres; the climate of Nellore city is a typical tropical maritime climate, with hot, humid summers and mild winters. April and May are the hottest months and the hot conditions last until the end of the June. December and February are the coolest months; as the Bay of Bengal is at a distance of 24 kilometres from the city, the sea breeze renders the climate of the city moderate both in winter and in summer. Humidity level in the city is high due to its proximity to the coast. Nellore does not receive the south-west monsoon. Rainfall in Nellore occurs between the months of December due to the north-east monsoon.
This period gives about 60 percent of the city's annual rainfall. Cyclones are common in the city during causing floods and havoc; the maximum temperature is 36 to 46 °C during summer and the minimum temperature is 23 to 25 °C during winter. The rainfall ranges from 700 to 1,000 mm through North East Monsoons. Nellore is subject both to floods based on the seasons; as of 2011 census, Nellore city had a population of 499,576. The average literacy rate stands at 83.59% with 387,192 literates higher than the state average of 73.00%. The expanded city population post merger of 15 gram panchayats into Nellore Municipal Corporation stands at 631,791. Civic administration Nellore Municipal Corporation was constituted as a municipality on 1 November 1866 by the Madras District Municipality Act, it was upgraded to corporation on 18 October 2004 and has a jurisdictional area of 150.48 km2 with 54 wards. In 2013, fifteen gram panchayats namely, Ambhapuram, Buja Buja Nellore, Chinthareddypalem, Gundlapalem, Kanaparthypadu, Narayanareddypeta, Nellore Bit-I, Pottipalem, Vavilatepadhu were merged into the municipal corporation.
Present mayor of the city is Abdul Aziz. The city is one among the 31 cities in the state to be a part of water supply and sewerage services mission known as Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation. Politics Nellore is represented by Nellore City assembly constituency and Nellore Rural assembly constituency for Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly. Anil Kumar Poluboina is the present MLA of Nellore City assembly constituency representing YSRCP. Kotamreddy Sridhar Reddy is the present MLA of Nellore Rural assembly constituency representing YSRCP. Nedurumalli janardhan reddy former chief minister of combined andhra pradesh hails from this place. Certain industries like Nippo batteries factory, Apache leather shoes factory etc. have their presence. Proximity to the sea and fertile land towards the east have led to agriculture and aquaculture to prosper; the most productive is the Shrimp culturing. The annual Rottela Panduga/Rotiyaan ki Eid is an annual urs event celebrated at the Bara Shaheed Dargah on the banks of Swarnala Cheruvu.
The event got its name after the practice of exchanging rotis and attracts visitors from all religious backgrounds every year. It is the home for various temples. Famous temples such as Sri Ranganayaka Swamy Temple exist in the heart of the city. Nellore has got many clubs such as Rotary club where one can spend time reading newspapers or playing board games. Nellore is famous for a dish made out of fish known as'Nellore chepala pulusu'. A 12,000 acre Special Economic Zone is being set up in the vicinity of the port by the Krishnapatnam Infratech Private Limited, a special purpose vehicle set up by KPCL; the SEZ is expected to create 30,000 direct employments. The SEZ is being designed by Mahindra Engineering and is to be a multi-product SEZ. Local transport in the city include, two and four wheelers. Of these operated auto rickshaws accounts to around 6,000, dominating most part of the city for local commuting. Nellore bus station of the city operates district and long distance services. Nellore is classified as an A grade and Adarsh st
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle