Arjuna is a central character of the ancient Indian epic Mahabharata, who plays a key role in the Bhagavad Gita alongside Krishna. It is believed. Arjuna was the son of Pandu in the Kuru Kingdom. In a previous birth he was a saint named Nara, the lifelong companion of another saint, Narayana, an incarnation of Lord Vishnu who took rebirth as Lord Krishna, he was the third of the Pandava brothers and was married to Draupadi, Chitrāngadā and Subhadra at different times. His children included Srutakarma, Iravan and Abhimanyu. Arjuna was equal to 12 maharatha class warriors; the name Arjuna means "white", "clear" or "silver" in Sanskrit and is cognate to Latin argentum, meaning "silver." Epithets for Arjuna include: Vijaya: always invincible or undefeated. Dhanañjaya: one who brings prosperity and wealth in the region wherever he goes to. Savyasāchin: ambidextrous, only Arjuna is expert in using both hands in archery. Shvethavāhana: one with milky white horses mounted to his pure white chariot. Only Arjuna had this.
Parantapa: one who concentrates the most. Gāndīvadhanvan: one who possessed the mighty bow named Gandiva, created by Lord Brahma. Gudākesha: one who had control oversleeps. Bībhatsu: one who always fights wars in a fair manner. Kapidhvaja: having the flag of Kapi in his chariot. Lord Hanuman stayed on Arjuna's flag during Kurukshetra war. Kirītin: one who wears the celestial diadem, presented by Lord Indra. Gāndīvadhara: Gandiva-holder. Jishnu: triumphant. Pārtha: son of Pritha known as Kunti. Kaunteya: son of Kunti. Phalguna: born under the star Uttara Phalguni. Madhyapāndava: the middle of the Pandavas, younger than Yudhisthira and Bhima and elder of Nakula and Sahadeva. Arjuna's birth is a most celebrated one and he was born seven months after the birth of Krishna. After the death of Pandu, the Pandavas and their mother lived in Hastinapura, where they were brought up together with their cousins, the Kaurava brothers. Along with his brothers, Arjuna was trained in religion, science and military arts by Bhishma, their granduncle.
One day, when the princes were playing a game, they lost their ball in a well. When the rest of the children gave up the ball as being lost, Arjuna stayed behind trying to get it. A stranger came by and extracted the ball for him by making a chain of "sarkanda"; when an astonished Arjuna related the story to Bhishma, Bhishma realised that the stranger was none other than Drona. Bhishma asked Drona to become the Kuru princes' teacher. Seeking refuge from Panchala, Drona agreed. Many asuras were killed by him. Under Drona's tutelage, the Kauravas and the Pandavas, along with the princes of Hastinapura's allies and vassals, learned weaponry. Arjuna became Drona's most accomplished pupil. In a famous incident, Drona deemed that out of all his students his own son Ashwatthama, none but Arjuna had the steadfast focus to shoot the eye of a bird on a tree. One day, on being questioned by Ashwatthama, his intention was clear that he loved Arjuna but didn't ill-treat anyone. He ordered Ashwatthama to gather all of his students including Ashwatthama to assemble at near by lake that evening.
They did. Drona was taking bath. Nobody except Arjuna were dare to enter into lake. Arjuna jumped into lake & began attacking the mighty crocodile with bare hands. Crocodile disappeared. Drona told everyone that the crocodile was just illusion and created by himself to test all the princes & Ashwatthama. Drona scolded the rest that they were not ready to save their teacher except Arjuna, thus Drona proudly declared that Arjuna was his pet student. Pandavas secretly went from Varnavrat after saving themselves from evil plan of Shakuni. Still in hiding, the Pandavas disguise themselves as brahmins and attend the Swayamvara of Panchala princess Draupadi. Out of all of the great kings and other Kaurava princes, only Arjuna is able to do the established challenge; the test is to lift and fire Pinakin to pierce the eye of a golden fish whilst only looking at its reflection. All kings including Karna and Shalya were defeated in the task. At last Arjuna came forward and lifted bow with just one hand and hit the target hence he won Draupadi.
Karna attacked Arjuna out of jealousy but Arjuna defeated him Karna asked about his real identity, Arjuna smiled and said that he is Brahmin Karna praised him by comparing him with Lord Vishnu. Arjuna threatened to kill Karna; when the brothers returned with Draupadi, Pandavas joked to his mother. Dismissively, without looking because she was preoccupied, Kunti asks him to share it with his brothers. Holding his mother's orders as a divine command, he requested his elder brother to accept Draupadi. Draupadi had to marry all five of the Pandavas, her five sons, one from each of the Pandava brothers, are known as the Upapandavas. Srutakarma is the son of Arjuna. At this point in the Mahabharata, the Pandavas revealed. With both Duryodhan
Yuyudhana, better known as Satyaki, was a powerful warrior belonging to the Vrishni clan of the Yadavas, to which Krishna belonged. According to the Puranas, he was grandson of Shini of the Vrishni clan, adopted son of Satyaka, after whom he was named. A valiant warrior, Satyaki was a student of Arjuna. Satyaki is called Sivi Sivi dynasty is called Shaineya. In case of apparent death of Pandavas at Lakshagraha, Satyaki does the last rites for the Pandavas as their closest living relation, he is the one who does last rites for his cousin Abhimanyu. Both these rituals indicate his closeness to Pandava main clan. Satyaki and passionately favored the cause of the Pandavas over the Kauravas in the Kurukshetra War, despite the fact that the Narayani Sena of Gopas had been promised to Duryodhana by Krishna. Satyaki accompanied Krishna to the Kuru capital, with Krishna as the emissary of peace, ridiculed and turned down by Duryodhana. Satyaki lead the Sivi Akshauhini to Pandava camp. Satayaki and Chekitana are examples of top Yadava allies who joined Pandava camp with armies of Kingdom of Sivi and Kekaya.
While Syenajita took Bhoja forces of Kunti kingdom to Pandava camp, Kritvarmma took Mrtikkavati Bhoja forces of Salwa kingdom to Kaurava camp. During the war, Satyaki is the commander of one akshauhini of the Pandava army; the fourteenth day of the conflict features Satyaki in a prominent role. With Arjuna attempting to pierce Drona's formation, in order to fulfill his oath of killing Jayadratha, Satyaki defends Yudhishthira from Drona, attempting to capture the emperor in Arjuna's absence. Rescuing Dhristadyumna from Drona, Satyaki engages in a long fight with Drona, taking up the morning's fight. Drona gets so frustrated by Satyaki, that he uses divine weapons, which Satyaki counters using his knowledge of divine weapons from his education under Arjuna. Satyaki tires, he is wounded by Drona's arrows, he is rescued by a new attack from the Upapandavas. Satyaki manages to stall Drona long enough that Duryodhana, frustrated with Drona's lack of progress, withdraws Drona to focus on the conflict with Arjuna.
In the day, Yudhishthira gets worried that he cannot hear the twang of Arjuna's Gandiva bow. Despite his protests that protecting the king was more important, Satyaki is ordered to find and aid Arjuna. At the entrance to the Padmavyuha, he meets Drona. Drona tells Satyaki. Satyaki tells Drona that he must leave as Arjuna is Satyaki's guru, the disciple should follow the teacher's example; as Arjuna is being attacked from multiple sides, Satyaki appears, along with Bhima. Satayki fights an intense battle with archrival, Bhurisravas with whom he had a long-standing family feud, following from when Satyaki's grandfather defeated Bhurisravas's father in a duel. After a long and bloody battle, Satyaki exhausted from fighting Drona, begins to falter, Bhurisravas pummels him and drags him across the battlefield. Raising his sword, Bhurisravas prepares to kill Satyaki, but he is rescued from death by Arjuna, who shoots an arrow cutting off Bhurisravas's arm. Arjuna had disgraced the honor between warriors.
Arjuna rebukes him for attacking a defenseless Satyaki. Moreover, he criticizes Bhurisravas for his actions during the death of Abhimanyu. Recognizing his shame, Bhurisravas sits down in meditation. Satyaki emerges from his swoon, swiftly decapitates his enemy, he is condemned for this rash act, but Satyaki states that the moment Bhurisravas struck his semiconscious body, he had sworn that he would kill Bhurisravas. With the day's battle nearly over and Jayadratha still far away, the debate of the morality of Satyaki's actions is shelved.. On the fifteenth day of battle, Satyaki killed Bhurisravas's father Somadatta, helped Bhima to kill Somadatta's father, Bahlika. In the Kurukshetra war and Kritavarma were two important Yadava heroes who fought on the opposing sides. Satyaki fought on the side of the Pandavas. Satyaki is noted as an Ayurvedic physician, an expert in Shalya and Shalakya, he is mentioned by Chakrapani in Netraroga. After the Kurukshetra war, Gandhari had cursed Krishna that his clan will be destroyed 36 years in a fratricidal massacre just like the battle between the Kuru clan he had caused.
During the 36th year, the Yadavas retired to Prabhasa where they were allotted temporary residences, where the Vrishnis started revelling and drinking. Inebriated, Satyaki laughed at and insulted Kritavarma for killing the Pandava army in midst of their sleep. Pradyumna applauded Satyaki for this which incensed Kritavarma. Kritavarma taunted Satyaki by saying that he had slain Bhurishravas in cold blood. Satyaki narrated the incident when Kritavarma tried to kill Satrajit. Satyabhama upon hearing this became angry and started ran to Krishna. Satyaki rising up in anger said that he would kill Kritavarma for slaying the warriors of the Pandava army while they were asleep. Having said this he severed his head with a sword, he started killing the warriors who were on Kritavarma's side. Krishna ran to stop Satyaki; the Bhojas and the Andhakas incensed at Satyaki surrounded him. Krishna, knowing the character of the hour, stood there unmoved; the Bhojas and Andhakas started striking Satyaki with the pots.
Pradyumna upon seeing this became enraged and rushed forward for resc
The Bhishma Parva, or the Book of Bhishma, is the sixth of eighteen books of the Indian epic Mahabharata. Bhishma Parva traditionally has 124 chapters; the critical edition of Sabha Parva has 117 chapters. Bhishma Parva describes the first 10 days of the 18-day Kurukshetra War, its consequences, it recites the story of Bhishma, the commander in chief of the Kaurava armies, fatally injured and can no longer lead as the commander. This book of Mahabharata includes the studied Bhagavad gita, sometimes referred to as Gita, or The Song of the Lord, or The Celestial Song. Bhagavadgita chapters describe Arjuna's questioning the purpose of war, ultimate effects of violence and the meaning of life. Arjuna's doubts and metaphysical questions are answered by Krishna. Other treatises in Bhishma parva include the Just war theory in ancient India, as well as strategies of war and troop deployment; this book describes the deaths of Uttarā kumarā, Vrishasena and Bhishma's fall on 1st, 3rd and 10th days of the war.
Karna didn't fought in these first ten days on Bhishma's order. This Parva has traditionally has 124 adhyayas; the following are the sub-parvas: 1. Jamvu - khanda Vinirmana Parva The parva begins with a meeting of two sides where the rules of war are agreed. Rishi Veda Vyasa, the grandfather to both Kauravas and Pandavas, offers a blessing to Dhritarashtra -, blind - in the form of the gift of sight, so he can see the tragedy unfolding ahead. Dhritarashtra declines the offer, claiming he does not want to witness the slaughter of his family and friends. Vyasa grants the blessing to Sanjaya to see anyone and everyone, while the war is in progress and describe the war to Dhritarashtra. Vyasa makes a final attempt to Dhritarashtra to seek peace and avoid the war. King Dhritarashtra confides that his sons do not obey him. Vyasa counsels war is evil, victory in war is uncertain, only sorrow and slaughter on all sides is certain no matter who wins. Dhritarashtra, aware of Sanjaya's special powers to see the world, asks him about the visible world.
Sanjaya describes the sights of world to him. He describes the world near him, as well as far of places in north, south and west, everywhere with beautiful people, of forests and birds, of moon and planets that appear with stars at night; the description makes Dhritarashtra sad that his sons are choosing war, rather than a negotiated peace. 2. Bhumi Parva Sanjaya continues to describe the world, he mentions island nations, nations without kings, lands with white people, black people, mixed race people, celestial gems, ocean of milk and ghee. He describes the planets seen at night, why they are believed to be globes, that light-giving sun too is a large sphere according to calculations of Arka, eclipses occur when planets temporary cover the sun or moon; such is the merit of the world we live in, says Sanjaya. 3. Bhagavad Gita Parva On the 1st day of war, the divine vision charioteer of Dhritarashtra was announced as the charioteer of Bhishma, the chief of Kauravas. On 10th day, late evening Sanjaya returns with an empty chariot to Dhritarashtra and tells him that Bhishma has fallen on a bed of arrows on his own wishes.
Dhritarashtra is shocked. He asks for the details of war over the ten days. Sanjaya describes how Bhishma marshaled the Kaurava army by declaring, "to die at home is a waste of life, a chance to die in battle for a cause is the highest honor a man can have." Arjuna described the Kaurava army as one with 100,000 elephants trained for war, 10 million chariots, 1 billion horsemen, 10 billion archers, 100 billion soldiers with sword and shields. Learning about this vast army of cosmic proportions, Yudhishthira is in grief. Arjuna reminds him that Narad told him that where there is Dharma there is Krishna and where there is Krishna there is victory. In fact, Arjuna believed in that vedas were told by God and to attain Godhood one must become a monk by leaving off home and birth-caste; as Krishna had demanded 5 villages for settlement so Arjuna asked his charioteer Krishna whether he should become a monk or fight. Arjuna asks Krishna, his charioteer, to bring the chariot between the two assembled armies, to see who were assembled to fight.
He sees friends and human beings on both sides of the war. Introspective Arjuna wonders if their cause justifies bloodbath. War only kills, it arouses only hate among human beings. Arjuna tells Krishna, "I seek neither victory nor a kingdom." Arjuna doubts whether war is justified. To Arjuna's doubts, Krishna gives various answers; these answers range from nature of life to demands of justice, to three paths of liberated and free life, to human duty, are collectively called the Bhagavad Gita. Arjuna is not alone in his introspection. Just before the war, Yudhishthira too takes off his armour, comes off his chariot, with namaste walks over to the enemy side, his brothers walk across the line of war. These Pandavas without battle armor meet and bow before Bhishma, Drona and others - seek their permission to fight them, to death. Bhishma, moved by this humane action, says he admires their sense of humanity, wishes them victory. Other generals of the enemy are moved. With choked voices and tears, soldiers of both sides cheer the Pandava brothers for their namaste and exhibition of respect for the human beings on the side of the enemy.
Yudhishthira and Pandava brothers return to their side. The co
The Shanti Parva is the twelfth of eighteen books of the Indian Epic Mahabharata. It traditionally has 3 sub-books and 365 chapters; the critical edition has 3 sub-books and 353 chapters. It is the longest book among the eighteen books of the epic; the book is set after the war is over- the two sides have accepted peace and Yudhishthira starts his rule of the Pandava kingdom. The Shanti parva recites the duties of the ruler and good governance, as counseled by the dying Bhishma and various Rishis; the parva includes many symbolic tales such as one about "starving and vegetarian Vishvamitra stealing meat during a famine" and fables such as that of "the fowler and pigeons". The book provides what some have described as a "theory of caste" as well as a comparative discussion between a rule of truth versus a rule of rituals, declaring truth to be far superior over rituals. Shanti parva has been studied for its treatises on jurisprudence and success. Scholars have questioned whether parts or all of the parva was inserted or interpolated at a age.
This Parva traditionally has 365 adhyayas. The sub-parvas in this book are: 1. Rajadharma anusasana ParvaThis sub-book describes the duties of kings and leaders, among other things. 2. Apaddharma anusasana ParvaThis sub-book describes the rules of conduct. 3. Moksha dharma ParvaThis sub-book describes behavior and rules to achieve moksha. Shanti parva begins with sorrowful Yudhishthira lamenting the loss of human lives during the war, he announces his desire to renounce the kingdom, move into a forest as a mendicant and live in silence. He receives counsel from his family and sages Narada and Vyasa, as well as Devala and Kanwa; the parva includes the story of king Janaka and the queen of the Videhas, presenting the theory of true mendicant as one who does not crave for material wealth, not one who abandons material wealth for an outward show. Arjuna argues it is more virtuous to create and maintain virtuous wealth and do good with it, than to neither create nor have any. Yudhishthira challenges Arjuna.
Sage Vyasa intervenes and offers arguments from Vedas that support Arjuna's comments, the story of Sankha and Likhita. Krishna concurs with Arjuna and Vyasa, adds his own arguments. Shanti parva is a treatise on duties of a king and his government, proper governance, rights and describes how these create prosperity. Yudhishthira becomes the king of a prosperous and peaceful kingdom, Bhima his heir apparent, sage Vidura the prime minister, Sanjaya the finance minister, Arjuna the defense and justice minister, Dhaumya is appointed one responsible to service priests and counsels to the king; this books includes a treatise on yoga as recited by Krishna. Shanti Parva was composed in Sanskrit. Several translations of the book in English are available. Two translations from 19th century, now in public domain, are those by Kisari Mohan Ganguli and Manmatha Nath Dutt; the translations vary with each translator's interpretations. Clay Sanskrit Library has published a 15 volume set of the Mahabharata which includes a translation of Shanti Parva by Alex Wynne.
This translation uses an old manuscript of the Epic. The translation does not remove verses and chapters now believed to be spurious and smuggled into the Epic in 1st or 2nd millennium AD. Debroy, in 2011, notes that updated critical edition of Shanti Parva, after removing verses and chapters accepted so far as spurious and inserted into the original, has 3 sub-books, 353 adhyayas and 13,006 shlokas. Shanti parva - the longest book and most number of verses - has a number of treatises and fables embedded in it. Examples include a theory on caste, a theory on governance, the fable of the wicked fowler and compassionate pigeons. Chapters 188 and 189 of the parva begin by reciting Bhrigu's theory of varna, according to whom Brahmins were white, Kshatriyas red, Vaishyas yellow, Shudras black. Rishi Bharadwaja asks how can castes be discriminated when in truth all colors are observed in every class of people, when in truth people of all groups experience the same desire, same anger, same fear, same grief, same fatigue, same hunger, same love and other emotions?
Everyone is born the same way, carries blood and bile, dies the same way, asserts Bharadwaja. Why do castes exist, asks Bharadwaja? Bhrigu replies, it arose because of differentiation of work. Duty and rites of passage are not forbidden to any of them. According to John Muir, Shanti Parva and its companion book Anushasana Parva claim neither birth, nor initiation, nor descent, nor bookish knowledge determines a person's merit. There is no superior caste, claims Shanti parva; the parva dedicates over 100 chapters on rules of proper governance. A prosperous kingdom must be guided by justice. Chapter 58 of Shanti parva suggests the duty of a ruler and his cabinet is to enable people to be happy, pursue truth and act sincerely. Chapter 88 recommends the king to tax without injuring the ability or capacity of citizens to provide wealth to monarchy, just like bees harvest honey from flower, keepers of cow draw milk without starving the calf or hurting the cow. Chapter 267 suggests the judicial staff to reflect before sentencing, only sentence punishment, proportionate to the crime, avoid harsh and capital punishments, never punish the innocent relatives of a criminal
Mausala Parva, or the "Book of Clubs", is the sixteenth of eighteen books of the Indian epic Mahabharata. It traditionally has 9 chapters; the critical edition has 8 chapters. It is one of three shortest books in the Mahabharata. Mausala Parva describes the demise of Krishna in the 36th year after the Kurukshetra war had ended, the submersion of Dwaraka under sea, death of Balarama by drowning in the sea, Vasudeva's death, an internecine fight among the race of Yadavas that kills many of them; the story of infighting of the Yadavas. Becomes the reason why Yudhishthira and all the Pandava brothers renounce their kingdom and begin their walk towards heaven, events recited in the last two books of the Mahabharata. Mausala Parva is significant for serving as a basis of archaeological studies for the Mahabharata, as well as being one of the eight Parvas found in Hindu culture of Java and Bali, Indonesia. Mausala Parva has no secondary sub-parvas. Of the 80,000 verses in the critical edition of the Mahabharata - Mausala parva represents about 0.25% of all verses of the Epic.
This makes it one of the smallest books of the Epic. In days after the 18-day Kurukshetra war, Lord Krishna meets Gandhari, a meeting described in Stri Parva. In anger and grief over the death of her sons and the Kaurava soldiers, Gandhari curses Krishna with the destruction Yadavas in a manner similar to the death of her sons, she blames Krishna for his inaction and believes that he could have prevented the war and the slaughter of hundreds of millions people who died in the war. Krishna accepts the curse, explains how he had tried many times to mediate peace, how Duryodhana refused, he explained how Duryodhana and the Kauravas had tried many times to kill the Pandavas. The chapter begins with the announcement at the court of Pandavas that many Yadavas men were killed in an internecine war fought with clubs made of eraká grass. Yudhishthira asks for details. Mausala parva recites the details; the events start near the city of Dvārakā 35 years after the end of Kurukshetra war. The empire is peaceful and prosperous, the youth of Yadavas have become hedonistic.
Krishna's son Samba dresses up as a woman and his friends meet Rishi Vishwamitra, Vashista and other rishis, who were visiting Dwaraka for an audience with Krishna. The young man playfully pretending to be a woman claims he is pregnant, asks the rishis to predict the gender of the baby. One Rishi sees through the prank. In a fit of rage, he curses; the youth inform King Ugrasena what has happened, who asks Samba to powder the iron bolt and cast it into the Prabhas sea. The king issues an order that no intoxicating spirits shall be produced or distributed in the Yadavas kingdom; the town witnesses several dark omens, including the disappearance of the Sudarshana Chakra, the Panchajanya, Krishna's chariot and the plough weapon of Balarama. Pests multiply. Sinful acts no one feels any shame. Wives deceive their husbands, husbands deceive their wives. Everyone has the same terrifying dreams. People humiliate their seniors and teachers. Krishna gets, they do. When they arrive, the Yadavas revel in merry making and drink lots of alcohol.
Satyaki, inebriated with wine, goes over to Kritavarma, criticizes him for scheming with Ashwatthama and killing the remaining Pandavas army while they were sleeping. They begin to argue. In the ensuing fracas, Satyaki kills Kritavarma. Other Yadavas kill Satyaki for killing Kritavarma. Krishna appears and noticing that Satyaki has been slain, takes the eraká grass in his hand, which miraculously becomes a club - it is with this club he begins to slay the violent. Others pick up the grass too. Everyone, inebriated with alcohol, attacks everyone else. Soon everyone, battling is dead, except Vabhru and Krishna. Balarama survives because he was not at the fracas, not inebriated. Balarama and Vabhru die next. Krishna asks Daruka to tell what had happened and ask Arjuna to come with help. While Daruka was gone, the parva describes; some of the powder cast in the Prabhas sea had been swallowed by a fish. Inside the fish, the powder has become a metal piece. Jara, a hunter, finds the metal. Jara sharpens it to make an arrow.
He goes hunting, accidentally shoots Krishna, while Krishna is meditating, thinking he is a deer. Krishna consoles Jara and ascended with his four armed form to his abode. Vasudeva dies. Arjuna arrives with help, for the Yadavas old men and children who are the only survivors. They, including the 16,000 wives of Krishna, together set off for Indraprastha; as they are leaving, waters rise, Dwaraka sinks into the sea. As women and the army of Arjuna walk towards Indraprastha, they are attacked by Mlechhas and robbers. Arjuna tries to defend, but he fails, his weapons do not exhaust. Many women and children run off in different directions; the surviving yadavas arrive at Indraprastha. Arjuna becomes full of doubts about his warrior abilities, he meets Vyasa, explains he feels he has failed those that depended on him for their safety and security. Sage Vyasa explains that Arjuna and his brothers have served the purpose of their lives, it is time for them to retire and renounce their kingdom, give the responsibilities to the next generation.
Arjuna takes leave o
The'Vishnu Purana' is one of the eighteen Mahapuranas, a genre of ancient and medieval texts of Hinduism. It is an important Pancharatra text in the Vaishnavism literature corpus; the manuscripts of Vishnu Purana have survived into the modern era in many versions. More than any other major Purana, the Vishnu Purana presents its contents in Pancalaksana format – Sarga, Vamśa, Manvañtara, Vamśānucaritam; some manuscripts of the text are notable for not including sections found in other major Puranas, such as those on Mahatmyas and tour guides on pilgrimage, but some versions include chapters on temples and travel guides to sacred pilgrimage sites. The text is notable as the earliest Purana to have been translated and published in 1864 CE by HH Wilson, based on manuscripts available, setting the presumptions and premises about what Puranas may have been; the Vishnu Purana is with about 7,000 verses in extant versions. It centers around the Hindu god Vishnu and his avatars such as Krishna, but it praises Brahma and Shiva and asserts that they are one with Vishnu.
The Purana, states Wilson, is pantheistic and the ideas in it, like other Puranas, are premised on the Vedic beliefs and ideas. Vishnu Purana, like all major Puranas, attributes its author to be sage Veda Vyasa; the actual author and date of its composition are unknown and contested. Estimates range of its composition range from 1st millennium BCE to early 2nd-millennium CE; the text was composed and rewritten in layers over a period of time, with roots in ancient 1st-millennium BCE texts that have not survived into the modern era. The Padma Purana categorizes Vishnu Purana as a Sattva Purana; the composition date of Vishnu Purana is unknown and contested, with estimates disagreeing. Some proposed dates for the earliest version of Vishnu Purana by various scholars include: Vincent Smith: 400-300 BCE, CV Vaidya: ~9th-century, Moriz Winternitz: early 1st millennium, but states Rocher, he added, "it is no more possible to assign a definite date to the Vishnu Purana than it is for any other Purana".
Rajendra Chandra Hazra: 275-325 CE Ramachandra Dikshitar: 700-300 BCE, Roy: after the 9th century. Horace Hayman Wilson: acknowledged that the tradition believes it to be 1st millennium BCE text and the text has roots in the Vedic literature, but after his analysis suggested that the extant manuscripts may be from the 11th century. Wendy Doniger: c. 450 CE. Rocher states that the "date of the Vishnu Purana is as contested as that of any other Purana". References to Vishnu Purana in texts such as Brihadvishnu whose dates are better established, states Rocher, suggest that a version of Vishnu Purana existed by about 1000 CE, but it is unclear to what extent the extant manuscripts reflect the revisions during the 2nd millennium. Vishnu Purana like all Puranas has a complicated chronology. Dimmitt and van Buitenen state that each of the Puranas including the Vishnu Purana is encyclopedic in style, it is difficult to ascertain when, why and by whom these were written: As they exist today, the Puranas are a stratified literature.
Each titled work consists of material that has grown by numerous accretions in successive historical eras. Thus no Purana has a single date of composition, it is as if they were libraries to which new volumes have been continuously added, not at the end of the shelf, but randomly. Many of the extant manuscripts were written on palm leaf or copied during the British India colonial era, some in the 19th century; the scholarship on Vishnu Purana, other Puranas, has suffered from cases of forgeries, states Ludo Rocher, where liberties in the transmission of Puranas were normal and those who copied older manuscripts replaced words or added new content to fit the theory that the colonial scholars were keen on publishing. The extant text comprises 126 adhyāyas; the first part has 22 chapters, the second part consists 16 chapters, the third part comprises 18 chapters and the fourth part has 24 chapters. The fifth and the sixth parts are the longest and the shortest part of the text, comprising 38 and 8 chapters respectively.
The textual tradition claims that the original Vishnu Purana had 23,000 verses, but the surviving manuscripts have just a third of these, about 7,000 verses. The text is composed in metric verses or sloka, wherein each verse has 32 syllables, of which 16 syllables in the verse may be free style per ancient literary standards; the Vishnu Purana is an exception in that it presents its contents in Vishnu worship-related Pancalaksana format – Sarga, Vamśa, Manvañtara, Vamśānucaritam. This is rare, state Dimmitt and van Buitenen, because just 2% of the known Puranic literature corpus is about these five Pancalaksana items, about 98% is about diverse range of encyclopedic topics. Vishnu Purana opens as a conversation between sage Maitreya and his guru, with the sage asking, "what is the nature of this universe and everything, in it?" The first Amsha of Vishnu Purana presents cosmology, dealing with the creation and destruction of the universe. The mythology, states Rocher, is woven with the evolutionary theories of Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy.
The Hindu god Vishnu is presented as the central element of this text's cosmology, unlike some other Puranas where Shiva or Brahma or goddess Shakti are. The r
The Sauptika Parva, or the "Book of the Sleepers," is the tenth of eighteen books of the Indian Epic Mahabharata. Sauptika Parva traditionally has 18 chapters, as does the critical edition. Sauptika Parva describes the revenge of Aswatthama and Kripa, three of the five Kaurava survivors. On the night after the 18th day of the Kurukshetra War,Ashwatthama takes revenge for his father's death during the war by going to the Pandavas' camp and unleashing weapons that kill all those who are sleeping; the only survivors are those who were not in the camp - the five Pandava brothers and Krishna and Draupadi and all the ladies and Indrasena and Karamataya grandson of Yudhishthara, Yaudheya grandson of Yudhishthara, several others like Sasikirana, grandsons of Bhima et all and twenty nephews of Baladeva and Sarvaga et all as well. Several Akshauhinis of Pandava army which in less than a year again conquered world in Ashwamedhika Parva. Sauptika Parva may be chronologically late as near Mausala Parva because Satyaki co-existed with Krtavarmma for Thirty Six years before accusing him of crimes in Sauptika Parva.
This Parva has 18 adhyayas. The 2 sub-parvas are: 1. Sauptika parva 2. Aishika parvaSauptika Parva describes the actions of Aswatthama and Kripa - the three out of four Kaurava survivors - after the 18th day of the Kurukshetra War; the three retire in a forest. Aswatthama is angry for the deaths caused by the war, he comes up with a plan to massacre the remaining Pandava army while they sleep, on the night after the war is over. Kripa urges delay, questions the morality of killing those who sleep, whether Aswatthama's plan to take revenge has any productive purpose. Aswatthama argues the whole war was unfair, everyone was unfair, revenge is the only release. Aswatthama leaves to kill the sleeping and Kripa follow him, they unleash weapons that kills all those who sleep. The only survivors are those who were not at the camp - the five Pandava brothers and Krishna; the news of the massacre of sleeping sons of Pandavas and all the people who supported Pandavas, shocks Draupadi and Pandava brothers. Draupadi demands justice.
Bhima pursues Aswatthama for justice. Aswatthama accepts defeat. Shalya Parva was composed in Sanskrit. Several translations of the book in English are available. Two translations from 19th century, now in public domain, are those by Kisari Mohan Ganguli and Manmatha Nath Dutt; the translations vary with each translator's interpretations. Clay Sanskrit Library has published a 15 volume set of the Mahabharata which includes a translation of Souptika Parva by Kate Crosby; this translation uses an old manuscript of the Epic. The translation does not remove verses and chapters now believed to be spurious and smuggled into the Epic in 1st or 2nd millennium AD. Debroy, in 2011, notes that updated critical edition of Shalya Parva, after removing verses and chapters accepted so far as spurious and inserted into the original, has 2 sub-books, 18 adhyayas and 771 shlokas. Sauptika Parva, Chapter 2: Previous book of Mahabharata: Shalya Parva Next book of Mahabharata: Stri Parva Sauptika Parva, English Translation by Kisari Mohan Ganguli.
Sauptika Parva, English Translation by Manmatha Nath Dutt Le Mahabharata, Translation in French, by H. Fauche Sauptika Parva in Sanskrit by Vyasadeva and commentary by Nilakantha