Church of Our Lady (Copenhagen)
The Church of Our Lady is the cathedral of Copenhagen. It is situated on Frue Plads and next to the building of the University of Copenhagen. The present day version of the church was designed by the architect Christian Frederik Hansen in the style and was completed in 1829. Construction of the original Collegiate Church of St. Mary, began no than 1187 under Bishop Absalon, the church was located on the highest point near the new town of Havn, Copenhagen. Bishop Absalon was Bishop of Roskilde, Denmarks capital of that era and he built many churches and monasteries, while founding Copenhagen as Denmarks Baltic port city. Named Archbishop of Lund in 1178, Absalon accepted only under threat of excommunication, the church was built in Romanesque style with its half-rounded arches inside and out. In 1314, a fire destroyed the church so completely that it was rebuilt in the popular new building material of the day. The style of building was Gothic, with its pointed arches. The rebuilding of the church with a long nave and choir continued until 1388.
Due to a lack of money, the tower was not built until the reign of Christian II. It was as high as the church was long, and from artwork of the day, a school was established early on. In 1479, parts of the school received a charter. Professors were brought from Cologne, the international faculty widened Denmarks exposure to the great ideas and philosophies of the day. The university challenged the growth of the Protestant movement, but was eventually closed, by 1537 it reopened as a centre for Lutheran studies. The Protestant Reformation was hard on St Marys, citizens of Copenhagen had elected to follow Luther, but Catholic officials at St Marys tried to maintain the church as a centre of Catholic resistance to change in Copenhagen. By royal decree both Catholic priests and Lutheran preachers were commanded to use the church jointly, which incensed the majority of Copenhagens population, on 27 December 1530 hundreds of citizens stormed St Marys, destroying every statue and dismantling the choir stalls.
The 17 richly gilt altars were stripped of jewels and gold and smashed, as were reliquaries, even the name St Marys became Vor Frue Kirke, keeping the historic reference to Mary without the use of the un-Lutheran Saint appellation. Just a year Our Lady Church celebrated the acceptance of the Lutheran Order presided over by Johan Bugenhagen,1539 saw the installation of the first Lutheran superintendents, bishops, of Denmark
Trinitatis Church is located in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It is part of the 17th century Trinitatis Complex, which includes the Rundetårn astronomical observatory tower, built in the time of Christian IV, the church initially served the students of Copenhagen University. It is situated at the corner of Landemærket and Købmagergade, the interior was seriously damaged in the fire of 1728 but was rebuilt in 1731. The humanistically inspired combination was from a commission of Christian IV, there were three builders, namely Hans van Steenwinckel the Younger, Leonhard Blasius, and Albertus Mathiesen. At the time of construction, the church was the second largest in the city, second only to the Church of Our Lady. As the church was intended to be used by university students and professors, it may appear oversized. The foundation stone was laid July 7,1637, and the Round Tower was completed in 1642, the church was consecrated on Trinity Sunday 1656. The Copenhagen University Library was installed in the loft in 1657.
After marrying the widow of J. M. Radeck in 1685, during the fire of 1728, Trinitatis Church was not as badly damaged as other churches in the city. The roof structure was ignited, a spire crashed into the library, Church walls and vaults withstood the fire and subsequent repairs did not decisively change the churchs appearance. A new cornice and spire were required, the new roof was covered with black glazed tiles. New dormer windows were inserted but only in one row, the interior bases and capitals of the columns and arches were repaired. All wood furnishings were replaced, and the floor was covered with tiles from Öland, the reconstruction was in Northern Gothic-Baroque style. The church was rededicated October 7,1731 and the remains of the university library were moved again, the furnishings were renewed with an altarpiece and pulpit by Friederich Ehbisch and a large Baroque clock. The church was refurbished in 1763, the Trinitatis Complex was hit during the 1807 British bombardment of Copenhagen, and damaged by major fires.
Four bombs struck the library, but did not penetrate through to the church, thanks to the efforts of churchwarden Tvermoes, injuries were minimized. Building repairs amounted to relatively modest 3,000 rigsdaler, alterations were necessary in 1817 to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the Reformation. The small shops on the corner of Landemærket were closed, as was the remainder of the north of the church
Gedde's maps of Copenhagen
The original title of the work was Charta over den kongelige Residencestad Kiöbenhavn med dens omkringliggende Egne. It is an important source of information about mid 18th-century Copenhagen, a printed version was first published in 2002 and Copenhagen City Archives launched a website with a digitalized version in 2011. One third of Copenhagen was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1728, in the 1740s, Sibrandt led the work with production of new local maps which registered land use and ownership. They were used for purposes and organization of local militias. In the 1750s, Frederick V decided to publish a map of Copenhagen. The citys Magistrate was put in charge of the project and called on the services of Samuel Christoph Gedde, gSamuel Christoph Gedde assigned the task to his son, Christian Gedde, who was an officer in the engineering troops. Christian Gedde completed the map in 1761. From 1771, it hung in City Hall on Gammeltorv and it was rescued from the flames during the Copenhagen Fire of 1795 and moved to the new city hall on Nytorv.
It is now kept in the Copenhagen City Archives, the map general map measures 2.5 times 2.5 metres and at a scale of approximately 1,2,600 covers an area of approximately 50 square kilometres. It shows Copenhagen from the south-southeast, the map was originally in red, green and yellow. The colours have disappeared over time but traces of them remain, the intention was to publish an edited version, cleansed of military sensitive details, but this version was never produced. The Bergia Foundation published the first printed version of the map in 2002, in 2011, Copenhagen City Archives launched a website with a digitalized version of Geddes maps to mark the 250 years anniversary of his elevated map of Copenhagen. The digital map had been produced in connection with the Bergia Foundations 2002 publication,1761 General Map Geddes 12 district maps
Frederick VI of Denmark
Frederick VI was King of Denmark from 13 March 1808 to 3 December 1839 and King of Norway from 13 March 1808 to 7 February 1814. From 1784 until his accession, he served as regent during his fathers illness and was referred to as the Crown Prince Regent. For his motto he chose God and the just cause and since the time of his reign, Frederick was born at Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen. Frederick belonged to the House of Oldenburg and his parents were King Christian VII and Caroline Matilda of Great Britain. He was born after 15 months of marriage, just a day before his fathers 19th birthday, as the eldest son of the ruling king, he automatically became crown prince at birth. On 30 January of the year, he was baptised at Christiansborg Palace by Ludvig Harboe. His godparents were King Christian VII, the dowager queen Juliana Maria and his half-uncle, from 1770 to 1772, Struensee was de facto regent and lover of Caroline Matilda, Fredericks mother. Both were ideologically influenced by Enlightenment thinkers such as Voltaire and Jean Jacques Rousseau, while Struensee was in power, young Frederick was raised at Hirschholm Palace following the educational approach advocated by Rousseau in his famous work Émile.
Instead of receiving direct instruction, Frederick was expected to learn everything through his own efforts through playing with two boys as per Struensees instructions. On 8 January 1772, after the revolt against Struensee, Fredericks 18-year-old half-uncle Hereditary Prince Frederick was made regent, the real power, was held by Hereditary Prince Fredericks mother, Queen Dowager Juliana Maria, aided by Ove Høegh-Guldberg. It is said that during the coup, he engaged in a fistfight with his half-uncle over the regency and he continued as regent of Denmark under his fathers name until the latters death in 1808. During the regency, Frederick instituted widespread liberal reforms with the assistance of Chief Minister Andreas Peter Bernstorff, crises encountered during his reign include disagreement with the British over neutral shipping. This resulted in two British attacks on Copenhagen, the Battle of Copenhagen of 1801 and the Battle of Copenhagen of 1807, the conflict continued in the Gunboat War between Denmark-Norway and the United Kingdom, which lasted until the Treaty of Kiel in 1814.
There was speculation that he was to marry a Prussian princess and they married in Gottorp on 31 July 1790 and had eight children. Their eldest daughter, Princess Caroline married her father’s first cousin, the youngest, Princess Wilhelmine, became the wife of the future Frederick VII of Denmark. None of Frederick VIs sons survived infancy and when he died, he was succeeded by his cousin Christian VIII of Denmark, Frederick became King of Denmark on 13 March 1808. When the throne of Sweden seemed likely to become vacant in 1809, Fredericks brother-in-law, Prince Christian Augustus of Augustenborg, was first elected to the throne of Sweden, followed by the French Marshal Bernadotte. During the Napoleonic Wars, he tried to maintain Danish neutrality, however after the British bombardment of Copenhagen, after the French defeat in Russia in 1812, the Allies again asked him to change sides but he refused
Copenhagen University Library
The Copenhagen University Library in Copenhagen, Denmark, is the main research library of the University of Copenhagen. Founded in 1482, it is the oldest library in Denmark, the old main building of the library is located in Fiolstræde in central Copenhagen. It was designed by Johan Daniel Herholdt and completed in 1861, a second library, known as the Copenhagen University Library North, is located in Nørre Allé and is the library for natural sciences and medicine. Since 1989, the Copenhagen University Library has been part of the Royal Library of Denmark, in 1482, the University Library was established at the University of Copenhagen which had been founded three years earlier, when its vice-rector, Peder Albertsen, donated his book collection. One of the first buildings to house the library was the House of the Holy Ghost, in 1553, the first real library building, located at the site where the universitys main building stands today, was inaugurated and it served its purpose for the next hundred years.
In the first decades of the 17th century, Copenhagen experienced strong building activity under Christian IV, ultimately the idea emerged to build one grand complex which was to hold both an observatory, a church and new premises for the university library. Construction of the new building, known as the Trinitatis Complex, First to be completed was the observatory at the top of what is today known as the Round Tower. The new university library, located above the church and accessible only by the Round Towers spiral ramp, was taken into use in 1652, in 1656, the Trinitatis Church was completed as the last part of the new trinity of science and faith. Up through the 17th century, the University Library grew significantly, after this, the University surpassed the Royal Library in size. In the Copenhagen Fire of 1728, the University Library was devastated and 30,000 volumes were lost to the flames, only some materials which against the rules had been removed from the premises by students and professors were saved.
After the fire the library was restored along with the rest of the Trinitatis Complex, in 1730, Árni Magnússon bequeathed his book and manuscript collection to the library. It included, most significantly, a collection of Icelandic. The library introduced loans in 1788, they landed in the librarys section for morals and politics where they damaged a corner of Marsilius of Paduas Defensor pacis. Fragments of the grenades are now exhibited in the Exhibition Hall on the first floor of the current University Library building in Fiolstræde, up through the 19th century it became clear that the librarys premises in the Trinitatis Complex were outdated. They had become too small and the access along the Round Towers helical corridor was impractical. In 1856, the university held a competition for the design of a new library on a site in Fiolstræde. The competition was won by Johan Daniel Herholdt, construction started in 1857 and the new building was completed in 1861. The same year the observatory moved to a specially designed building
Frue Plads is a public square located on the north side of the Church of Our Lady in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It occupies a space which is bounded on the other sides by University of Copenhagens main building to the north, Nørregade to the west. In the Middle Ages, Our Ladys Square was located a little further to the north while the current square occupies the grounds of Church of Our Ladys graveyard. A new residence for the Roskilde Bishops was built on the square in about 1420, after the Reformation, University of Copenhagen took over the building complex. It was expanded with new buildings. The building was destroyed in the Copenhagen Fire of 1728. The British bombardment of Copenhagen on 3–5 September 1807 hit the area hard and its main building and the professorial residences on the corners of Fiolstræde and Store Kannikestræde were destroyed by fire together with the church. It was subsequently decided not to reconstruct the graveyard but to create a new square in its place, the building was taken over by the university when the school moved to new premises in Nørrebro in the 1930s.
Denmarks economy suffered greatly from the war with England and many buildings needed to be rebuilt after the bombardment. The university therefore had to use Regensen and various temporary premises around the city while they waited for a new home to be built. In 1819, Peter Malling, one of C. F. Hansens students, was charged with the design of a new main building and his proposal was well received but far too expensive and in 1922 the project was once again put on hold. In 1829 when the plans were revived, it was in a smaller version. A set of bunkers was constructed in the square during World War II and they were removed after the war. Mallings main building for the University is built to a Neo-Gothic design and it is flanked by the gables of the Community Building on Nørregade and Copenhagen University Library on Giolstræde. One of few buildings at the site survived the bombardment in 1807. The former Metropolitan School on Fiolstræde is now known as the Metropolitan Annex and it is a simple, Neoclassical building typical of C. F.
Hansens style. At the other end of the square, on Nørregade, is the Bishops House where the Bishop of Copenhagen has his residence and office. In front of the University is a series of busts, depicting prominent alumni, Vilhelm Thomsen, the bust was created by L. Brandstrup in 1921 and installed on the square in 1929
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century. In its purest form, it is a style derived from the architecture of classical antiquity, the Vitruvian principles. In form, Neoclassical architecture emphasizes the wall rather than chiaroscuro, Neoclassical architecture is still designed today, but may be labelled New Classical Architecture for contemporary buildings. In Central and Eastern Europe, the style is referred to as Classicism. Many early 19th-century neoclassical architects were influenced by the drawings and projects of Étienne-Louis Boullée, the many graphite drawings of Boullée and his students depict spare geometrical architecture that emulates the eternality of the universe. There are links between Boullées ideas and Edmund Burkes conception of the sublime, the baroque style had never truly been to the English taste. The most popular was the four-volume Vitruvius Britannicus by Colen Campbell, the book contained architectural prints of famous British buildings that had been inspired by the great architects from Vitruvius to Palladio.
At first the book featured the work of Inigo Jones. Palladian architecture became well established in 18th-century Britain, at the forefront of the new school of design was the aristocratic architect earl, Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, in 1729, he and William Kent, designed Chiswick House. This House was a reinterpretation of Palladios Villa Capra, but purified of 16th century elements and this severe lack of ornamentation was to be a feature of the Palladianism. In 1734 William Kent and Lord Burlington designed one of Englands finest examples of Palladian architecture with Holkham Hall in Norfolk, the main block of this house followed Palladios dictates quite closely, but Palladios low, often detached, wings of farm buildings were elevated in significance. This classicising vein was detectable, to a degree, in the Late Baroque architecture in Paris. This shift was even visible in Rome at the redesigned façade for S, by the mid 18th century, the movement broadened to incorporate a greater range of Classical influences, including those from Ancient Greece.
The shift to neoclassical architecture is conventionally dated to the 1750s, in France, the movement was propelled by a generation of French art students trained in Rome, and was influenced by the writings of Johann Joachim Winckelmann. The style was adopted by progressive circles in other countries such as Sweden. A second neoclassic wave, more severe, more studied and more consciously archaeological, is associated with the height of the Napoleonic Empire, in France, the first phase of neoclassicism was expressed in the Louis XVI style, and the second in the styles called Directoire or Empire. The Scottish architect Charles Cameron created palatial Italianate interiors for the German-born Catherine II the Great in St. Petersburg, neoclassicism made a discovery of the genuine classic interior, inspired by the rediscoveries at Pompeii and Herculaneum. These had begun in the late 1740s, but only achieved an audience in the 1760s