Tirana is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Albania. Tirana is located in the center of Albania and is enclosed by mountains and hills, with Dajt on the east and a slight valley on the northwest overlooking the Adriatic Sea in the distance. Due to its location within the Plain of Tirana and the close proximity to the Mediterranean Sea, the city is influenced by a Mediterranean seasonal climate, it is with 2,544 hours of sun per year. Tirana flourished as a city in 1614 but the region that today corresponds to the city's territory has been continuously inhabited since the Iron Age; the city's territory had no importance within Illyria. Indeed, it was annexed by Rome and became an integral part of the Roman Empire following the Illyrian Wars; the heritage of that period represented by the Mosaics of Tirana. In the 5th and 6th centuries, a Paleochristian basilica was built around this site. After the Roman Empire split into East and West in the 4th century, its successor the Byzantine Empire took control over most of Albania, built the Petrelë Castle in the reign of Justinian I.
The city was unimportant until the 20th century, when the Congress of Lushnjë proclaimed it as Albania's capital, after the Albanian Declaration of Independence in 1912. Tirana is the most important economic, financial and trade center in Albania due to its significant location in the center of the country and its modern air, maritime and road transportation, it is the seat of power of the Government of Albania, with the official residences of the President and Prime Minister of Albania, the Parliament of Albania. The discovery of the Pellumbas Cave near Tirana shows that ancient human culture was present in Albania as early as the Paleolithic era. Nonetheless, the oldest discovery within the urban area of Tirana was a Roman house, transformed into an aisleless church with a mosaic floor, dating to the 3rd century, with other remains found near a medieval temple at Shengjin Fountain in the eastern suburbs. A castle called Tirkan, whose remnants are found along Murat Toptani Street, was built by Byzantine Emperor Justinian I and restored by Ahmed Pasha Toptani in the 18th century.
The area had no special importance in classical times. Tirana is mentioned in Venetian documents in 1418, one year after the Ottoman conquest of the area: "...the resident Pjeter, son of late Domenik from the village of Tirana...". Records of the first land registrations under the Ottomans in 1431–32 show that Tirana consisted of 60 inhabited areas, with nearly 2,028 houses and 7,300 inhabitants. In 1510, Marin Barleti, an Albanian Catholic priest and scholar, in the biography of the Albanian national hero Skanderbeg, Historia de vita et gestis Scanderbegi Epirotarum principis, referred to this area as a small village, distinguishing between "Little Tirana" and "Great Tirana", it is mentioned in 1572 as Borgo di Tirana. According to Hahn, the settlement had started to develop as a bazaar and included several watermills before 1614, when Sulejman Bargjini, a local ruler, built the Old Mosque, a small commercial centre, a hammam; this is confirmed by oral sources, which state that there were two earlier mosques 300-400 m from the Old Mosque, towards today's Ali Demi Street.
The Mosque of Reç and the Mosque of Mujo were positioned on the left side of the Lana river and were older than the Old Mosque. The Et'hem Bey Mosque, built by Molla Bey of Petrela, was constructed, it employed the best artisans in the country and was completed in 1821 by Molla's son Etëhem, Sulejman Bargjini's great-nephew. In 1800, the first newcomers arrived in the so-called ortodoksit, they were Vlachs from villages near Korçë and Pogradec, who settled around modern day Tirana Park on the Artificial Lake. They started to be known as the llacifac and were the first Christians to arrive after the creation of the town. After Serb reprisals in the Debar region, thousands of locals fled to Tirana. In 1807, Tirana became the center of the Subprefecture of Krujë-Tirana. After 1816, Tirana languished under the control of the Toptani family of Krujë. Tirana became a sub-prefecture of the newly created Vilayet of Shkodër and the Sanjak of Durrës. In 1889, the Albanian language started to be taught in Tirana's schools, the patriotic club Bashkimi was founded in 1908.
On 28 November 1912, the national flag was raised in agreement with President Ismail Qemali. During the Balkan Wars, the city was temporarily occupied by the Serbian army and it took part in uprising of the villages led by Haxhi Qamili. In August 1916, the first city map was compiled by the specialists of the Austro-Hungarian army. On 8 February 1920, the Congress of Lushnjë proclaimed Tirana as the temporary capital of Albania, which had gained independence in 1912; the city acquired that status permanently on 31 December 1925. In 1923, the first regulatory city plan was compiled by Austrian architects; the centre of Tirana was the project of Florestano Di Fausto and Armando Brasini, well-known architects of the Mussolini period in Italy. Brasini laid the basis for the modern-day arrangement of the ministerial buildings in the city centre; the plan underwent revisions by Albanian architect Eshref Frashëri, Italian architect Castellani and Austrian architects Weiss and Kohler. The modern Albanian parliament building served as an officers' club.
It was there that, in September 1928, Zog of Albania was crowned King Zog King of the Albanians. Tirana was the venue for the signing of the P
Krujë is a town and a municipality in north central Albania. Located between Mount Krujë and the Ishëm River, the city is only 20 km north from the capital of Albania, Tirana. Krujë was inhabited by the ancient Illyrian tribe of the Albani. In 1190 Krujë became the capital of the first autonomous Albanian state in the middle ages, the Principality of Arbër, it was the capital of the Kingdom of Albania, while in the early 15th century Krujë was conquered by the Ottoman Empire, but recaptured in 1443 by Skanderbeg, leader of the League of Lezhë, who defended it against three Ottoman sieges until his death in 1468. The Ottomans took control of the town after the fourth siege in 1478, incorporated it in their territories. A 1906 local revolt against the Ottoman Empire was followed by the 1912 Declaration of Independence of Albania. In the mid-1910s Krujë was one of the battlefields of the conflict between the short-lived Republic of Central Albania, founded by Essad Toptani, the Principality of Albania.
In 1914 Toptani managed to seize the town but during the same year it was reincorporated by Prênk Bibë Doda in the Principality of Albania. During World War II it was the center of the activities of resistance leader Abaz Kupi; the museums of Krujë include the Skanderbeg Museum, located in the environs of the Krujë Castle, the national ethnographic museum. The name of the city is related to the Albanian word kroi, meaning "fountain", from Proto-Albanian *krana < *krasna. The city was attested for the first time as Kroai in Byzantine documents of the early 7th century. In medieval Latin it was known as Croia and Croarum. During the Ottoman era it was known as Ak Hisar or Akçahisar from the Turkish words ak and hisar. In ancient times the region of Krujë was inhabited by the Illyrian tribe of the Albani, while the town is located near the Iron Age Illyrian site of Zgërdhesh; some scholars have identified the site with the main settlement of the Albani, while others identified Albanopolis with Krujë itself.
During the Illyrian Wars the area of Krujë was captured by the Roman Republic. Early medieval artifacts of Krujë include dress items and weaponry found in fifth- and sixth-century cemeteries, which display the high status and the wealth of the burials. A middle-sized fortress like other urban centers, Krujë expanded to a town from the sixth to the ninth century AD. In 1190 Krujë became the capital of the first autonomous Albanian state of the middle ages, the Principality of Arbër founded by Progon of the House of Progon. During the reign of Gulam of Albania the principality was dissolved and incorporated in the newly founded Kingdom of Albania. During the late 13th and early 14th century the Byzantine and in 1343 the Serbian Empire took control of the city; the Kingdom of Albania was dissolved between 1363 and 1368, when Karl Topia captured its capital Durrës and incorporated its territories, including Krujë in 1363 in the Princedom of Albania. After 1389 the House of Thopia lost control of the town, which by 1395 had come under Ottoman vassalage.
The Ottomans lost control of Krujë in the early 15th century, when it was captured by Niketa Thopia and regained it in 1415. After its recapture it was incorporated in the Sanjak of Albania and formed an administrative unit with the status of Subaşilik as attested in the regional register of 1431. During the Albanian Revolt of 1432-1436 the city was unsuccessfully besieged by Andrea Thopia; until 1432, the subaşi of Krujë had been Zagan Bey Hizir Bey, during 1437—1438 Skanderbeg was its governor. In November 1438 Hizir Bey was again appointed as subaşi of Krujë until he was replaced in April 1440 by Umur Bey. On 28 November 1443 Skanderbeg gained control over Krujë by deceiving its subaşi with forged sultan's letter. In 1444 Skanderbeg incorporated it in the League of Lezhë, the confederation of the Albanian principalities. From 1450 until 1477 Krujë was defended by the Albanian troops four times against the Ottoman army, which captured it in 1478 during the fourth Siege of the city. During the first siege of Krujë in 1450, the 1,500 to 2,000 soldiers of the League of Lezhë under Vrana Konti and Skanderbeg defeated an Ottoman force of about 100,000 men led by Sultan Murad II, who had tried to bribe Konti to surrender the castle of the town.
In the following decade Krujë was first besieged in 1466 and in 1467 unsuccessfully by Ballaban Pasha and Sultan Mehmed II, whose total troops were about 150,000. After Skanderbeg's death in 1468, the city's garrison was supplemented by troops of the Republic of Venice. In 1476 the town was once more besieged by a ten-thousand-man army under Gedik Ahmed Pasha; the city was conquered by the Ottomans in 1478 after being besieged for over a year. This success was viewed by the Ottomans as a good omen that the siege of Shkodra would be successful. During the rise of nationalism in the Ottoman Empire Krujë became the battlefield of various anti-Ottoman rebellions related with the imposition of new taxes. In 1906 the people of Krujë revolted once more against the Ottoman Empire; the Wāli of Shkodër, Sali Zeki Pasha sent four battalions of the Ottoman army stationed in the city against the rebels of Krujë. After prolonged confrontations the Ottoman officials offered to begin negotiations with the rebels.
On 20 September 1906 the leaders of Krujë and the Ottoman diplomats met at the Tallajbe quarter of Krujë to discuss the administrative statu
Bulqizë is the name of both a town and a municipality in Dibër County, eastern Albania. It was formed during the 2015 local government reform by the merger of the former municipality of Bulqizë with the adjacent municipalities of Fushë-Bulqizë, Gjoricë, Ostren, Shupenzë, Trebisht and Zerqan; the seat of the municipality is the town called Bulqizë. The total population is 31,210, in a total area of 678.51 km2. The population of the former municipality at the 2011 census was 8,177; the location of Bulqiza lies at the east side of Albania, bound at east side with Big Dibra, at north with Dibra, at west with Mati region and Tirana, while at south is bordered with Librazhdi. The administrative center is Bulqiza with 16768 inhabitants; the locality has 7 communes. In this locality, lies the town of Krasta with 5969 inhabitants. In Bulqiza and Krasta, is present the biggest sources of chronium. Together with 36 thousand hectares of forest of pine-trees and beech-trees, is composes the most important support for the economy of the area.
Bulqiza is one of the most important centers of the economy of Albania because of the big quantity of chromium, today the resource of life for many families in the area. This zone is rich in sources but the level of life is low; the future of this area, except the chromium sources, can be considered the natural tourism. The people of this region has always been a great example of resistance, against the enemy, Serbian, Italian and so on, because the valley of Bulqize is situated in a cross road, is the main entrance to go to the inner side of Albania, it is famous the Battle of Vajkali Plain, Gjorica,e Xixulla, the spring of Mure etc. at the beginning of the Renaissance, the people of this region, has fight and win against the army of Hajredin Pasha. Local people contributed to the historic events as the patriots of this region has been part of the declaration of The Independence at 1912; the people of Bulqize participated at 2nd World War against the Italian and German invaders where 68 heroes sacrificed their life.
The liberation found the country in a deep poverty statement. The Communist Party took every piece of dignity, exchanging the promises for the great freedom and prosperity, in a long wild dictatorship; the people of Bulqiza, remained far away from his aspiration for the freedom and prosperity, which had characterized it during every époque. At 1990, step by step, Bulqiza encouraged the creation of the private market and economy, the democratic forms of the live and again started to aspire the join of the European civilization. Most of the relief is composed by mountains. In this territory lie the valley of Bulqiza 25 km long, 1 km wide; this valley is bordered on with Bualli 842 m high. Next to it, extends the national road which connects Burreli with Bulqiza and Big Dibra through the valley runs the gravel spring of Bulqiza which streams at Black Drini river; the climate all around Bulqiza is cold in winter and dry in summer. The valley is open from the east side and so weather-beaten; the medium degrees goes to the maximum until 35 °C in summer.
During winter the lowest degree is –18 °C. the quantity of precipitation is 980 mm
Finiq is a predominantly Greek-inhabited settlement, considered town or village, municipality in Vlorë County, in southern Albania located 8 km from the Ionian Sea and 20 km north of the Greek border. It was formed at the 2015 local government reform by the merger of the former municipalities Aliko, Dhivër, Finiq and Mesopotam, that became municipal units; the seat of the municipality is the village Dermish. The total population is 11,862, in a total area of 441.20 km2. The population of the former municipality at the 2011 census was 1,333, however according to the civil offices was 6,780; the 2015 Albanian civil registry recorded a much higher municipal population of 39,055. The municipal unit of Finiq comprises the villages Finiq, Buronjë, Çlirim, Karahaxhë and Bregas. Finiq and all the villages of the municipality are inhabited by ethnic Greeks, except the village of Çlirim, mixed. In antiquity, Phoenice was the political center of the Epirot Greek tribe of the Chaonians. Early Byzantine architecture is evident in the settlement in particurlar that of the three aisled basilica type.
According to the Chronicle of Gjirokaster the first years of Ottoman rule were peaceful but after the Fall of Constantinople Finiki was destroyed by the Muslims. At the end of the 16th century Finiki witnessed a drastic population increase and became one of the largest settlements in the area with 359 households. At 1870 a secondary Greek language school was operating in Finiq. Phoenice Chaonians Konstantinos. Giakoumis. "The monasteries of Jorgucat and Vanishte in Dropull and of Spelaio in Lunxheri as monuments and institutions during the Ottoman period in Albania". University of Birmingham. Retrieved 20 May 2018. Https://web.archive.org/web/20081028140625/http://www.phoinike.com/
Elbasan is a city and a municipality in Elbasan County, central Albania. The third largest city in Albania, it is located on the Shkumbin River in the District of Elbasan and the County of Elbasan; the present municipality was formed at the 2015 local government reform by the merger of the former municipalities Bradashesh, Funarë, Gjinar, Labinot-Fushë, Labinot-Mal, Papër, Shushicë, Tregan and Zavalinë, that became municipal units. The seat of the municipality is the city Elbasan; the total population is 141,714, in a total area of 872.03 km2. The population of the former municipality at the 2011 census was 78,703, it was called Novigrad in Slavic and Terra Nuova in Italian. The modern name derives from the Turkish il-basan. In August 2010 archaeologists discovered two Illyrian graves near the walls of the castle of Elbasan. In the second century BC, a trading post called Mansio Scampa near the site of modern Elbasan developed close to a junction of two branches of an important Roman road, the Via Egnatia, which connected the Adriatic coast with Byzantium.
It was one of the most important routes of the Roman empire. By the third or fourth century AD, this place had grown into a real city protected by a substantial Roman fortress with towers; this city appears on late antique itineraries like the Tabula Peutingeriana and Itinerarium Burdigalense as Scampis or Hiscampis. It took part in the spread of Christianity along the Via, had a bishop and basilicas as early as the fifth century; as a town in a wide river valley it was vulnerable to attacks once the legions were withdrawn but Emperor Justinian made an effort to improve the fortifications. The city survived attacks by the Bulgars and Ostrogoths and was mentioned in the work of Procopius of Cæsarea. Ruins of a Paleochristian basilica, built in the 5th or 6th century AD, were found in Bezistan area; the site seems to have been abandoned until the Ottoman army built a military camp there, followed by urban reconstruction under Sultan Mehmet II in 1466. Mehmet constructed a massive four-sided castle with three gates.
He named it Elbasan. He had built the castle in order to fight Skanderbeg, due to an ongoing conflict between the Ottomans and Albanians, it became the seat of Sanjak of Elbasan, a centre of Ottoman urban civilisation over the next 445 years. Although Halil Inalcik explains that the Sanjak of Elbasan was established as soon as the fortress of Elbasan was constructed in 1466, based on Tursun Beg's records there is a possibility that Elbasan was part of the Sanjak of Ohrid. In 1467 many Christians from Skopje, Ohrid and Kastoria were forcibly deported to Elbasan. In the late 17th century, the Ottoman traveler Evliya Çelebi passed through Elbasan and noted that "all the inhabitants speak Albanian" having knowledge of Turkish with Muslim clergy being literate in Persian, while merchants used the Greek and "Frankish" languages. By the end of the 17th century it had 2,000 inhabitants; the fortress was dismantled by Reshit Pasha in 1832. In 1864, the Sanjak of Elbasan became a part of Monastir Vilayet.
In the late nineteenth century, Elbasan was inhabited by 3,000 Muslim families and 280 Orthodox Christian families, of which 100 were old Orthodox Albanian families living in the old Christian neighbourhood within the fortress and 180 Aromanian families residing in the St. Nicholas neighbourhood on the edge of town. At the beginning of the 20th century it was estimated. In 1909, after the Young Turks revolution in Istanbul, an Albanian National Congress was held in Elbasan to study educational and cultural questions; the delegates, all from central and southern Albania, endorsed the decision of the Congress of Monastir, held in Monastir to use the Latin alphabet rather than the Arabic script in written Albanian. In Elbasan there were living Albanians, Turkish and Sephardic Jews. Before the Second World War, Elbasan was a city with a mixture of eastern and medieval buildings, narrow cobbled streets and a large bazaar. There was a defined Muslim settlement within the castle walls, a Vlach district on the outskirts of the city and several fine mosques and Islamic buildings.
At the time the population was about 15,000 people. The first teachers' training college in Albania, the Shkolla Normale e Elbasanit, was established in Elbasan. During First Balkan War, it was occupied by Serbian troops on 29 November 1912, they withdrew from Elbasan on 25 October 1913 due to Austria Hungary's ultimatum. The Muslim majority of Elbasan opposed the installation of Prince Wied in 1914. Elbasan was occupied successively by Serbs, Bulgarians and Italians between 1915 and 1918; the Bulgarian army occupied Elbasan on January 29, 1916, during Bulgarian occupation of Albania In March 1916 the army of Austria-Hungary took over control of Elbasan From June 1916 to March 1917 Stanislav Kostka Neumann fought with the Austrian army there and called his war memoirs about the occupation in Elbasan. Industrial development began in the Zogist period when tobacco and alcohol factories were established; the city was noted for its good public buildings, advanced educational provisions, public gardens and timber-built shops.
There was much wartime damage, followed by an intensive programme of industrial development in the Communist period that boosted the city to around 75,000 inhabitants. The culmination of this process was the construction of the huge Steel of the Party metallurgical c
Burrel is a town in northern Albania, 91 km from Tirana. At the 2015 local government reform it became the seat of the municipality Mat, it was the seat of the former District of Mat. The population at the 2011 census was 10,862; the last archaeological researches has explored different trails which demonstrate the population of the area till al the paleolithic and after. The valley of Mati, has been populated during all the historic periods; the main inhabitant were the Illrian Tribe Pirustae. They resisted the Roman invasion until the second century BC. Burrel is one of the largest districts in Albania, it is known among Albanians as the "Land of Kings", as Gjon Kastrioti, the father of Gjergj Kastrioti, better known as Skanderbeg, was born there. He was a hereditary prince of a large district of Epirus. Another famous native of Burrel was Ahmet Zogu, first King of the Albanians, who reigned as King Zog I from 1928 to 1939, he had been a Prime Minister of Albania between 1922 and 1924 and President of Albania between 1925 and 1928.
At one time, Burrel was referred to as the "city of apples" because of the apple trees that lined many of the town's streets, during the time of the Communist regime and the unrest following the change of government, the apple trees were cut down for profit or personal use as firewood. There are hardly any apple trees left in the town now. Burrel was a miners' town during Communist Albania, but the mines closed, with the exception of a ferrochrome plant still operational near Burrel. During the Kosovo conflict there was a refugee camp near Burrel for 2,000 people. With food and water and supplies from NATO and United States Armed Forces; the city used to be the site of one of the most terrible prisons of the communist regime, where both ordinary criminals and political prisoners such as Bashkim Shehu and Fatos Lubonja or the Catholic priest Dom Simon Jubani were held. Another famous inmate was Pjetër Arbnori to become a member of the free Albanian Parliament. Arbnori was known as "the Mandela of the Balkans" because of the length of his internment, which lasted for over 28 years.
It was one of the Communist Albania concentration camps. The political prisoners used to be condemned for attempts at overthrowing the state or anti-communist propaganda and agitation, for terms of at least 20 years, they were re-condemned while in prison. After the fall of the communist regime, the government of the Democratic Party of Albania closed the prison and made it a museum; however in 1997, Sali Berisha re-opened it as an active prison. The region of Mati is an ancient cradle of the Illyrian culture. Dilaver Kurti explored objects which demonstrate fact for all ancient historic periods, cultural development not only from the region of Mati but for all the surroundings, it is a important zone for the study of the Illyrian culture. The Museum of Mat is a real gem of the Illyrian culture, displaying many artifacts of the Illyrians displayed and analyzed in the book Trashigime Iliro-Arberore by Dilaver Kurti. Kurti traveled from village to village collecting ethnographic materials and photographs which make up the material of his books Shenime Etnografike Neper Mat and Foklor Nga Mati.
Klubi Sportiv Burreli is an Albanian football club based in Burrel. Its home stadium is Liri Ballabani Stadium known as the Burreli Stadium, which has a capacity of 3,000 visitors. Founded in 1952 under the name "KS 31 Korriku Burrel", the club first participated in the Albanian First Division in 1982; as of the 2006-2007 season, KS Burreli is playing in the Albanian First Division. Tarhoncu Ahmed Pasha - Ottoman Grand Vizier Ador Gjuci - footballer Kurt Agë Kadiu - one of the signatories of the Albanian Declaration of Independence Ndrek Luka - actor Henri Mata - footballer Hysni Milloshi - Communist Juliana Pasha - singer Saimir Patushi - footballer Zog I of Albania - king of Albania from 1928-1939 Xhelal Bey Zogu - Albanian prince Xhemal Pasha Zogu - father of Zog I of Albania Florina Tefa - singer Dilaver Kurti - Archeologist, Historian 1934-1998 Feride Kurti - Folk music singer and songwriter Ulëz Lake Regional Nature Park List of cities in Albania
Korçë is a city and municipality in southeastern Albania, the seat of Korçë County. It was formed at the 2015 local government reform by the merger of the former municipalities Drenovë, Korçë, Mollaj, Qendër Bulgarec, Vithkuq and Voskopojë, that became municipal units; the seat of the municipality is the city Korçë. The total population is 75,994, in a total area of 805.99 km2. The population of the former municipality at the 2011 census was 51,152, it is the sixth largest city in Albania. It stands on a plateau some 850 m above sea level, surrounded by the Morava Mountains. Korçë is named differently in other languages: Aromanian: Corceao; the current name is of Slavic origin. The word "gorica" means "hill" in South Slavic languages, is a common toponym in Albania and Slavic countries, it is diminutive of the Slavic toponym "gora", meaning mountain, found in placenames throughout Slavic countries as well as non-Slavic countries like Albania and Italy. From the 13th century it was a small settlement called Episkopi.
The modern town dates from the 1480s, when Iljaz Hoxha, during the reign of Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II, developed Korçë after becoming its administrator and building a mosque bearing his name. Korçë was a sandjak of the Manastir Vilayet in the Ottoman Empire as Görice; the city started to flourish when the nearby town of Moscopole was raided by the Muslim Albanian troops of Ali Pasha at 1788. Korçë grew. Greek sources have noted of the Korçë Aromanian populations' origins that in addition to many being from Moscopole, others settled during a time of calm and were from the village of Shalës, Kolonjë and established the market district of Korçë known as Varosh. Aromanians from the Arvanitovlach subgroup that in the early 19th century arrived to the Korçë area played a significant role in establishing the Korçë Christian urban class. In Psalidas' work Geography from 1830 noted that in the district of Varosh in Korçë, 100 Aromanian families lived there. According to French diplomat François Pouqueville there were 1,300 families living in the city in 1805 with two thirds of them being Christian.
Korçë went from having a population of 8,200 to 18,000 and of those 14,000 were regarded as Greek and the rest as Albanian. Of those considered as Greek in Korçë, this was because they adhered to Orthodox Christianity, but Michael Palairet argues that most were Aromanians. Other sources however have characterized the population as ethnic Albanian in the early 20th century, while others as Greek. Greek was the language of the elite and the majority of the Aromanian population engaged in commerce and international trade becoming one of the wealthiest communities in Epirus and Macedonia. Albanians of Korçë engaged in stockbreeding and were poor; the inhabitants of the city spoke both Greek. Korçë's cultural isolation was reduced due to Greek schools, the first one being founded in the city at 1724. Subsequently, Muslim Albanian revolutionary intellectuals from the city emerged in the 1840s that wanted to preserve a Muslim Albania within a reformed Ottoman state. Due to increasing Hellenisation by the 1870s, those sentiments became replaced with the concept of an Albanian nation based on linguistic and cultural factors through struggle against a collapsing Ottoman Empire.
During the late Ottoman era, Orthodox Albanians involved in the Albanian National Awakening came from Korçë and its surrounding areas. On the other hand, the city council of Korçë, known as demogerontia, the metropolitan bishop of the city who identified as Greeks sent a secret memorandum to the foreign office department of Greece suggesting various ways to tackle activities by Albanian nationalists. In 1885, Jovan Cico Kosturi became the founder of a committee called the Albanian Cultural Society, along with co-founders Thimi Marko and Orhan Pojani, but the formation of the organization was suppressed by both the Ottoman and Orthodox Church authorities, so it went underground and carried on its activities as the Secret Committee of Korça, two years in March 1887, with the help of the Frashëri brothers, the Secret Committee set up the first Albanian school. In the late Ottoman period, inhabitants from Korçë and surrounding areas emigrated abroad for economic opportunities by the Orthodox community who as qualified craftsmen went to Romania and Bulgaria while Muslims went to Istanbul performing menial labour work.
Late nineteenth century Albanian migration to the United States consisted of Orthodox Albanians from Korçë and surrounding areas who went to work there, save money and intending to return home. Ottoman rule over Korçë lasted until 1912. In 1910 the "Church Alliance" of local Orthodox Albanians led to the proclamation of an Albanian church by Mihal Grameno, but this effort was too isolated to affect the population. Korçë's proximity to Greece, which claimed the entire Orthodox population as Greek, led to its being fiercely contested in the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913. Greek forces captured Korçë from the Ottomans on 6 December 1