Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey is a joint venture between the U. S. states of New York and New Jersey, established in 1921 through an interstate compact authorized by the United States Congress. In New York, it is classified as a Class D public benefit corporation; the Port Authority oversees much of the regional transportation infrastructure, including bridges, tunnels and seaports, within the geographical jurisdiction of the Port of New York and New Jersey. This 1,500-square-mile port district is encompassed within a 25-mile radius of the Statue of Liberty National Monument; the Port Authority is headquartered at 4 World Trade Center and is a member of the Real Estate Board of New York. The Port Authority operates the Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal, which handled the third-largest volume of shipping among all ports in the United States in 2004 and the largest on the Eastern Seaboard; the Port Authority operates Hudson River crossings, including the Holland Tunnel, Lincoln Tunnel, George Washington Bridge connecting New Jersey with Manhattan, three crossings that connect New Jersey with Staten Island.
The Port Authority Bus Terminal and the PATH rail system are run by the Port Authority, as well as LaGuardia Airport, John F. Kennedy International Airport, Newark Liberty International Airport, Teterboro Airport, Stewart International Airport and Atlantic City International Airport; the agency has its own 1,700-member Port Authority Police Department. The Port of New York and New Jersey comprised the main point of embarkation for U. S. troops and supplies sent to Europe via the New York Port of Embarkation. The congestion at the port led experts to realize the need for a port authority to supervise the complex system of bridges, highways and port facilities in the New York-New Jersey area; the solution was the 1921 creation of the Port Authority under the supervision of the governors of the two states. By issuing its own bonds, it was financially independent of either state, it became one of the major agencies of the metropolitan area for large-scale projects. In the early years of the 20th century, there were disputes between the states of New Jersey and New York over rail freights and boundaries.
At the time, rail lines terminated on the New Jersey side of the harbor, while ocean shipping was centered on Manhattan and Brooklyn. Freight had to be shipped across the Hudson River in barges. In 1916, New Jersey launched a lawsuit against New York over issues of rail freight, with the Interstate Commerce Commission issuing an order that the two states work together, subordinating their own interests to the public interest; the Harbor Development Commission, a joint advisory board set-up in 1917, recommended that a bi-state authority be established to oversee efficient economic development of the port district. The Port of New York Authority was established on April 30, 1921, through an interstate compact between the states of New Jersey and New York; this was the first such agency in the United States, created under a provision in the Constitution of the United States permitting interstate compacts. The idea for the Port Authority was conceived during the Progressive Era, which aimed at the reduction of political corruption and at increasing the efficiency of government.
With the Port Authority at a distance from political pressures, it was able to carry longer-term infrastructure projects irrespective of the election cycles and in a more efficient manner. In 1972 it was renamed the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey to better reflect its status as a partnership between the two states. Throughout its history, there have been concerns about democratic accountability, or lack thereof at the Port Authority; the Port District is irregularly shaped but comprises a 1,500-square-mile area within a 25-mile radius of the Statue of Liberty. At the beginning of the 20th century, there were no road bridge or tunnel crossings between the two states; the initial tunnel crossings were completed by the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad in 1908 and 1909, followed by the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1910. Under an independent agency, the Holland Tunnel was opened in 1927, with some planning and construction pre-dating the Port Authority. With the rise in automobile traffic, there was demand for more Hudson River crossings.
Using its ability to issue bonds and collect revenue, the Port Authority has built and managed major infrastructure projects. Early projects included bridges across the Arthur Kill, which separates Staten Island from New Jersey; the Goethals Bridge, named after chief engineer of the Panama Canal Commission General George Washington Goethals, connected Elizabeth, New Jersey and Howland Hook, Staten Island. At the south end of Arthur Kill, the Outerbridge Crossing was built and named after the Port Authority's first chairman, Eugenius Harvey Outerbridge. Construction of both bridges was completed in 1928; the Bayonne Bridge, opened in 1931, was built across the Kill van Kull, connecting Staten Island with Bayonne, New Jersey. Construction began in 1927 on the George Washington Bridge, linking the northern part of Manhattan with Fort Lee, New Jersey, with Port Authority chief engineer, Othmar Ammann, overseeing the project; the bridge was completed in October 1931, ahead of schedule and well under the estimated costs.
This efficiency exhibited by the Port Authority impressed President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who used this as a model in creating the Tennessee Valley Authority and other such entities. In 1930, the Holland Tunnel was placed under control of the Port Authority, providing significant toll revenues. During the late 1930
Vin Gopal is an American Democratic politician who took office on January 9, 2018 to represent the 11th Legislative District in the New Jersey Senate, which covers portions of Monmouth County. Prior to his election to the Senate, Gopal served as Chairman of the Monmouth County Democratic Party. Gopal's family is from Southern India, his parents settled in New Jersey. Gopal grew up in Freehold Township. Gopal holds a Bachelor's Degree from Pennsylvania State University and is the founder and president of Direct Development, LLC and owner of the Monmouth County-based Community Magazine, he grew Direct Development to two locations -- in Tinton Falls. He is a resident of Long Branch. While in high school and college, Senator Gopal served as a volunteer Emergency Medical Technician and First Responder and Certified First Aid Instructor for the Colts Neck and Freehold First Aid Squads. Gopal served on the Board of Trustees of Big Brothers, Big Sisters of Monmouth County from 2010 to 2012. Gopal served on the Board of Directors of the Northern Monmouth Chamber of Commerce, now called the Monmouth County Chamber of Commerce, from 2009 to 2012.
From 2010 to 2013, Gopal served as President of the Hazlet Business Owners Association. Gopal is President of the Vin Gopal Civic Association, a 501c3 organization, which helps local families and charities in need. In 2011, Gopal, at the age of 26, ran for the office of Assembly in the 11th Legislative District alongside Red Bank Councilwoman Kathleen Horgan. Gopal and Horgan were defeated by Mary Pat Angelini; the following year, Gopal ran for Chairman of the Monmouth County Democratic Organization. He was elected Chairman with 73% of the vote; as Chairman, Gopal led the 2015 campaign for General Assembly, where he helped oust Republican incumbents Caroline Casagrande and Mary Pat Angelini by newcomers Eric Houghtaling and Joann Downey, in what was considered a major upset. As Chairman, Gopal was featured in PolitickerNJ.com's 100 Most Powerful people in New Jersey Politics in 2015 and 2016. In 2017, Gopal resigned the Chairmanship, announcing his intention to run for Senate in the 11th Legislative District against Republican incumbent Jennifer Beck.
Gopal ran alongside first-term Democratic incumbents Assemblyman Eric Houghtaling and Assemblywoman Joann Downey. In November 2017, Gopal was elected to the State Senate. Gopal is the first Indian-American to be elected to New Jersey's State Senate, his victory was described by NJ.com as "perhaps the biggest upset of the night." Gopal won by 4,158 votes – outperforming Democratic Gubernatorial Candidate Phil Murphy. Gopal won numerous towns which Murphy lost, including Ocean Township. On January 9, 2018, shortly after his swearing-in, Gopal was appointed Vice-Chairman of the Senate Transportation Committee as well as a member of the Economic Growth Committee and Health, Human Services and Senior Citizens Committee, he is the youngest member of the New Jersey State Senate. On April 4, 2018, Gopal was named Senate Majority Conference Leader and Chairman of the Bipartisan Legislative Manufacturing Caucus. Gopal took both positions from Senator Robert M. Gordon, who resigned to accept a position with the BPU..
On January 1st of 2019, Gopal was appointed Chairman of the Senate Military and Veterans Affairs Committee. New Jersey Globe stated "Gopal, who defeated three-term State Sen. Jennifer Beck last year, has seen a meteoric rise in the Senate, he was named Majority Caucus chairman after Bob Gordon resigned to join the Board of Public Utilities and is now poised to take on a committee chairmanship." Military and Veterans' Affairs Higher Education Health, Human Services and Senior Citizens Each of the 40 districts in the New Jersey Legislature has one representative in the New Jersey Senate and two members in the New Jersey General Assembly. The other representatives from the 11th District for the current Legislative Session are: Senator Vin Gopal, Assemblyman Eric Houghtaling, Assemblywoman Joann Downey Community journalism Indian Americans in New Jersey
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Essex County, New Jersey
Essex County is a county in the northeastern part of the U. S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 808,285, making it the state's third-most populous county, an increase of 3.1% from the 2010 United States Census, when its population was enumerated at 783,969, in turn a decrease of 1.2% from the 793,633 enumerated in the 2000 Census. In 2010, the county dropped down to third-largest, behind Middlesex County, was one of only two counties in the state to see a decline between 2000 and 2010, its county seat is the most populous city in the state. It is part of the New York Metropolitan Area. In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $60,030, the eighth-highest in New Jersey and ranked 153rd of 3,113 counties in the United States; the Bureau of Economic Analysis ranked the county as having the 94th-highest per capita income of all 3,113 counties in the United States as of 2009. The county is named after a county in the East of England. Based on data from the 2010 census, Essex County is the 14th-most densely populated county in the United States, was ranked second in the state after Hudson County.
Newark, with a population density of 11,458.3 people/square mile, is the largest municipality in the county both in terms of land area and population, while Caldwell is the smallest in terms of land area and Essex Fells has the smallest population. Many of the county's smallest municipalities have population densities that are comparable to those of many big cities, are well above the state's average which in turn is the highest in the nation. Like many of the counties of Northern New Jersey near New York City—which tend to have sharp divides between rich suburban neighborhoods and less wealthy, more densely populated cities nearby—the eastern region of Essex County tends to be poorer and more urbanized, while the western parts tend to be more affluent and suburban; the wide area of Eastern Essex has significant pockets of high population, high building density, high poverty, high crime rates. Within this general area however are many stable and middle-income areas of diverse populations. For example and west sides of Newark have well-kept suburban areas such as Vailsburg and Forest Hill.
The east side of Newark is a working-class Brazilian and Portuguese community. East Orange has the Presidential Estate neighborhood full of large one family homes. Belleville and Bloomfield are suburbs with historic Italian communities that, in spite of retaining a core Italian-American population, now have many immigrants from Latin America and Asia; as of the 2000 Census, 36% of Nutley residents indicated that they were of Italian ancestry, the 12th-highest of any municipality in the nation and third-highest in New Jersey. Beginning at about the turn of the century, this region led the state in the rebuilding and rehab of its housing stock. In the 2000s, Newark led the state in the issuance of building permits. Many reasons were cited: citywide incentives to encourage construction development, an improving local economy, the rising demand of low-cost housing so close to Manhattan. Newark has since become one of the fastest growing cities in the entire Northeast, reported a gain in median income and drop in poverty rate.
This is a turnaround from the deterioration and abandonment experienced in the post-riot 1970s, 1980s and early part of the 1990s. Crime in this part of the county has traditionally been among the highest in the state and the country as well, but has seen significant declines, mirroring its large neighbor to the east, New York City. By 2006, crime in Newark had fallen 60% over the previous decade to its lowest levels in 40 years. Neighboring East Orange has experienced a decline in crimes, dropping 50% in the three years. While crime rates have fallen in these cities in recent years, they nonetheless remain high here compared to national crime statistics, as well as Irvington, Orange. In 2008, Newark had 67 homicides, down from 105 in 2007 and the record of 161 murders set in 1981. In contrast, Western Essex tends to be more affluent. Within this region are some of the most diverse and racially integrated municipalities in the state and nation, including Montclair, West Orange, South Orange and Maplewood.
Many neighborhoods are well-known magnets for people moving from New York City, such as Glen Ridge, Verona, Cedar Grove, South Orange and West Orange. The communities of Livingston, West Caldwell, South Orange, Millburn, North Caldwell, Essex Fells are some of the wealthiest towns in the county. Short Hills, South Orange and Livingston have large Jewish communities. Short Hills has a popular upscale shopping mall, The Mall at Short Hills located near affluent communities in Morris and Union counties; as the poorest place in the county, Newark has a median household income of $33,025 and a per capita income of $17,198. Essex County was the first county in the country to create a county park system, to ensure that it did not lose all its land to development; some of the county's municipalities Newark, The Oranges, The Caldwells were seen on episodes of the HBO mob drama The Sopranos, set in North Caldwell. There are various attractions in Essex County, such as the Newark Museum, Montclair Art Mus
Loretta Weinberg is an American Democratic Party politician, who has served as a member of the New Jersey Senate since 2005, where she represents the 37th Legislative District. She serves as Senate Majority Leader. Weinberg served in the General Assembly before being selected to replace retiring Senator Byron Baer. Weinberg was the Democratic nominee for Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey in the 2009 election, having been selected by Governor Jon Corzine as his running mate on July 24. Corzine and Weinberg were defeated by the Republican ticket of Chris Christie and Kim Guadagno on November 3, 2009. Weinberg serves on the Senate Health, Human Services and Senior Citizens Committee and on the State Government Committee, she is a former member of the Senate Judiciary Committee. Weinberg was chosen by Democratic committee members in March 1992 to fill the seat vacated in the Assembly by D. Bennett Mazur, who had resigned due to illness, she served in the General Assembly, the lower house of the New Jersey Legislature, until 2005.
In the Assembly, Weinberg served as the Majority Conference Leader from 2002 to 2005, Deputy Minority Leader from 1996 to 2001 and Assistant Minority Leader from 1994 to 1995. Weinberg served as the Chairwoman of the Health and Human Services Committee and Vice Chairwoman of the Family and Children's Services Committee. Additionally, she served on the New Jersey Historical Commission, Legislative Services Commission and the New Jersey Israel Commission; some of her past Committee assignments include the Community Services Committee, the Veteran Affairs Committee and, most the Consumer and Regulated Professions Committee. From 1975 to 1985, she was the Assistant Administrator of Bergen County, she was elected to the Teaneck Township Council in 1990, completing her council term in 1994. Besides her service in the Legislature, Weinberg has been active in community organizations including the American Red Cross, Shelter Our Sisters, the Bergen Family Center, AARP Teaneck Chapter, New Jersey Network of Women Elected Officials, National Organization of Women Legislators and the National Council of Jewish Women.
Weinberg has been recognized as "Legislator Worker of the Year" by the National Association of Social Workers - New Jersey Chapter, The "Friend of New Jersey's Children Award" by the American Academy of Pediatrics - New Jersey Chapter and the "Legislator of the Year Award" by the New Jersey Center for Outreach and Services for the Autism Community. She has been selected by Marquis Who's Who for inclusion in the "Who's Who of American Women List". Weinberg was born in New York City and graduated from the University of California, Berkeley with a B. A. in History. She has completed all course work for a Master of Public Administration from Fairleigh Dickinson University. Weinberg ran for the New Jersey Senate after fellow District 37 legislator Byron Baer resigned from the Senate on September 8, 2005. From the outset of his term, the resignation of the often-ailing Baer had been the subject of much speculation and maneuvering. In a January 7, 2004 article for PoliticsNJ.com, political reporter Steve Kornacki wrote, "Depending on whom you listen to, the 74-year-old Baer will step down sometime between the next few months and January 2008, when his term expires."
Kornacki identified a number of "potential successors" to Baer, including Hackensack Police Chief and former Assemblyman Charles "Ken" Zisa, who had mounted a challenge to Baer's 2003 re-nomination before withdrawing it in what some have said was a deal brokered by Bergen County Democratic Organization Chairman Joe Ferriero. "But," wrote Kornacki, "whether Weinberg, who backed Zisa in his brief bid to topple Baer last year, does want it is an open question." Sixteen months that question appeared to have been answered. In a May 3, 2005 PoliticsNJ.com article, Kornacki reported, "Weinberg admitted to striking a deal with Ferriero. She said the chairman agreed to back her for majority leader, while she pledged to support a candidate of his choosing to replace state Senator Byron Barer when the 75-year-old steps down...some say she had pledged support to Valerie Vainieri Huttle, a freeholder, for the Senate spot." Following Baer's resignation, Ferriero backed Zisa to fill the vacancy, as expected.
Huttle prepared to challenge Zisa for the nomination. Weinberg let it be known she was interested, on September 11, 2005, United States Senator Jon Corzine, the Democratic candidate for Governor of New Jersey, endorsed Weinberg for Baer's seat. Huttle endorsed Weinberg; the Bergen County Democratic Organization caucused on September 2005, to select a candidate. In balloting to replace Baer on an interim basis, Weinberg lost by a 114-110 margin to Zisa. In a separate vote, by a 112-111 margin, Zisa was selected over Weinberg to be the party's candidate on the November ballot. Though she congratulated Zisa in remarks made after results were announced at the September 15 caucus, Weinberg stated that inclusion of several uncounted ballots might change the results in her favor. Weinberg filed a legal challenge to the caucus results to have the unopened ballots included, which she believed were cast for her. On September 20, 2005, New Jersey Superior Court Judge Peter Doyne refused to interfere in what he held was a party matter and upheld the decision of the election mediator, Rep. Steve Rothman, to exclude the five ballots.
On September 23, 2005, an Appellate Court panel sent the case back to Judge Doyne, ruling that he did have the authority to address a party issue and that the five uncounted ballots c
Richard James Codey is an American Democratic Party politician who served as the 53rd Governor of New Jersey from 2004 to 2006. He has served in the New Jersey Senate since 1982 and served as the President of the Senate from 2002 to 2010, he represents the 27th Legislative District, which covers the western portions of Essex County and the southeastern portion of Morris County. Codey is the longest-serving state legislator in New Jersey history, having served in the New Jersey Legislature continuously since January 8, 1974. Codey grew up in his family's funeral home in Orange, he attended Our Lady of the Valley High School and transferred to Orange High School, neither of them before switching to Oratory Preparatory School in Summit, from which he graduated. He went on to take over his father's job as a licensed funeral director; when his father, became the county coroner, Richard was drafted to help with death scene pickups. Codey remembered, "I was 14. You grow up quick." Codey has described himself as "100% Irish".
Codey left the funeral trade to try his hand in politics in 1973 when he was first elected to the State Assembly, with Eldridge Hawkins as his running mate. He served in the Assembly from 1974 to 1982. In 1981 he earned a bachelor's degree in education from Fairleigh Dickinson University. Codey was elected to the State Senate that same year and has since risen through the ranks to become Senate President, he first ascended to that post in 2002 to 2010. He serves in the Senate on the Legislative Services Commission, he has a hockey arena named in his honor known as South Mountain Arena in West Orange, New Jersey. Following Governor Christine Todd Whitman's resignation in 2001 to become head of the EPA, Codey was one of three different senate presidents to serve as acting governor for the one-year period between Whitman's resignation and Jim McGreevey's inauguration in January 2002. DiFrancesco served as acting governor for all but the last week of this period, until his term as senate president ended.
As attorney general, Farmer served as acting governor for ninety minutes, until the election of Bennett and Codey as co-presidents of the senate. The latter two divided the last week of the term between them, with Codey serving for three days, from January 12, 2002, to January 15, 2002, leading to a situation in which the state had five different people serving as governor during a period of eight days. Codey became acting governor again with the resignation of Jim McGreevey on November 15, 2004. According to the New Jersey State Constitution at the time, in the event of a vacancy in the governor's office, the President of the State Senate takes on the additional position of acting governor until the next gubernatorial election. After taking over in 2004 Codey became popular with many New Jersey residents and considered a run for a full four-year term. However, U. S. Senator Jon Corzine's large number of endorsements as well as his large campaign war chest, funded by his great personal wealth, convinced Codey to announce on January 31, 2005 that he would step aside.
Codey served as governor until Corzine was sworn in on January 17, 2006 following Corzine's victory in the November 8, 2005 elections. Some had speculated that Codey could be a possible candidate for Corzine's vacant seat in the United States Senate, with Corzine appointing his own successor once he was sworn in as governor. However, Codey announced on November 2005 that he was not interested in the Senate seat. With the passage on November 8, 2005, of a constitutional amendment creating the position of lieutenant governor, Codey became the last person to serve as governor and senate president. On January 9, 2006, Codey became governor as a result of his signing legislation that provided that a person who serves as acting governor for a continuous period of at least 180 days will be "Governor of the State of New Jersey" for official and historical purposes; this law was made retroactive to 2001, covering both Codey's service after McGreevey's resignation and the service of Donald DiFrancesco following the resignation of Governor Christine Todd Whitman in 2001.
This made Codey the 53rd. Codey is an advocate of mental health awareness and favors including mental health funding in employee medical benefit packages and Medicare. Both Codey and his wife, Mary Jo, have spoken candidly about her past struggles with postpartum depression. In early 2005, Codey responded in person to New Jersey 101.5 talk radio host Craig Carton, who jokingly criticized Mary Jo and her mental health on the air. Some argue; the Governor himself admits to telling Carton during the altercation that he wished he could "take outside", while in the presence of the six New Jersey State Policemen who were serving as his personal bodyguards. There was some speculation that this incident helped Codey decide not to run for a full term as governor. In July 2005, Codey defended actress Brooke Shields after she faced criticism for discussing her postpartum depression. In December 2005, Codey appeared on Carton's radio program to help put the incident behind both of them. Codey appointed Mary Jane Cooper to be New Jersey's first-ever Inspector General, a position created to root out waste and mismanagement in government.
Codey added $7 million in new funding to agencies devoted to public accountability, per the recommendations that resulted from an audit of state ethics codes that he commissioned. In March 2005, Codey cracked down on pay to play wh