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Kru languages

The Kru languages belong to the Niger–Congo language family and are spoken by the Kru people from the southeast of Liberia to the east of Ivory Coast. The term "Kru" is of unknown origin. According to Westermann it was used by Europeans to denote a number of tribes speaking related dialects. Marchese notes the fact. Andrew Dalby noted the historical importance of the Kru languages for their position at the crossroads of African-European interaction, he wrote that "Kru and associated languages were among the first to be encountered by European voyagers on what was known as the Pepper Coast, a centre of the production and export of Guinea and melegueta pepper. The Kru languages are known for some of the most complex tone systems in Africa, rivaled only by the Omotic languages. Recent documentation has noted "Kru societies can now be found along the coast of Monrovia, Liberia to Bandama River in Côte d'Ivoire". "Villages maintain their ties based on presumed common descent, reinforced by ceremonial exchanges and gifts".

The Kru people and their languages, although now many speak English or French as a second language, are said to be "dominant in the southwest region where the forest zone reaches the coastal lagoons". The Kru people rely on the forest for farming, supplemented by hunting for their livelihood. In 2010, Kru and associated languages were spoken by 95 percent of the 3.5 million people in Liberia. The Kru languages include many subgroups such as Kuwaa, Bassa, Belleh and many others. According to Breitbonde, categorization of communities based on cultural distinctiveness, historical or ethnic identity, socio-political autonomy "may have brought about the large number of distinct Kru dialects. Breitbonde notes the Kru people were categorized based on their cultural distinctiveness, separate historical or ethnic identities, social and political autonomy; this is the possible reason for so many subgroups of the Kru language. As noted by Fisiak, there is little documentation on the Kru and associated languages.

Marchese's classification of Kru languages is. Many of these languages are dialect clusters and are sometimes considered more than a single language. Ethnologue adds Neyo, which may be closest to Godie. Comparison of numerals in individual languages: Westerman, Diedrich Hermann Languages of West Africa. London/New York/Toronto: Oxford University Press. PanAfrican L10n page on Kru/Bassa

1995 Speedway Grand Prix of Germany

The 1995 Speedway Grand Prix of Germany was the third race of the 1995 Speedway Grand Prix season. It took place on 8 July in the Motorstadion in Abensberg and was won by Danish rider Tommy Knudsen; the Speedway Grand Prix Commission nominated Gerd Riss as wild card. Josh Larsen was replaced by Jan Stæchmann. Second track reserve rider was replaced by Peter Karlsson. Draw 11. Josh Larsen → Jan Stæchmann Draw 17. Jan Stæchmann → Mikael Karlsson Draw 18. Mikael Karlsson → Peter Karlsson Speedway Grand Prix List of Speedway Grand Prix riders

Bass (voice type)

A bass is a type of classical male singing voice and has the lowest vocal range of all voice types. According to The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, a bass is classified as having a vocal range extending from around the second E below middle C to the E above middle C, its tessitura, or comfortable range, is defined by the outermost lines of the bass clef. Categories of bass voices vary according to national classification system. Italians favour subdividing basses into the basso cantante, basso buffo, or the dramatic basso profondo; the American system identifies the bass-baritone, comic bass, lyric bass, dramatic bass. The German fach system offers further distinctions: Spielbass, Schwerer Spielbass and Seriöser Bass; these classification systems can overlap. Rare is the performer who embodies a single fach without touching repertoire from another category. Cultural influence and individual variation create a wide variation in range and quality of bass singers. Parts for basses have included notes as low as the B-flat two octaves and a tone below middle C, for example in Gustav Mahler's Symphony No. 2 and the Rachmaninov's All-Night Vigil, A below that in Frederik Magle's symphonic suite Cantabile, G below that or F below those in Kheruvimskaya pesn by Krzysztof Penderecki.

Many basso profondos have trouble reaching those notes, the use of them in works by Slavic composers has led to the colloquial term "Russian bass" for an exceptionally deep-ranged basso profondo who can sing these notes. Some traditional Russian religious music calls for A2 drone singing, doubled by A1 in the rare occasion that a choir includes exceptionally gifted singers who can produce this low human voice pitch. Many British composers such as Benjamin Britten have written parts for bass that center far higher than the bass tessitura as implied by the clef; the Harvard Dictionary of Music defines the range as being from the E below low C to middle C. The bass has the lowest vocal range of all voice types, with the lowest tessitura; the low extreme for basses is C2. However, some extreme bass singers, referred to as basso profondos and oktavists, are able to reach much lower than this. In SATB four-part mixed chorus, the bass is the lowest vocal range, below the tenor and soprano. Voices are subdivided into first bass and second bass with no distinction being made between bass and baritone voices, in contrast to the three-fold categorization of solo voices.

The exception is in arrangements for male choir and barbershop quartets, which sometimes label the lowest two parts baritone and bass. Within opera, the lowest note in the standard bass repertoire is D2, sung by the character Osmin in Mozart's Die Entführung aus dem Serail, but few roles fall below F2. Although Osmin's note is the lowest'demanded' in the operatic repertoire, lower notes are heard, both written and unwritten: for example, it is traditional for basses to interpolate a low C in the duet "Ich gehe doch rathe ich dir" in the same opera; the high extreme: a few bass roles in the standard repertoire call for a high F♯, the one above middle C), but few roles go over F4. In the operatic bass repertoire, the highest notes are a G♯4 and, in the aria "Fra l'ombre e gl'orrori" in Handel's serenata Aci, Galatea e Polifemo, Polifemo reaches an A4. Within the bass voice type category are seven recognized subcategories: basso cantante, hoher bass, jugendlicher bass, basso buffo, Schwerer Spielbass, lyric bass, dramatic basso profondo.

Basso cantante means "singing bass". Basso cantante is a higher, more lyrical voice, it is produced using a more Italianate vocal production, possesses a faster vibrato, than its closest Germanic/Anglo-Saxon equivalent, the bass-baritone. Hoher Bass or "high bass" or a dramatic bass-baritone. Jugendlicher Bass denotes the role of a young man sung by a bass, regardless of the age of the singer. Masetto, Don Giovanni by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Colline, La bohème by Giacomo Puccini Buffo "funny", basses are lyrical roles that demand from their practitioners a solid coloratura technique, a capacity for patter singing and ripe tonal qualities if they are to be brought off to maximum effect, they are the blustering antagonist of the hero/heroine or the comic-relief fool in bel canto operas. English equivalent: dramatic bass Varlaam, Boris Godunov by Modest Mussorgsky Basso profondo is the lowest bass voice type. According to J. B. Steane in Voices, Singers & Critics, the basso profondo voice "derives from a method of tone-production that eliminates the more Italian quick vibrato.

In its place is a kind of tonal solidity, a wall-like front, which may prove susceptible to the other kind of vibrato, the slow beat or dreaded wobble." English equivalent: dramatic low bass. Dramatic basso profondo is a powerful basso profondo voice. All of the Gilbert and Sullivan Savoy operas, except Patience and The Yeomen of the Guard have at least one lead bass. Notable roles include: Category of basses Fach, the German system for classifying voices Voice classification in non-classical music List of basses in non-classical music Guide to the singing voice, BBC Wales Basses in Bach’s vocal works Media related t

Living Proof (Buddy Guy album)

Living Proof is Buddy Guy's 15th studio album. After nearly fifty years in the music business, this was Guy's highest charting album peaking at no. 46 on the main Billboard album chart. It won the 2011 Grammy for Best Contemporary Blues Album; the album loosely follows the progression of Guy's life. "Living Proof was designed as an aural autobiography from the legendary Buddy Guy, opening up with the stark summation “74 Years Young,” running through songs that address some aspect of a working musician's life." Buddy Guy – guitars, vocals David Grissomguitar Tommy Macdonald, Michael Rhodesbass guitar Tom Hambridgedrums, tambourine, backing vocals Marty Sammonpiano Reese Wynansclavinet, Fender Rhodes, Hammond B3, Wurlitzer B. B. King – guitar and vocals on "Stay Around a Little Longer" Carlos Santanaconga and guitar on "Where the Blues Begins" Jack Haletrombone Wayne Jacksontrumpet Tom McGinley – tenor saxophone The Memphis Horns – horns Bekka Bramlett, Wendy Moten – backing vocals Tom Hambridge - producer Vance Powell, John Netti, Jim Reitzel, Rob Root, Colin Linden, Michael St. Leon – engineers Ducky Carlisle – mixing engineer Nick Autry – assistant engineer, production assistant Mike Rooney, Joel Margolis – assistant engineers Gilbert Garza – guitar technician Ray Kennedymastering

Two by Twos

Two by Twos is one of the names used to denote an international, home-based new religious movement that has its origins in Ireland at the end of the 19th century. Among members, the church is referred to as "The Truth" or "The Way"; those outside the church refer to it as "Two by Twos", "The Black Stockings", "No-name Church", "Cooneyites", "Workers and Friends" or "Christians Anonymous." Church ministers are itinerant and work in groups of two, hence the name "Two by Twos". The church's registered names include "Christian Conventions" in the United States, "Assemblies of Christians" in Canada, "The Testimony of Jesus" in the United Kingdom, "Kristna i Sverige" in Sweden, "United Christian Conventions" in Australia; these organization names are not used by members. The church was founded in 1897 in Ireland by William Irvine, an evangelist with the interdenominational Faith Mission. Irvine began independently preaching a return to the method of itinerant ministry he claimed was set forth in Matthew 10.

Church growth was rapid. Irvine began preaching a new order in which the hierarchy that had developed within the church would have no placement; this teaching became controversial within the church and led to his expulsion by church overseers around 1914. One of the church's most prominent evangelists, Edward Cooney, was expelled a decade after Irvine; the church became much less visible to outsiders for the next half-century. Publication of several articles and books, increased news coverage, the appearance of the Internet have since opened the church to wider scrutiny; the church does not explicitly publish any doctrinal statements, claiming these must be orally imparted by its ministers, referred to as "workers". Doctrine of the church teaches that salvation is available only by accepting the preaching of its homeless, unsalaried ministry workers and by attending the group's home meetings; the orthodox Christian Trinitarian doctrine is rejected, members are told to deny any church name. Baptism by immersion as performed by one of the church's workers is required for full participation.

Some in the church claim. Others in the church believe that a restoration of some sort may have occurred in the late 19th century. Members hold regular weekly worship gatherings in midweek; the church holds public Gospel meetings. The church claims official publications, its hymnbook and various other materials for internal use are produced by outside publishers and printing firms. Printed invitations and advertisements for its open gospel meetings are the only written materials which those outside the church are to encounter. In 1896, William Irvine was sent from Scotland to southern Ireland as a missionary by John George Govan's Faith Mission, an interdenominational organization with roots in the Holiness movement; because his mission was successful, he was promoted to superintendent of Faith Mission in southern Ireland. Within a few months of his arrival in Ireland, Irvine was disillusioned with the Faith Mission. There was friction over its Holiness teachings, Irvine saw its organization as a violation of his concept of a faith-based ministry.

Above all, Irvine was intolerant of the Faith Mission's cooperation with the other churches and clergy in the various communities of southern Ireland, regarding converts who joined churches as "lost among the clergy". In 1897, he began preaching independently, proclaiming that true ministers must have no home and take no salary, he became convinced that he had received this as a special revelation he referred to as his "Alpha message". Opposed to all other established churches, he held that the manner in which the disciples had been sent out in chapter 10 of the Gospel of Matthew was a permanent commandment which must still be observed; the passage reads in part: In October 1897, Irvine was invited by Nenagh businessman John "Jack" Carroll to preach in the Carrolls' hometown of Rathmolyon. There he held a series of mission meetings in which all established churches were rejected, Irvine's new doctrine and method of ministry were set forth, it was in Rathmolyon. Aside from condemning all other churches, Irvine's doctrine included the rejection of church buildings, damnation of all followers of churches outside the new fellowship, rejection of paid ministry, rejection of collections during services and collection boxes, the requirement that those seeking to join the ministry "sell all".

Irvine's preaching during this latest mission influenced others who began to leave their respective churches and join Irvine to form an initial core of followers. Some of these early adherents would become important members of the new church, including John Long, the Carroll family, John Kelly, Edward Cooney—an influential evangelist from the Church of Ireland—and George Walker, all of whom "sold all" and joined the new movement as itinerant preachers. Although other movements, such as the Plymouth Brethren and Elim have had strong Irish connections, the church founded by Irvine is the only religion known to have had its origin and early development in Ireland. Unlike secretiveness the church was in the public eye, with questions about it being raised in the British Parliament beginning in 1900. Inspired by speakers such as Irvine and Cooney, membership growth was rapid. Rather than adding members to established denominations, as was the practice of the Faith Mission outreach, churches began noticing their congregations thinning after exposure to

A Gentleman from Mississippi

A Gentleman from Mississippi is a 1908 comedic play by Harrison Rhodes and Thomas A. Wise, it was popular when released, debuting on Broadway on September 28, 1908, playing for 407 performances at the Bijou Theatre, on the roof garden of the New Amsterdam Theatre during the summer of 1909. Douglas Fairbanks played the leading role of Bud Haines. Receiving positive reviews from the critics, it was produced by William A. Brady and Joseph R. Grismer, was one of the "major hits of its day." U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt saw the play shortly before its Broadway debut at a Washington warm-up performance at the National Theatre, proclaimed it a "perfectly corking play. Bully! A ripper!" Roosevelt's successor, William Howard Taft later saw and approved of the play, was featured in some of the play's advertising. It was adapted into a novel based on the play's success, the play traveled after closing on Broadway, where actor Burr McIntosh returned from the stage after a long break to take over for Wise.

The play was made into a silent film in 1914, where Wise reprised his role, a young Evelyn Brent was in the cast. A plan to make another film based on the play in 1936 was never completed. Harrison and Rhodes collaborated on a second play, An Old New Yorker; the play's setting is Washington, D. C. where corrupt Senators are attempting to profit off a planned naval base in Mississippi. The junior Senator of Mississippi, William Langdon, decides to fight the scheme, assisted by his private secretary Bud Haines. William A. Langdon... Thomas A. Wise Horatio Peabody... W. J. Brady James Stevens... Hal De Forrest Charles Norton... Ernest Baxter Randolph Langdon... Stanhope Wheatcroft "Bud" Haines... Douglas Fairbanks Dick Cullen... Harry Stubbs Colonel Beverly Stoneman... Frederick Bock Clerk at International Hotel... E. H. Bender Colonel J. D. Telfer... Charles Chappelle Signore Caracioli... M. W. Rale A Bridegroom... Donald Mackintire A Porter... Henry Gibson A Bellboy... Charles Johnson Carolina Langdon... Harriet Worthington Hope Georgia Langdon... Lola May Amelia Butterworth...

Agnes De Lane Mme. Des Aretins.. Karen Nielsen A Bride... Sallie Livingston A Gentleman from Mississippi at the Internet Broadway Database A Gentleman from Mississippi on IMDb October 1909 playbill from Park Theatre in Boston