The TU Dresden is a public research university, the largest institute of higher education in the city of Dresden, the largest university in Saxony and one of the 10 largest universities in Germany with 37,134 students as of 2013. It ranks among the best universities of technology in Germany; the name Technische Universität Dresden has only been used since 1961. This makes it one of the oldest colleges of technology in Germany, one of the country’s oldest universities, which in German today refers to institutes of higher education that cover the entire curriculum; the university is a member of a consortium of the nine leading German Institutes of Technology. The university is one of eleven German universities which succeeded in the Excellence Initiative in 2012, thus getting the title of a "University of Excellence"; the TU Dresden succeeded in all three rounds of the German Universities Excellence Initiative. In 1828, with emerging industrialization, the "Saxon Technical School" was founded to educate skilled workers in technological subjects such as mechanics, mechanical engineering and ship construction.
In 1871, the year the German Empire was founded, the institute was renamed the Royal Saxon Polytechnic Institute. At that time, subjects not connected with technology, such as history and languages, were introduced. By the end of the 19th century the institute had developed into a university covering all disciplines. In 1961 it was given Technische Universität Dresden. Upon German reunification in 1990, the university had integrated the College of Forestry the Royal Saxony Academy of Forestry, in the nearby small town of Tharandt; this was followed by the integration of the Dresden College of Engineering, the Friedrich List College of Transport the faculty of transport science, the “Carl-Gustav Carus” Medical Academy, the medical faculty. Some faculties were newly founded: the faculties of Information Technology, Law and Economics. In 2009 TU Dresden, all Dresden institutes of the Fraunhofer Society, the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Scientific Community and the Max Planck Society and Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, soon incorporated into the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres, published a joint letter of intent with the name DRESDEN-Konzept - Dresden Research and Education Synergies for the Development of Excellence and Novelty, which points out worldwide elite aspirations, recognized as the first time that all four big post-gradual elite institutions declared campus co-operation with a university.
TU Dresden is a campus university in most aspects. Some of its buildings are more than a hundred years old; the architecture of these buildings is influenced by the art nouveau style or the Bauhaus school. In recent years these historic building have been complemented by modern buildings; the main campus, as well as the medical faculty and that of Computer Science, are all within the boundaries of the city of Dresden. The main campus is located South of the city center in the area bordered by Nöthnitzer Straße, Fritz-Förster-Platz and Münchner Platz; the faculty of forestry the Royal Saxon Academy of Forestry, resides in a forest area in the nearby town of Tharandt. TU Dresden has 14 faculties. All faculties are located on the main campus South of the city center, except for the Faculty of Medicine that has its own campus near the Elbe river East of the city center and the Department of Forestry in Tharandt. With 4,390 students the Faculty of Mathematics and the Natural Sciences is the second-largest faculty at the university.
It is composed of 5 departments, Chemistry, Mathematics and Psychology. The departments are all located on the main campus. In 2006, a new research building for the biology department opened. In October 2006 the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft decided to fund a new graduate school, the Dresden International Graduate School for Biomedicine and Bioengineering and a so-called cluster of excellence From Cells to Tissues to Therapies; the Faculty of Architecture comprises 6 departments. There are 1,410 students enrolled; the Faculty of Civil Engineering is structured into 11 departments. It is the smallest of the faculties. There are 800 students enrolled; the Faculty of Computer Science comprises six departments: Applied Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence, Software- and Multimedia-Technology, Systems Architecture, Computer Engineering and Theoretical Computer Science. The faculty has 2,703 students; the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology is organized into 13 departments.
There are 2,288 students enrolled. The faculty is the heart of the so-called Silicon Saxony in Dresden; the Faculty of Environmental Sciences has 2,914 students. The faculty is located on the main campus, except for the Forestry department, located in Tharandt; the Forestry department is the oldest of its kind in Germany. Its history goes back to the foundation of the Royal Saxon Academy of Forestry in 1816; the Faculty of Mechanica
Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
Minneapolis is the county seat of Hennepin County and the larger of the Twin Cities, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States. As of 2017, Minneapolis is the largest city in the state of Minnesota and 45th-largest in the United States, with an estimated population of 422,331; the Twin Cities metropolitan area consists of Minneapolis, its neighbor Saint Paul, suburbs which altogether contain about 3.6 million people, is the third-largest economic center in the Midwest. Minneapolis lies on both banks of the Mississippi River, just north of the river's confluence with the Minnesota River, adjoins Saint Paul, the state's capital; the city is abundantly rich in water, with 13 lakes, the Mississippi River and waterfalls. It was once a hub for timber; the city and surrounding region is the primary business center between Seattle. In 2011, Minneapolis proper was home to the fifth-highest number of Fortune 500 headquarters in the United States; as an integral link to the global economy, Minneapolis is categorized as a global city.
Minneapolis has one of the largest LGBT populations in the U. S. proportional to its overall population. Noted for its strong music and performing arts scenes, Minneapolis is home to both the award-winning Guthrie Theater and the historic First Avenue nightclub. Reflecting the region's status as an epicenter of folk and alternative rock music, the city served as the launching pad for several of the 20th century's most influential musicians, including Bob Dylan and Prince. Minneapolis has become noted for its underground and independent hip-hop and rap scenes, producing artists such as Brother Ali and Dessa; the name Minneapolis is attributed to Charles Hoag, the city's first schoolmaster, who combined mni, a Dakota Sioux word for water, polis, the Greek word for city. Descendants of first peoples, Dakota Sioux were the region's sole residents when French explorers arrived in 1680. For a time, amicable relations were based on fur trading. More European-American settlers arrived, competing for game and other resources with the Native Americans.
After the Revolutionary War, Great Britain granted the land east of the Mississippi to the United States. In the early 19th century, the United States acquired land to the west from France in the Louisiana Purchase. Fort Snelling, just south of present-day Minneapolis, was built in 1819 by the United States Army, it attracted traders and merchants, spurring growth in the area. The United States government pressed the Mdewakanton band of the Dakota to sell their land, allowing people arriving from the East to settle there. Preoccupied with the Civil War, the United States government reneged on its promises of cash payments to the Dakota, resulting in hunger, the Dakota War of 1862, internment and hardship; the Minnesota Territorial Legislature authorized Minneapolis as a town in 1856, on the Mississippi's west bank. Minneapolis incorporated as a city in 1867, the year rail service began between Minneapolis and Chicago, it joined with the east-bank city of St. Anthony in 1872. Minneapolis developed around Saint Anthony Falls, the highest waterfall on the Mississippi River and a source of power for its early industry.
Forests in northern Minnesota were a valuable resource for the lumber industry, which operated seventeen sawmills on power from the waterfall. By 1871, the west river bank had twenty-three businesses, including flour mills, woolen mills, iron works, a railroad machine shop, mills for cotton, paper and planing wood. Due to the occupational hazards of milling, six local sources of artificial limbs were competing in the prosthetics business by the 1890s; the farmers of the Great Plains grew grain, shipped by rail to the city's 34 flour mills. Millers have used hydropower elsewhere since the 1st century B. C. but the results in Minneapolis between 1880 and 1930 were so remarkable the city has been described as "the greatest direct-drive waterpower center the world has seen." A father of modern milling in America and founder of what became General Mills, Cadwallader C. Washburn converted his business from gristmills to revolutionary technology, including "gradual reduction" processing by steel and porcelain roller mills capable of producing premium-quality pure white flour quickly.
Some ideas were developed by William Dixon Gray and some acquired through industrial espionage from Hungary by William de la Barre. Charles A. Pillsbury and the C. A. Pillsbury Company across the river were a step behind, hiring Washburn employees to use the new methods; the hard red spring wheat that grows in Minnesota became valuable, Minnesota "patent" flour was recognized at the time as the best in the world. Not until did consumers discover the value in the bran that "... Minneapolis flour millers dumped" into the Mississippi. After 1883, a Minneapolis miller started a new industry when he began to sell bran byproduct as animal feed. Millers cultivated relationships with academic scientists at the University of Minnesota; those scientists backed them politically on many issues, such as in the early 20th century when health advocates in the nascent field of nutrition criticized the flour "bleaching" process. At peak production, a single mill at Washburn-Crosby made enough flour for 12 million loaves of bread each day.
Further, by 1895, through the efforts of silent partner William Hood Dunwoody, Washburn-Crosby exported four
Hedmark is a county in Norway, bordering Trøndelag to the north, Oppland to the west and Akershus to the south. The county administration is in Hamar. Hedmark makes up the northeastern part of the southeastern part of the country, it has a long border with Dalarna County and Värmland County. The largest lakes are the largest lake in Norway. Parts of Glomma, Norway's longest river, flow through Hedmark. Geographically, Hedmark is traditionally divided into: Hedemarken, east of Mjøsa, Østerdalen, north of Elverum, Glåmdalen, south of Elverum. Hedmark and Oppland are the only Norwegian counties with no coastline. Hedmark hosted some events of the 1994 Winter Olympic Games. Hamar, Kongsvinger and Tynset are cities in the county. Hedmark is one of the less urbanized areas in Norway; the population is concentrated in the rich agricultural district adjoining Mjøsa to the southeast. The county's extensive forests supply much of Norway's timber; the Hedmark municipality of Engerdal has the distinction of marking the current southernmost border in Norway of Sápmi, the traditional region of the Sami people.
The county is divided into three traditional districts. These are Østerdalen and Solør. Hedmark was a part of the large Akershus amt, but in 1757 Oplandenes amt was separated from it; some years in 1781, this was divided into Kristians amt and Hedemarkens amt. Until 1919, the county was called Hedemarkens amt; the Old Norse form of the name was Heiðmǫrk. The first element is heiðnir, the name of an old Germanic tribe and is related to the word heið, which means moorland; the last element is mǫrk'woodland, march'. The coat of arms is from modern times, it shows three barkespader. Every four years the inhabitants of Hedmark elect 33 representatives to Hedmark Fylkesting, the Hedmark County Assembly. After the elections of September 2007 the majority of the seats of the assembly were held by a three-party coalition consisting of the Labour Party, the Centre Party and the Socialist Left Party. Eight parties are represented in the assembly, the remaining 5 being the Progress Party, the Conservative Party, the Liberal Party, the Christian Democratic Party and the Pensioners Party.
The assembly is headed by the county mayor. As of the 2007 elections the county mayor is Arnfinn Nergård, he represents the Centre Party. In 2003 a parliamentary system was established, which means that the county assembly elects a political administration or council to hold executive power; this county council reflects the majority of the county assembly and includes the three parties holding the majority of the assembly seats, i.e. the Labour Party, the Center Party and the Socialist Left Party. The council is led by a member of the Labour Party. Official homepage Media related to Hedmark at Wikimedia Commons Hedmark travel guide from Wikivoyage
Norwegian University of Science and Technology
The Norwegian University of Science and Technology is a public research university with campuses in the cities of Trondheim, Gjøvik, Ålesund in Norway, has become the largest university in Norway, following the university merger in 2016. NTNU has the main national responsibility for education and research in engineering and technology, originated from Norwegian Institute of Technology. In addition to engineering and natural sciences, the university offers higher education in other academic disciplines ranging from social sciences, the arts and life sciences, teacher education and fine art. NTNU is well known for its close collaboration with industry, with its R&D partner SINTEF, which provided it with the biggest industrial link among all the technical universities in the world. NTNU is a young institution with a long history; the university, in its current form, was established in 1996 by the merger of six research and higher education institutions in Trondheim, as follows: Norwegian Institute of Technology, established in 1910 Museum of Natural History and Archaeology, established in 1767 Norwegian College of General Sciences, established in 1922 Faculty of Medicine, established in 1975 Trondheim Academy of Fine Art, established in 1987 Trondheim Conservatory of Music, established in 1973Prior to the merger, NTH, NLHT, DMF, VM together constituted the University of Trondheim, a much looser organization.
However, the university's root goes back to 1760, with the foundation of Det Trondhiemske Selskab, which in 1767 became the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters. The engineering education in Trondheim began with Trondhjems Tekniske Læreanstalt in 1870, in 1910, Norwegian Institute of Technology opened officially. In 2010, NTNU celebrated the 250th anniversary of Trondheim Academy. NTNU celebrated the 100th anniversary of NTH in the same year; the centennial was celebrated by the publication of several books, among them a history of the university, entitled "Turbulens og tankekraft. Historien om NTNU" which translates as "Turbulence and mindpower: The history of NTNU". Det Trondhiemske Selskab, Norway's first academic society, was founded in 1760. In 1767, it changed its name to the Royal Norwegian Society of Science and Letters upon receiving recognition from the Danish Crown. DKNVS library – today known as NTNU Gunnerus Library – was founded in 1768, is Norway's oldest library. First proposal for a Norwegian Polytechnical Institute was made in 1833.
Trondhjems Tekniske Læreanstalt or TTL was founded in 1870. The newly formed school educated engineers of various fields. In 1898, TTL moved to a larger building in Munkegata. TTL was disbanded in 1900s. In 1900, the Norwegian Parliament passed a resolution supporting the establishment of Norwegian Institute of Technology in Trondheim. NTH was opened on September 15, 1910. Five academical departments were present in the parliament's resolution of 31 May 1900, such as Architecture and Urban Planning, Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical engineering, Chemistry. In 1922, Norwegian College of Teaching in Trondheim opened at Lade gård. In 1950, Stiftelsen for industriell og teknisk forskning or SINTEF was founded as part of NTH and as its link to Norwegian industry. University of Trondheim was established in 1968, in Department of Medicine established as part of UNiT in 1974, it was designed by the architect Henning Larsen. In 1984, NLHT reformed into Norwegian College of General Sciences as part of UNiT.
On 1 January 1996, the University of Trondheim became the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. In 1989, NTH Rector Karsten Jakobsen had launched the idea of a Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim. On March 21, 1995, the Parliament, with a majority after a long debate, decided to establish NTNU in Trondheim. In 2014, the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research asked the country's universities and university colleges to provide suggestions and ideas for restructuring Norway's institutions of higher education; the context of the request was that the Norwegian government wanted to cut back on the number of institutions in the sector. The NTNU board decided on 28 January 2015 to merge NTNU with the University Colleges of Sør-Trøndelag, Ålesund and Gjøvik to form a new university that would retain the university's current name, Norwegian University of Science and Technology; the merger, which went into effect in January 2016, made NTNU Norway's largest single university.
NTNU has several campuses in Trondheim. Other campuses include Tyholt for marine technology, Øya for medicine, Kalvskinnet for archaeology, Midtbyen for the music conservatory and Nedre Elvehavn for the art academy. NTNU Gløshaugen is an artistic combination of modern buildings. In addition to NTNU, the following research institutes are located at Gløshaugen, cooperate with NTNU in several areas of research and development: SINTEF, since its establishment in 1950, has its main departments at Gløshaugen. SINTEF was founded by NTH, but since 1980 it has been an independent research institute. In 1998, the Paper and Fibe
Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are professionals who invent, analyze and test machines, systems and materials to fulfill objectives and requirements while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation and cost. The word engineer is derived from the Latin words ingenium; the foundational qualifications of an engineer include a four-year bachelor's degree in an engineering discipline, or in some jurisdictions, a master's degree in an engineering discipline plus four to six years of peer-reviewed professional practice and passage of engineering board examinations. The work of engineers forms the link between scientific discoveries and their subsequent applications to human and business needs and quality of life. In 1961, the Conference of Engineering Societies of Western Europe and the United States of America defined "professional engineer" as follows: A professional engineer is competent by virtue of his/her fundamental education and training to apply the scientific method and outlook to the analysis and solution of engineering problems.
He/she is able to assume personal responsibility for the development and application of engineering science and knowledge, notably in research, construction, superintending, managing and in the education of the engineer. His/her work is predominantly intellectual and varied and not of a routine mental or physical character, it requires the exercise of original thought and judgement and the ability to supervise the technical and administrative work of others. His/her education will have been such as to make him/her capable of and continuously following progress in his/her branch of engineering science by consulting newly published works on a worldwide basis, assimilating such information and applying it independently. He/she is thus placed in a position to make contributions to the development of engineering science or its applications. His/her education and training will have been such that he/she will have acquired a broad and general appreciation of the engineering sciences as well as thorough insight into the special features of his/her own branch.
In due time he/she will be able to give authoritative technical advice and to assume responsibility for the direction of important tasks in his/her branch. Engineers develop new technological solutions. During the engineering design process, the responsibilities of the engineer may include defining problems and narrowing research, analyzing criteria and analyzing solutions, making decisions. Much of an engineer's time is spent on researching, locating and transferring information. Indeed, research suggests engineers spend 56% of their time engaged in various information behaviours, including 14% searching for information. Engineers must weigh different design choices on their merits and choose the solution that best matches the requirements and needs, their crucial and unique task is to identify and interpret the constraints on a design in order to produce a successful result. Engineers apply techniques of engineering analysis in production, or maintenance. Analytical engineers may supervise production in factories and elsewhere, determine the causes of a process failure, test output to maintain quality.
They estimate the time and cost required to complete projects. Supervisory engineers are responsible for entire projects. Engineering analysis involves the application of scientific analytic principles and processes to reveal the properties and state of the system, device or mechanism under study. Engineering analysis proceeds by separating the engineering design into the mechanisms of operation or failure, analyzing or estimating each component of the operation or failure mechanism in isolation, recombining the components, they may analyze risk. Many engineers use computers to produce and analyze designs, to simulate and test how a machine, structure, or system operates, to generate specifications for parts, to monitor the quality of products, to control the efficiency of processes. Most engineers specialize in one or more engineering disciplines. Numerous specialties are recognized by professional societies, each of the major branches of engineering has numerous subdivisions. Civil engineering, for example, includes structural and transportation engineering and materials engineering include ceramic and polymer engineering.
Mechanical engineering cuts across just about every discipline since its core essence is applied physics. Engineers may specialize in one industry, such as motor vehicles, or in one type of technology, such as turbines or semiconductor materials. Several recent studies have investigated. Research suggests that there are several key themes present in engineers' work: technical work, social work, computer-based work and information behaviours. Among other more detailed findings, a recent work sampling study found that engineers spend 62.92% of their time engaged in technical work, 40.37% in social work, 49.66% in computer-based work. Furthermore, there was considerable overlap between these different types of work, with engineers spending 24.96% of their time engaged in technical and social work, 37.97% in technical and non-social, 15.42% in non-technical and social, 21.66% in non-technical and non-social. Engineering is an information-intensive field, with research finding that engineers spend 55
Franklin Avenue Bridge
The Franklin Avenue Bridge the F. W. Cappelen Memorial Bridge, carries Franklin Avenue over the Mississippi River in Minneapolis, Minnesota, it was designed by Frederick William Cappelen, assisted by Kristoffer Olsen Oustad, both of whom were among four important Norwegian-American engineers working in the region at the time. The reinforced-concrete open-spandrel arched structure was completed in 1923; the bridge's overall length is 1054.7 feet, with a central span of 400 feet. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1978 along with several other area bridges as part of a multiple-property submission. At the time of its completion, the bridge's central span was the longest concrete arch in the world; the bridge carried streetcars, which were removed in the 1940s. A major renovation in the early 1970s changed many of the ornamental details and widened a replaced deck. A bike lane was added in 2005; the bridge was extensively rehabilitated between 2015 and 2017, including restoring some of the details lost in the 1970s reconstruction Media related to Franklin Avenue Bridge at Wikimedia Commons Cappelen Memorial Bridge at Structurae