The Scott Nunataks are a group of conspicuous nunataks lying about 18 km east of the Richter Glacier and forming the northern end of the Alexandra Mountains in King Edward VII Land, Antarctica. The formation was discovered in 1902 by the British National Antarctic Expedition under Captain Robert Falcon Scott, it was named after Scott by Lieutenant Kristian Prestrud, leader of the Eastern Sledge Party of Amundsen's South Pole expedition, who ascended the nunataks while exploring Edward VII Peninsula in 1911. Prestrud’s Cairn is a small rock cairn erected at the foot of the main bluff on the northern side of the nunataks on 3 December 1911 by Prestrud during Amundsen's expedition, it has been designated a Historic Site or Monument, following a proposal by New Zealand and the United Kingdom to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting. This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Scott Nunataks"
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14,200,000 square kilometres, it is the fifth-largest continent. For comparison, Antarctica is nearly twice the size of Australia. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km in thickness, which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic Peninsula. Antarctica, on average, is the coldest and windiest continent, has the highest average elevation of all the continents. Most of Antarctica is a polar desert, with annual precipitation of only 200 mm along the coast and far less inland; the temperature in Antarctica has reached −89.2 °C, though the average for the third quarter is −63 °C. Anywhere from 1,000 to 5,000 people reside throughout the year at research stations scattered across the continent. Organisms native to Antarctica include many types of algae, fungi, plants and certain animals, such as mites, penguins and tardigrades.
Vegetation, where it occurs, is tundra. Antarctica is noted as the last region on Earth in recorded history to be discovered, unseen until 1820 when the Russian expedition of Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev on Vostok and Mirny sighted the Fimbul ice shelf; the continent, remained neglected for the rest of the 19th century because of its hostile environment, lack of accessible resources, isolation. In 1895, the first confirmed. Antarctica is a de facto condominium, governed by parties to the Antarctic Treaty System that have consulting status. Twelve countries signed the Antarctic Treaty in 1959, thirty-eight have signed it since then; the treaty prohibits military activities and mineral mining, prohibits nuclear explosions and nuclear waste disposal, supports scientific research, protects the continent's ecozone. Ongoing experiments are conducted by more than 4,000 scientists from many nations; the name Antarctica is the romanised version of the Greek compound word ἀνταρκτική, feminine of ἀνταρκτικός, meaning "opposite to the Arctic", "opposite to the north".
Aristotle wrote in his book Meteorology about an Antarctic region in c. 350 BC Marinus of Tyre used the name in his unpreserved world map from the 2nd century CE. The Roman authors Hyginus and Apuleius used for the South Pole the romanised Greek name polus antarcticus, from which derived the Old French pole antartike attested in 1270, from there the Middle English pol antartik in a 1391 technical treatise by Geoffrey Chaucer. Before acquiring its present geographical connotations, the term was used for other locations that could be defined as "opposite to the north". For example, the short-lived French colony established in Brazil in the 16th century was called "France Antarctique"; the first formal use of the name "Antarctica" as a continental name in the 1890s is attributed to the Scottish cartographer John George Bartholomew. The long-imagined south polar continent was called Terra Australis, sometimes shortened to'Australia' as seen in a woodcut illustration titled Sphere of the winds, contained in an astrological textbook published in Frankfurt in 1545.
Although the longer Latin phrase was better known, the shortened name Australia was used in Europe's scholarly circles. In the nineteenth century, the colonial authorities in Sydney removed the Dutch name from New Holland. Instead of inventing a new name to replace it, they took the name Australia from the south polar continent, leaving it nameless for some eighty years. During that period, geographers had to make do with clumsy phrases such as "the Antarctic Continent", they searched for a more poetic replacement, suggesting various names such as Antipodea. Antarctica was adopted in the 1890s. Antarctica has no indigenous population, there is no evidence that it was seen by humans until the 19th century. However, in February 1775, during his second voyage, Captain Cook called the existence of such a polar continent "probable" and in another copy of his journal he wrote:" believe it and it's more than probable that we have seen a part of it". However, belief in the existence of a Terra Australis—a vast continent in the far south of the globe to "balance" the northern lands of Europe and North Africa—had prevailed since the times of Ptolemy in the 1st century AD.
In the late 17th century, after explorers had found that South America and Australia were not part of the fabled "Antarctica", geographers believed that the continent was much larger than its actual size. Integral to the story of the origin of Antarctica's name is that it was not named Terra Australis—this name was given to Australia instead, because of the misconception that no significant landmass could exist further south. Explorer Matthew Flinders, in particular, has been credited with popularising the transfer of the name Terra Australis to Australia, he justified the titling of his book A Voyage to Terra Australis by writing in the introduction: There is no probability, that any other detached body of land, of nearly equal extent, will be found in a more southern latitude.
Madeira the Autonomous Region of Madeira, is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal. It is an archipelago situated in southwest of Portugal, its total population was estimated in 2011 at 267,785. The capital of Madeira is Funchal, located on the main island's south coast; the archipelago is just under 400 kilometres north of Canary Islands. Bermuda and Madeira, a few time zones apart, are the only land in the Atlantic on the 32nd parallel north, it includes the islands of Madeira, Porto Santo, the Desertas, administered together with the separate archipelago of the Savage Islands. The region has political and administrative autonomy through the Administrative Political Statue of the Autonomous Region of Madeira provided for in the Portuguese Constitution; the autonomous region is an integral part of the European Union as an outermost region. Madeira was claimed by Portuguese sailors in the service of Prince Henry the Navigator in 1419 and settled after 1420; the archipelago is considered to be the first territorial discovery of the exploratory period of the Age of Discovery.
Today, it is a popular year-round resort, being visited every year by about 1.4 million tourists five times its population. The region is noted for its Madeira wine, gastronomy and cultural value and fauna, landscapes that are classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, embroidery artisans; the main harbour in Funchal has long been the leading Portuguese port in cruise liner dockings, receiving more than half a million tourists through its main port in 2017, being an important stopover for commercial and trans-Atlantic passenger cruises between Europe, the Caribbean and North Africa. In addition, the International Business Centre of Madeira known as the Madeira Free Trade Zone, was created formally in the 1980s as a tool of regional economic policy, it consists of a set of incentives tax-related, granted with the objective of attracting foreign direct investment based on international services into Madeira. Plutarch in his Parallel Lives referring to the military commander Quintus Sertorius, relates that after his return to Cádiz, he met sailors who spoke of idyllic Atlantic islands: "The islands are said to be two in number separated by a narrow strait and lie 10,000 furlongs from Africa.
They are called the Isles of the Blest."Archeological evidence suggests that the islands may have been visited by the Vikings sometime between 900 and 1030. During the reign of King Edward III of England, lovers Robert Machim and Anna d'Arfet were said to have fled from England to France in 1346. Driven off course by a violent storm, their ship ran aground along the coast of an island that may have been Madeira; this legend was the basis of the naming of the city of Machico on the island, in memory of the young lovers. Knowledge of some Atlantic islands, such as Madeira, existed before their formal discovery and settlement, as the islands were shown on maps as early as 1339. In 1418, two captains under service to Prince Henry the Navigator, João Gonçalves Zarco and Tristão Vaz Teixeira, were driven off course by a storm to an island they named Porto Santo in gratitude for divine deliverance from a shipwreck; the following year, an organised expedition, under the captaincy of Zarco, Vaz Teixeira, Bartolomeu Perestrello, traveled to the island to claim it on behalf of the Portuguese Crown.
Subsequently, the new settlers observed "a heavy black cloud suspended to the southwest." Their investigation revealed it to be the larger island. The first Portuguese settlers began colonizing the islands around 1420 or 1425. Grain production began to fall and the ensuing crisis forced Henry the Navigator to order other commercial crops to be planted so that the islands could be profitable; these specialised plants, their associated industrial technology, created one of the major revolutions on the islands and fuelled Portuguese industry. Following the introduction of the first water-driven sugar mill on Madeira, sugar production increased to over 6,000 arrobas by 1455, using advisers from Sicily and financed by Genoese capital; the accessibility of Madeira attracted Genoese and Flemish traders, who were keen to bypass Venetian monopolies. "By 1480 Antwerp had some seventy ships engaged in the Madeira sugar trade, with the refining and distribution concentrated in Antwerp. By the 1490s Madeira had overtaken Cyprus as a producer of sugar."
Sugarcane production was the primary engine of the island's economy, increasing the demand for labour. African slaves were used during portions of the island's history to cultivate sugar cane, the proportion of imported slaves reached 10% of the total population of Madeira by the 16th century. Barbary corsairs from North Africa, who enslaved Europeans from ships and coastal communities throughout the Mediterranean region, captured 1,200 people in Porto Santo in 1617. After the 17th century, as Portuguese sugar production was shifted to Brazil, São Tomé and Príncipe and elsewhere, Madeira's most important commodity product became its wine; the British first amicably occupied the island in 1801 whereafter Colonel William Henry Clinton became governor. A detachment of the 85th Regiment of Foot under Lieutenant-colonel James Willoughby Gordon garrisoned the island. After the Peace of Amiens, British troops withdrew in 1802, only to reoccupy Madeira in 1807 until the end of the Peninsular War in 1814.
On 31 December 1916, during the Great War, a Ge
Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
Karjohansvern at Horten was the main base for the Royal Norwegian Navy from 1819 to 1963. In 1818, it was decided to establish a naval base in Horten, it was first called Hortens verft, Marinens Hovedværft until King Oscar I named it Carljohansværn værft in 1854. The shipyards was begun in 1820 and the first launch, a frigate, was in 1828. On 9 April 1940 during the German invasion of Norway, a battle took place in the harbour when the Germans attempted to seize the base; the naval attack was repulsed, but German troops managed to outflank the Norwegians and force them to capitulate. Karljohansvern remained in German hands for the rest of World War II, while the ships operating out of it were pressed into their service. In 1953, the Norwegian Parliament determined; when the new headquarters at Haakonsvern was opened in 1963, a number of functions were transferred from Karljohansvern. In 1968, the National Government took over the shipyard and renamed it A/S Horten Verft., closed down in 1987. The Officer Candidate School for the Navy remained on site until 2005.
The Naval District East based there was disbanded in 2002. The Royal Norwegian Navy Museum and the fortress Norske Løve on Vealøs remain. Only the island of Vealøs, connected to Horten with a bridge, is still owned by the Department of Defence; the whole island is still a military area, the area is cordoned off with fencing, video surveillance and guard booths. The former shipyard has been converted into Horten Industripark; the Royal Norwegian Navy Museum and the Royal Norwegian Navy Band, a department of the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment and some of the Navy's school administration are still present. In 2001, Preus Museum moved to the former naval facility; as of 2006, the entire base including 73 buildings has been given protected heritage status by the Norwegian Directorate for Cultural Heritage. Citadellet Norske Løve Fortress Karljohansvern Karljohansvern picture gallery Horten Industripark website
Hedmark is a county in Norway, bordering Trøndelag to the north, Oppland to the west and Akershus to the south. The county administration is in Hamar. Hedmark makes up the northeastern part of the southeastern part of the country, it has a long border with Dalarna County and Värmland County. The largest lakes are the largest lake in Norway. Parts of Glomma, Norway's longest river, flow through Hedmark. Geographically, Hedmark is traditionally divided into: Hedemarken, east of Mjøsa, Østerdalen, north of Elverum, Glåmdalen, south of Elverum. Hedmark and Oppland are the only Norwegian counties with no coastline. Hedmark hosted some events of the 1994 Winter Olympic Games. Hamar, Kongsvinger and Tynset are cities in the county. Hedmark is one of the less urbanized areas in Norway; the population is concentrated in the rich agricultural district adjoining Mjøsa to the southeast. The county's extensive forests supply much of Norway's timber; the Hedmark municipality of Engerdal has the distinction of marking the current southernmost border in Norway of Sápmi, the traditional region of the Sami people.
The county is divided into three traditional districts. These are Østerdalen and Solør. Hedmark was a part of the large Akershus amt, but in 1757 Oplandenes amt was separated from it; some years in 1781, this was divided into Kristians amt and Hedemarkens amt. Until 1919, the county was called Hedemarkens amt; the Old Norse form of the name was Heiðmǫrk. The first element is heiðnir, the name of an old Germanic tribe and is related to the word heið, which means moorland; the last element is mǫrk'woodland, march'. The coat of arms is from modern times, it shows three barkespader. Every four years the inhabitants of Hedmark elect 33 representatives to Hedmark Fylkesting, the Hedmark County Assembly. After the elections of September 2007 the majority of the seats of the assembly were held by a three-party coalition consisting of the Labour Party, the Centre Party and the Socialist Left Party. Eight parties are represented in the assembly, the remaining 5 being the Progress Party, the Conservative Party, the Liberal Party, the Christian Democratic Party and the Pensioners Party.
The assembly is headed by the county mayor. As of the 2007 elections the county mayor is Arnfinn Nergård, he represents the Centre Party. In 2003 a parliamentary system was established, which means that the county assembly elects a political administration or council to hold executive power; this county council reflects the majority of the county assembly and includes the three parties holding the majority of the assembly seats, i.e. the Labour Party, the Center Party and the Socialist Left Party. The council is led by a member of the Labour Party. Official homepage Media related to Hedmark at Wikimedia Commons Hedmark travel guide from Wikivoyage