Småland Nation, Lund
Smålands Nation is a student society of Lund University in southern Sweden. The name comes from the historical province of Småland, it was one of the first nations formed after the foundation of the university, but has periodically been merged with other smaller nations due to low membership counts. Smålands Nation is distinguished among Lund's nations as it is the only politically aligned nation, becoming socialistic in 1972, it is due to its political nature that it is the only nation without membership in the various student bodies linking the other twelve nations together, such as the Academic Association and Kuratorskollegiet. The nation considers itself to be politically aware, striving for equality between the sexes, protesting against pollution of the environment and other focusing on other criticisms of modern society; the nation holds Ronja, a forum for gender and LGBT issues. If food is served, it is vegan; the pub is open on Wednesdays and live bands from Gothenburg, perform onstage.
Clubs are held on Saturdays and feature electronic music. Smålands Nation - Official site
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Scania known as Skåne, is the southernmost province of Sweden. Within Scania, there are 33 municipalities. Scania's largest city is Malmö, the third largest in Sweden, as well as the fifth largest in Scandinavia. To the north, Scania borders the provinces of Halland and Småland, to the northeast Blekinge, to the east and south the Baltic Sea, to the west Öresund. Since 2000, a road and railway bridge, the Øresund Bridge, bridges the sound to Denmark. Scania is part of the transnational Øresund Region. From north to south Scania covers less than 3 % of Sweden's total area; the population of over 1,320,000 represents 13% of the country's population. With 121 inh/km2 Scania is the second most densely populated province of Sweden. Scania was part of the kingdom of Denmark, up until the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658. Denmark regained control of the province during the Scanian War 1676-1679 and again in 1711. Scania was formally included in Sweden in 1720; the endonym used in Swedish and other North Germanic languages is Skåne.
The Latinized form Scania occurs in British English as an exonym. However, sometimes the endonym Skåne is used in English text, such as in tourist information sometimes as Skane with the diacritic omitted, wrong both in Swedish and English. Scania is the only Swedish province for which exonyms are still used in many languages, e.g. French Scanie and German Schonen, Polish Skania, Spanish Escania, Italian Scania, etc. For the province's modern administrative counterpart, Skåne län, the endonym Skåne is used in English. In the Alfredian translation of Orosius's and Wulfstan's travel accounts, the Old English form Sconeg appears. Frankish sources mention; the names Scania and Scandinavia are considered to have the same etymology and the southernmost tip of what is today Sweden was called Scania by the Romans and thought to be an island. The actual etymology of the word remains dubious and has long been a matter of debate among scholars; the name is derived from the Germanic root *Skaðin-awjã, which appears in Old Norse as Skáney.
According to some scholars, the Germanic stem can be reconstructed as *Skaðan- meaning "danger" or "damage". Skanör in Scania, with its long Falsterbo reef, has the same stem combined with -ör, which means "sandbanks". Between 1719 and 1996, the province was subdivided in two administrative counties, Kristianstad County and Malmöhus County, each under a governor appointed by the central government of Sweden; when the first local government acts took effect in 1863, each county got an elected county council. The counties were further divided into municipalities; the local government reform of 1952 reduced the number of municipalities, a second subdivision reform, carried out between 1968 and 1974, established today's 33 municipalities in Scania. The municipalities have municipal governments, similar to city commissions, are further divided into parishes; the parishes are entities of the Church of Sweden, but they serve as a divisioning measure for the Swedish population registration and other statistical uses.
In 1999, the county council areas were amalgamated, forming Skåne Regional Council, responsible for public healthcare, public transport and regional planning and culture. During the Danish era, the province had no coat of arms. In Sweden, every province had been represented by heraldic arms since 1560; when Charles X Gustav of Sweden died in 1660 a coat of arms had to be created for the newly acquired province, as each province was to be represented by its arms at his royal funeral. After an initiative from Baron Gustaf Bonde, the Lord High Treasurer of Sweden, the coat of arms of the City of Malmö was used as a base for the new provincial arms; the Malmö coat of arms had been granted in 1437, during the Kalmar Union, by Eric of Pomerania and contains a Pomeranian griffin's head. To distinguish it from the city's coat of arms the tinctures were changed and the official blazon for the provincial arms is, in English: Or, a griffin's head erased gules, crowned azure and armed azure, when it should be armed.
The province was divided in two administrative counties 1719–1996. Coats of arms were created for these entities using the griffin motif; the new Skåne County, operative from 1 January 1997, got a coat of arms, the same as the province's, but with reversed tinctures. When the county arms is shown with a Swedish royal crown, it represents the County Administrative Board, the regional presence of central government authority. In 1999 the two county councils were amalgamated forming Region Skåne, it is the only one of its kind using a heraldic coat of arms. It is the same as the province's and the county's, but with a golden griffin's head on a blue shield; the 33 municipalities within the county have coats of arms. The Scania Griffin has become a well-known symbol for the province and is used by commercial enterprises, it is, for instance, included in the logotypes of the automotive manufacturer Scania AB and the airline Malmö Aviation. Coat of arms: Scania was first mentioned in written texts in the 9th century.
It came under Danish king Harald Bluetooth in the middle of the 10th century. It was a region that included Blekinge and Halland, situated on the
Östgöta Nation, Lund
The Östgöta Nation, or locally ÖG's, is a student union of Lund University in Sweden. It is considered the oldest of the university's nations and celebrated its 350th anniversary in 2018; the name Östgöta refers to the Swedish Östergötland province. The nation was founded in the same year as the University was established - 1668. Around 40 students who had transferred from Uppsala University enrolled at the nation. With the Scanian War in 1676, the university was forced to close temporarily; the nation reopened in 1681, has since 1686 maintained written details of all meetings. From 1766-1798, it was part of Götiska Nationen along with Kalmar. Today the nation is located in central Lund at a house named Ostrolocus, not far from the city centre where Lund Cathedral, the Kungshuset and the Lund University main building are to be found. Östgöta nation
A snapphane was a member of a 17th-century pro-Danish guerrilla organization that fought against the Swedes in the Second Northern and Scanian Wars in the former eastern Danish provinces which in the course of these wars became southern Sweden. Many pro-Danish guerrilla fighters referred to themselves as i.e. volunteer militiamen. During the Scanian War, many Scanians who lived in the western part of Scania could quite join the regular Danish army, after the 1676 Danish re-conquest of the province, but in the North, this was more difficult. Instead, this partisan movement was the most common way to support the Danish; the movement did return during the 1711 Danish attempt to regain Scania. The term snapphane, used as a pejorative term by the Swedes to describe the pro-Danish rebels, was a word for gangs of bandits that lived in the woods; when Scanian exiled peasants were organized by the Danish king into bands that fought the Swedes with guerrilla methods, they were called Snapphane too. Due to the movement's support of the Danish invasion during the Scanian War, Swedish authorities fought the snapphanes brutally, if one was captured, he was executed and the corpse was impaled and shown where the locals could see it and be intimidated to obedience.
Another common method was execution by having them broken on the wheel. The Snapphanes were rather successful, but as the war turned against Denmark the Snapphane war became more devastating; the Snapphanes were defeated by a Swedish campaign of compelling Scanian peasants to swear allegiance to the Swedish king driving a wedge between Snapphane and most of the population. Instructed by the Danish king to kill loyalists the Snapphane bands turned on the local population undermining support for the Danish king. A ruthless Swedification policy was so effective that when a Danish invasion army landed in 1709, in the wake of the Battle of Poltava, the local population was raised in a militia to fight against them; the last suspected snapphane, Nils Tuasen‚ was executed in 1700 for slaying a Swedish soldier in 1677. He had spent 22 years in exile in Denmark but returned, upon which he was arrested and put to death. Snapphanes made an impact on Swedish popular culture. In modern times, the Swedish Navy patrol boat P161 is named HMS Snapphanen.
It is part of a class of vessels several of which are named after paramilitary professions, like Kaparen, etc. Kim Hazelius, De Kallades Snapphanar.. Bokpro Bjärnum 2006. K Arne Blom, Jan Moen, Snapphaneboken. Palle Lauring. Danmark i Skåne. Stockholm: Berghs förlag, 1999. Herman Lindquist. Historien om Sverige – storhet och fall. Norstedts Förlag, 2006. Mats Olsson. "Att icke understå sig att lämna sina hemman: Om bondeklassens frihet och adelns dominans i Skåne". Historisk Tidskrift, 2001: 5–28. ISSN 0345-469X. Sixten Svensson. Sanningen om snapphanelögnen.. Sten Skansjö. Skånes historia. Lund. Alf Åberg. Snapphanarna. Stockholm: LTs Förlag. Alf Åberg. Kampen om Skåne under försvenskningstiden. Stockholm: Natur & Kultur. Alf Åberg. I snapphanebygd. Stockholm: Rabén & Sjögren. Cederborg, Carl August. Kopparskrinet. Cederborg, Carl August. Mickel Göing. Cederborg, Carl August. Göingehövdingen I. Cederborg, Carl August. Göingehövdingen II. A historical miniseries entitled Snapphanar was made for Swedish television in 2006.
A film featuring Edvard Persson from 1941 bears the same name. Snaphance
Student nations or nations are regional corporations of students at a university. Once widespread across Europe in medieval times, they are now restricted to the oldest universities of Sweden and Finland, in part because of the violent conflicts between the nations in university towns in other countries. Medieval universities were large metropolitan centres with students from many different domestic and foreign regions. Students who were born within the same region spoke the same language, expected to be ruled by their own familiar laws, therefore joined together to form the nations; the most similar comparison in the Anglo-world to the nation system is in the collegiate system of older British universities or fraternities at American universities. In Portugal and Brazil, there are fraternities called Repúblicas, but this has nothing to do with the natio original concept of nations. In the University of Paris there were the French, Normans and the English, the Alemannian nation. Jean Gerson was twice elected procurator for the French natio in 1383 and 1384, while studying theology at Paris.
At Paris, Germanic speakers were grouped into a single nation. The various nations in Paris quarreled with one another, they said that the Germans were obscene at their feasts. The Burgundians they considered stupid; the Bretons were reputed to be fickle and changeable, were reproached for the death of Arthur. The Lombards were called avaricious and cowardly. After such insults from words they came to blows." The students who attended the medieval university in Oxford arranged themselves into two nations who quarrelled constantly. These two nations were called the boreales; the australes was the more powerful of the two nations. The Welsh were considered part of the australes, along with scholars from the Romance lands; the boreales came from the north of England and Scotland. The nations at Oxford were disbanded in 1274 in an effort to maintain peace in the town; this measure was unsuccessful and conflicts between the nations continued. One such as on 29 April 1388 when Welsh students, who were according to the chronicler Henry Knighton semper inquieti, fought with their northern counterparts.
The following year the boreales ran amok in the town chanting'war, war, slay, slay the Welsh dogs' killing and looting as they went, before rounding up the remaining Welsh students and urinating on them as they kissed the town's gateposts'goodbye'. A similar division of students had been adopted at the Charles University in Prague, where from its opening in 1347 the studium generale was divided among Bohemian, Bavarian and Polish nations; when there was not a "natio" of a student's birth territory, students were assigned to another nation. When the University of Leipzig was established in 1409 by scholars from the University of Prague, the new university replicated the organisation of the nationes from Prague, replacing the Bohemian "natio" with one for local students from the Margravate of Meissen, becoming the Natio Misnensium with the other nationes remaining those of the Saxonum and Polonorum. In medieval Bologna, there existed three separate universities. Two for the study of law, one for students from Italy the universitas citramontanorum and another for students from outside the peninsula the universitas ultramontanorum.
The final school was for the study of medicine universitas artisarum et medicorum. The ultramontane university was divided into fourteen different nations as early as 1265, such as the Gauls, Burgundians, Catalan, English, Gascon et al. whereas the citramontane university was split into three nations. The most important and powerful of the ultramontane University of Bologna was the German nation. One of its most famous members was Nicolaus Copernicus who, in 1496, enrolled into the Natio Germanorum. A privileged university organization that included German-speaking students from many regions of Europe. Students in the University of Padua were divided in 22 nations, which referred to the different territories ruled by the Republic of Venice, to the biggest states of Italy, to the main states of Europe. Nations were: German, Hungarian, Provençal, Spanish, English, Venetian, Lombard, Friulian, Milanese, Sicilian, Tuscan and Genoan. In Finland, student nations exist at the University of Helsinki and Aalto University School of Science and Technology, where they are sanctioned and established in the mid-1600s and 1800s, respectively.
Named after regions in Finland, students had to join according to their own geographical roots before membership became voluntary in 1937. Today, students can choose to joi
Lund University is a public university ranked among the world's top 100 universities. The university, located in the city of Lund in the province of Scania, arguably traces its roots back to 1425, when a Franciscan studium generale was founded in Lund next to the Lund Cathedral. After Sweden won Scania from Denmark in the 1658 Treaty of Roskilde, the university was founded in 1666 on the location of the old studium generale next to Lund Cathedral. Lund University has eight faculties, with additional campuses in the cities of Malmö and Helsingborg, with 40,000 students in 270 different programmes and 1 300 freestanding courses; the University has some 600 partner universities in nearly 70 countries and it belongs to the League of European Research Universities as well as the global Universitas 21 network. Two major facilities for materials research are in Lund University: MAX IV, a world-leading synchrotron radiation laboratory – inaugurated in June 2016, European Spallation Source, a new European facility that will provide up to 100 times brighter neutron beams than existing facilities today, to be opened in 2023.
The university centers on the Lundagård park adjacent to the Lund Cathedral, with various departments spread in different locations in town, but concentrated in a belt stretching north from the park connecting to the university hospital area and continuing out to the northeastern periphery of the town, where one finds the large campus of the Faculty of Engineering. The city of Lund has a long history as a center for learning and was the ecclesiastical centre and seat of the archbishop of Denmark. A cathedral school for the training of clergy was established in 1085 and is today Scandinavia's oldest school; the university traces its roots back to 1425, when a Franciscan studium generale was founded in Lund next to the Lund Cathedral, making it the oldest institution of higher education in Scandinavia followed by studia generalia in Uppsala in 1477 and Copenhagen in 1479. After Sweden won Scania from Denmark in the 1658 Treaty of Roskilde, the university was founded in 1666 on the location of the old studium generale next to Lund Cathedral.
The studium generale had not survived the Lutheran Reformation of 1536, why the university is considered a separate institution when founded in 1666. After the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658, the Scanian lands came under the possession of the Swedish Crown, which founded the University in 1666 as a means of making Scania Swedish by educating teachers in Swedish, to culturally integrate the Scania region with Sweden; the university was named Academia Carolina after Charles X Gustav of Sweden until the late 19th century, when Lund University became the widespread denomination. It was the fifth university under the Swedish king, after Uppsala University, the University of Tartu, the Academy of Åbo, the University of Greifswald; the university was at its founding granted four faculties: law, theological and philosophy. They were the cornerstones, for more than 200 years this system was in effect. Towards the end of the 17th century, the number of students hovered around 100; some notable professors in the early days were a juridical historian.
The Scanian War in 1676 led to a shut-down, which lasted until 1682. The university was re-opened due to regional patriots, but the university was not to enjoy a high status until well into the 19th century. Lecturing rooms were few, lectures were held in the Lund Cathedral and its adjacent chapel; the professors were underpaid. In 1716, Charles XII of Sweden entered Lund, he stayed in Lund in between his warlike expeditions. Lund and the university attracted a temporary attention boost; the most notable lecturer during this time was Andreas Rydelius. Peace was restored with the death of Charles XII in 1718, during the first half of the 18th century the university was granted added funds; the number of students was now well around 500. Despite not being on par with Uppsala University, it had still built a solid reputation and managed to attract prominent professors. Around 1760 the university reputation dropped as the number of students fell below 200, most of whom hailed from around the province.
However, by 1780 its reputation was restored, continued to rise through the 1820s. This was owing to popular and well-educated lecturers in philology. He, in turn, attracted others towards Lund. One of these was the young theological student C. G. Brunius, who studied ancient languages under Tegnér and were to become professor of Greek. With time he was to devote himself to architectures and he redesigned several of Lund's buildings, as well as churches of the province. In 1845 and 1862 Lund co-hosted Nordic student meetings together with the University of Copenhagen. A student called. In the early 20th century, the university had a student population as small as one thousand, consisting of upper-class pupils training to become civil servants and doctors. In the coming decades it started to grow until it became one of the country's largest. In 1964 the social sciences were split from the Faculty of Humanities. Lund Institute of Technology was established in 1961 but was merged with Lund University eight years later.
In recent years, Lund University has been popular amon