Multekrem is a traditional Norwegian dessert, made by mixing cloudberries with whipped cream and sugar. The cloudberries can be served heated, it is common to serve the Multekrem with Kransekake. Multekrem is a traditional Norwegian Christmas dinner dessert. List of Norwegian desserts List of desserts Food portal
A lacquemant is a culinary specialty from the region of Liège, although it was created by Désiré Smidts at the Antwerp carnival. It is eaten during the October fair in Liège, it is a thin wafer, made from wheat, cut in two horizontally and coated with sugar candy syrup flavoured with orange blossom. Make a consistent dough with the ingredients and let it rise twice. Make pieces of dough of 20 gr and press it out to 10 cm. Bake it in a waffle iron for thin waffles. Cut it and horizontally fill it with syrup. A lacquemant can be sold individually, it is served in a cone whose lower part was folded in order to collect the syrup. However, lacquemants are more sold by boxes of 6, it can be savored at home after being reheated a little in the microwave. "Since 1903" History of the Lacquemant
In North America, Belgian waffles are a variety of waffle with a lighter batter, larger squares, deeper pockets than ordinary American waffles. Belgian waffles were leavened with yeast, but baking powder is now used, they are eaten as a breakfast food. They may be served with vanilla ice cream and fresh fruit as a dessert. In Belgium itself, there are several kinds of waffle, including the Brussels waffle and the Liège waffle. Showcased in 1958 at Expo 58 in Brussels, Belgian waffles were introduced to North America by a Belgian named Walter Cleyman at the Century 21 Exposition in Seattle in 1962, served with whipped cream and strawberries; the waffles were further popularized in the United States during the 1964 New York World's Fair at Flushing Meadows Park in Queens, New York City. These waffles were introduced by Maurice Vermersch of Belgium. Based on a simplified recipe for the Brussels waffles, Vermersch decided to change the name to the Bel-Gem Waffle upon observing that many Americans could not identify Brussels as the capital of Belgium.
These waffles were served with whipped cream and strawberries, they were sold for a dollar
Flour is a powder made by grinding raw grains, beans, |nuts or seeds. It is used to make many different foods. Cereal flour is the main ingredient of bread, a staple food for most cultures. Wheat flour is one of the most important ingredients in Oceanic, South American, North American, Middle Eastern, North Indian and North African cultures, is the defining ingredient in their styles of breads and pastries. Wheat is the most common base for flour. Corn flour has been important in Mesoamerican cuisine since ancient times and remains a staple in the Americas. Rye flour is a constituent of bread in central Europe. Cereal flour consists either of the endosperm and bran together or of the endosperm alone. Meal is either differentiable from flour as having coarser particle size or is synonymous with flour. For example, the word cornmeal connotes a grittier texture whereas corn flour connotes fine powder, although there is no codified dividing line; the English word "flour" is a variant of the word "flower" and both words derive from the Old French fleur or flour, which had the literal meaning "blossom", a figurative meaning "the finest".
The phrase "fleur de farine" meant "the finest part of the meal", since flour resulted from the elimination of coarse and unwanted matter from the grain during milling. The earliest archaeological evidence for wheat seeds crushed between simple millstones to make flour dates to 6000 BC; the Romans were the first to grind seeds on cone mills. In 1879, at the beginning of the Industrial Era, the first steam mill was erected in London. In the 1930s, some flour began to be enriched with iron, niacin and riboflavin. In the 1940s, mills started to enrich flour and folic acid was added to the list in the 1990s. An important problem of the industrial revolution was the preservation of flour. Transportation distances and a slow distribution system collided with natural shelf life; the reason for the limited shelf life is the fatty acids of the germ, which react from the moment they are exposed to oxygen. This occurs. Depending on climate and grain quality, this process takes six to nine months. In the late 19th century, this process was too short for an industrial production and distribution cycle.
As vitamins and amino acids were or unknown in the late 19th century, removing the germ was an effective solution. Without the germ, flour cannot become rancid. Degermed flour became standard. Degermation started in densely populated areas and took one generation to reach the countryside. Heat-processed flour is flour where the germ is first separated from the endosperm and bran processed with steam, dry heat or microwave and blended into flour again; the FDA has been advised by several cookie dough manufacturers that they have implemented the use of heat-treated flour for their "ready-to-bake cookie dough" products to reduce the risk of E. coli bacterial contamination. Milling of flour is accomplished by grinding grain between stones or steel wheels. Today, "stone-ground" means that the grain has been ground in a mill in which a revolving stone wheel turns over a stationary stone wheel, vertically or horizontally with the grain in between. Roller mills soon replaced stone grist mills as the production of flour has driven technological development, as attempts to make gristmills more productive and less labor-intensive led to the watermill and windmill.
These terms are now applied more broadly to uses of water and wind power for purposes other than milling. More the Unifine mill, an impact-type mill, was developed in the mid-20th century. Home users have begun grinding their own flour from organic wheat berries on a variety of electric flour mills; the grinding process is not much different from grinding coffee but the mills are larger. This provides fresh flour with the benefits of wheat fiber without spoilage. Modern farm equipment allows livestock farmers to do some or all of their own milling when it comes time to convert their own grain crops to coarse meal for livestock feed; this capability is economically important because the profit margins are thin enough in commercial farming that saving expenses is vital to staying in business. Flour contains a high proportion of starches, which are a subset of complex carbohydrates known as polysaccharides; the kinds of flour used in cooking include all-purpose flour, self-rising flour, cake flour including bleached flour.
The higher the protein content the harder and stronger the flour, the more it will produce crusty or chewy breads. The lower the protein the softer the flour, better for cakes and pie crusts. "Bleached flour" is any refined flour with a whitening agent added. "Refined flour" has had the germ and bran removed and is referred to as "white flour". Bleached flour is artificially aged using a maturing agent, or both. A bleaching agent would affect only the carotenoids in the flour. A maturing agent may either weaken gluten development; the four most common additives used as bleaching/maturing agents in the US are: Potassium bromate, listed as an ingredient, is a maturing agent that strengthens gluten development. It does not bleach. Benzoyl peroxide does not act as a maturing agent, it has no effect on gluten. Ascorbic acid is listed as an ingredient, either as an indication that the flour was matured using ascorbic acid or that a small amount is
A griddle is a cooking device consisting of a broad flat surface heated by gas, wood, or coal, with both residential and commercial applications. In industrialized countries, a griddle is most a flat metal plate, elsewhere a brick slab or tablet. A residential griddle may be composed of chrome aluminum, or carbon steel; the vast majority of commercial grade griddles are made from A36 steel, though some are stainless steel or composites of stainless and aluminum. All residential and commercial griddles are heated directly or indirectly by flame or electrical elements. Traditional griddles include a stone or brick slab or tablet, a shallow platter filled with sand; the former are heated to cooking temperature before the food is placed on them, the latter heated after. In Latin America one traditional style of griddle is a budare. Made from stone or clay, it is used to cook a variety of flatbreads, such as tortilla and casabe. Modern versions called comals; the metal griddle is made of chrome steel, aluminium or stainless steel.
Metal griddles were a flat metal surface for frying suspended from hooks over a campfire or fireplace. Versions were sometimes integrated into the tops of wood-fired cookstoves as a removable iron plate, as a separate handle-less plate covering one or more burners on a gas or electric stove; the traditional Scottish griddle has a flat wrought iron disk with an upturned rim to which a semicircular hoop handle is attached, allowing it to be suspended over the fire from a central chain and hook. Girdles are used for cooking scones, bannocks and oatcakes; the traditional Welsh griddle is similar, circular with a one-piece handle cast iron, 1 cm in thickness. It is used to cook Welsh cakes and crepes. In residential applications a griddle may be composed of stainless steel, wrought iron, aluminum or carbon steel 1/16 to 1/8-inch thick. Portable electric units with limited temperature control are most common with Teflon or other stick-resistant coatings; these units are portable and suitable for light-duty cooking.
Portable griddle plates are used on one or more gas or electric cooking zones. Premium brand residential ranges offer griddle top options as well, which look much like those on commercial grade ranges. Commercial grade griddles may be either free-standing countertop equipment that sits on a stand or base, or part of a larger piece of equipment such as a restaurant range. Most units are 24 to 72 in increments of 12 in. All have three components: a plate, heat source, temperature control. Performance, such as time to heat, temperature consistency/evenness, recovery time, productivity, reflects how they are combined; each of these primary characteristics can affect the performance of the overall unit, with the distinguishing feature being a large, cook surface. Some foods are cooked or scorched using a dry heat, but the most common technique is shallow frying, where an item is either cooked in a thin film of added oil or its own renderings. Leftover fat and residual debris are scraped off into a trough, most in front but on the side and rear, thence through a chute into a can or tray.
Commercial griddles have “splashes”, 3 to 5 in vertical metal shields that catch flying fat and prevent items from being pushed off. It is difficult to distinguish on sight a basic griddle from one with more sophisticated construction and superior performance. Manufacturer specification sheets provide particulars; the vast majority of commercial grade griddles are made from A36 steel from 3⁄8 to 1 in thick, though some are composed of stainless steel or composites of aluminum and stainless steel of varying thicknesses. Griddle plate depth is 24-inches, though compact units may be as shallow as 18 in, deep units can be up to 30 in in depth. Typical commercial gas griddles have plates between 1-inch thick. Electric griddle plates are thinner, from 3⁄8 to 1⁄2 in thick, to reduce the response lag between the control and plate surface common in such designs; because most commercial griddle plates are made from the same material the heat transfer characteristics of a griddle plate can be inferred from its geometry.
A carbon steel plate heated by an array of U-shaped or H-shaped burners does not distribute heat in a even pattern if all thermostats are set to the same temperature and are calibrated. As a result, temperature'islands' can develop on the griddle plate surface, resulting in measurable hot and cold spots that can affect griddle performance. Composite plate material can be a combination of any two dissimilar metals to optimize heat transfer characteristics and improve griddle performance. A common variant of this construction available, involves a core of aluminum laminated with type 304 stainless steel on either side; the heat transfer rate of aluminum is five times that of carbon steel, which maximizes heat transfer from the bottom of the plate to the cooking surface, facilitates an temperature distribution over the entire plate surface regardless of heat source. Type 304 stainless steel is medical grade, with a low level of porosity that reduces the penetration of cooking products into the surface, which causes sticking and flavor transfer – important performance metrics for commercial applications.
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A cookie is a baked or cooked food, small and sweet. It contains flour and some type of oil or fat, it may include other ingredients such as raisins, chocolate chips, etc. In most English-speaking countries except for the United States and Canada, crisp cookies are called biscuits. Chewier biscuits are sometimes called cookies in the United Kingdom; some cookies may be named by their shape, such as date squares or bars. Cookies or biscuits may be mass-produced in factories, made in small bakeries or homemade. Biscuit or cookie variants include sandwich biscuits, such as custard creams, Jammie Dodgers and Oreos, with marshmallow or jam filling and sometimes dipped in chocolate or another sweet coating. Cookies are served with beverages such as milk, coffee or tea. Factory-made cookies are sold in convenience stores and vending machines. Fresh-baked cookies are sold at bakeries and coffeehouses, with the latter ranging from small business-sized establishments to multinational corporations such as Starbucks.
In most English-speaking countries outside North America, including the United Kingdom, the most common word for a crisp cookie is biscuit. The term cookie is used to describe chewier ones. However, in many regions both terms are used. In Scotland the term cookie is sometimes used to describe a plain bun. Cookies that are baked as a solid layer on a sheet pan and cut, rather than being baked as individual pieces, are called in British English bar cookies or traybakes, its American name derives from the Dutch word koekje or more its informal, dialect variant koekie which means little cake, arrived in American English with the Dutch settlement of New Netherland, in the early 1600s. According to the Scottish National Dictionary, its Scottish name derives from the diminutive form of the word cook, giving the Middle Scots cookie, cooky or cukie, it gives an alternative etymology: like the American word, from the Dutch koekje, the diminutive of koek, a cake. There was much trade and cultural contact across the North Sea between the Low Countries and Scotland during the Middle Ages, which can be seen in the history of curling and golf.
Cookies are most baked until crisp or just long enough that they remain soft, but some kinds of cookies are not baked at all. Cookies are made in a wide variety of styles, using an array of ingredients including sugars, chocolate, peanut butter, nuts, or dried fruits; the softness of the cookie may depend on. A general theory of cookies may be formulated this way. Despite its descent from cakes and other sweetened breads, the cookie in all its forms has abandoned water as a medium for cohesion. Water in cakes serves to make the base as thin as possible, which allows the bubbles – responsible for a cake's fluffiness – to better form. In the cookie, the agent of cohesion has become some form of oil. Oils, whether they be in the form of butter, vegetable oils, or lard, are much more viscous than water and evaporate at a much higher temperature than water, thus a cake made with butter or eggs instead of water is far denser after removal from the oven. Oils in baked cakes do not behave. Rather than evaporating and thickening the mixture, they remain, saturating the bubbles of escaped gases from what little water there might have been in the eggs, if added, the carbon dioxide released by heating the baking powder.
This saturation produces the most texturally attractive feature of the cookie, indeed all fried foods: crispness saturated with a moisture that does not sink into it. Cookie-like hard wafers have existed for as long as baking is documented, in part because they deal with travel well, but they were not sweet enough to be considered cookies by modern standards. Cookies appear to have their origins in 7th century AD Persia, shortly after the use of sugar became common in the region, they spread to Europe through the Muslim conquest of Spain. By the 14th century, they were common in all levels of society throughout Europe, from royal cuisine to street vendors. With global travel becoming widespread at that time, cookies made a natural travel companion, a modernized equivalent of the travel cakes used throughout history. One of the most popular early cookies, which traveled well and became known on every continent by similar names, was the jumble, a hard cookie made from nuts and water. Cookies came to America through the Dutch in New Amsterdam in the late 1620s.
The Dutch word "koekje" was Anglicized to "cookie" or cooky. The earliest reference to cookies in America is in 1703, when "The Dutch in New York provided...'in 1703...at a funeral 800 cookies...'"The most common modern cookie, given its style by the creaming of butter and sugar, was not common until the 18th century. Cookies are broadly classified according to how they are formed, including at least these categories: Bar cookies consist of batter or other ingredients that are poured or pressed into a pan and cut into cookie-sized pieces after baking. In British English, bar cookies are known as "tray bakes". Examples include brownies, fruit squares, bars such as date squares. Drop cookies are made from a soft dough, dropped by spoonfuls onto the baking sheet. During baking, the mounds of dough flatten. Chocolate chip cookies, oatmeal raisin cookies, rock cakes are popular examples of drop cookies; this may include thumbprint cookies, for which a small central depression is created with a thumb or small spoon before baki
Christmas is an annual festival, commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ, observed on December 25 as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people around the world. A feast central to the Christian liturgical year, it is preceded by the season of Advent or the Nativity Fast and initiates the season of Christmastide, which in the West lasts twelve days and culminates on Twelfth Night. Christmas Day is a public holiday in many of the world's nations, is celebrated religiously by a majority of Christians, as well as culturally by many non-Christians, forms an integral part of the holiday season centered around it; the traditional Christmas narrative, the Nativity of Jesus, delineated in the New Testament says that Jesus was born in Bethlehem, in accordance with messianic prophecies. When Joseph and Mary arrived in the city, the inn had no room and so they were offered a stable where the Christ Child was soon born, with angels proclaiming this news to shepherds who further disseminated the information.
Although the month and date of Jesus' birth are unknown, the church in the early fourth century fixed the date as December 25. This corresponds to the date of the solstice on the Roman calendar. Most Christians celebrate on December 25 in the Gregorian calendar, adopted universally in the civil calendars used in countries throughout the world. However, some Eastern Christian Churches celebrate Christmas on December 25 of the older Julian calendar, which corresponds to a January date in the Gregorian calendar. For Christians, the belief that God came into the world in the form of man to atone for the sins of humanity, rather than the exact birth date, is considered to be the primary purpose in celebrating Christmas; the celebratory customs associated in various countries with Christmas have a mix of pre-Christian and secular themes and origins. Popular modern customs of the holiday include gift giving, completing an Advent calendar or Advent wreath, Christmas music and caroling, lighting a Christingle, viewing a Nativity play, an exchange of Christmas cards, church services, a special meal, pulling Christmas crackers and the display of various Christmas decorations, including Christmas trees, Christmas lights, nativity scenes, wreaths and holly.
In addition, several related and interchangeable figures, known as Santa Claus, Father Christmas, Saint Nicholas, Christkind, are associated with bringing gifts to children during the Christmas season and have their own body of traditions and lore. Because gift-giving and many other aspects of the Christmas festival involve heightened economic activity, the holiday has become a significant event and a key sales period for retailers and businesses; the economic impact of Christmas has grown over the past few centuries in many regions of the world. "Christmas" is a shortened form of "Christ's mass". The word is recorded as Crīstesmæsse in 1038 and Cristes-messe in 1131. Crīst is from Greek Khrīstos, a translation of Hebrew Māšîaḥ, "Messiah", meaning "anointed"; the form Christenmas was historically used, but is now considered archaic and dialectal. Xmas is an abbreviation of Christmas found in print, based on the initial letter chi in Greek Khrīstos, "Christ", though numerous style guides discourage its use.
In addition to "Christmas", the holiday has been known by various other names throughout its history. The Anglo-Saxons referred to the feast as "midwinter", or, more as Nātiuiteð. "Nativity", meaning "birth", is from Latin nātīvitās. In Old English, Gēola referred to the period corresponding to December and January, equated with Christian Christmas. "Noel" entered English in the late 14th century and is from the Old French noël or naël, itself from the Latin nātālis meaning "birth". The gospels of Luke and Matthew describe Jesus as being born in Bethlehem to the Virgin Mary. In Luke and Mary travel from Nazareth to Bethlehem for the census, Jesus is born there and laid in a manger. Angels proclaimed him a savior for all people, shepherds came to adore him. Matthew adds that the magi follow a star to Bethlehem to bring gifts to Jesus, born the king of the Jews. King Herod orders the massacre of all the boys less than two years old in Bethlehem, but the family flees to Egypt and returns to Nazareth.
The nativity stories recounted in Matthew and Luke prompted early Christian writers to suggest various dates for the anniversary. Although no date is indicated in the gospels, early Christians connected Jesus to the Sun through the use of such phrases as "Sun of righteousness." The Romans marked the winter solstice on December 25. The first recorded Christmas celebration was in Rome on December 25, 336. Christmas played a role in the Arian controversy of the fourth century. After this controversy was played out, the prominence of the holiday declined; the feast regained prominence after 800. Associating it with drunkenness and other misbehavior, the Puritans banned Christmas during the Reformation, it remained disreputable. In the early 19th century, Christmas was reconceived by Washington Irving, Charles Dickens, other authors as a holiday emphasizing family, kind-heartedness, gift-giving, Santa Claus. Christmas does not appear on th