Yogi Gorakhnath was a Hindu yogi and saint, the founder of the Nath tradition. He is considered as one of the two notable disciples of Matsyendranath, his followers are found in India at the place known as Garbhagiri, in Ahmednagar in the state of Maharashtra. These followers are called yogis, Darshani or Kanphata; the details of his biography are unknown and disputed. He was one of nine saints known as Navnath and is popular in Maharashtra, India. Hagiographies describe him as more than a human teacher and someone outside the laws of time who appeared on earth in different ages. Historians state Gorakhnath lived sometime during the first half of the 2nd millennium CE, but they disagree in which century. Estimates based on archaeology and text range from Briggs' 15th- to 12th-century to Grierson's estimate of the 14th-century. Gorakhnath is considered a Maha-yogi in the Hindu tradition, he did not emphasize a specific metaphysical theory or a particular Truth, but emphasized that the search for Truth and the spiritual life is a valuable and normal goal of man.
Gorakhnath championed Yoga, spiritual discipline and an ethical life of self-determination as a means to reaching samadhi and one's own spiritual truths. Gorakhnath, his ideas and yogis have been popular in rural India, with monasteries and temples dedicated to him found in many states of India in the eponymous city of Gorakhpur. Historians vary in their estimate on. Estimates based on archaeology and text range from Briggs' 11th- to 12th-century to Baba Farid documents and Jnanesvari manuscripts leading Abbott to connect Gorakhnath to the 13th-century, to Grierson who relying on evidence discovered in Gujarat suggests the 14th-century, his influence is found in the numerous references to him in the poetry of Kabir and of Guru Nanak of Sikhism, which describe him as a powerful leader with a large following, thereby suggesting he lived around the time these spiritual leaders lived in India. Historical texts imply that Gorakhnath was a Buddhist in a region influenced by Shaivism, he converted to Hinduism championing Shiva and Yoga.
Gorakhnath led a life as a passionate exponent of ideas of Kumarila and Adi Shankara that championed the Yoga and Advaita Vedanta interpretation of the Upanishads. Gorakhnath considered the controversy between dualism and nondualism spiritual theories in medieval India as useless from practice point of view, he emphasized that the choice is of the yogi, that the spiritual discipline and practice by either path leads to "perfectly illumined samadhi state of the individual phenomenal consciousness", states Banerjea; the hagiography on Gorakhnath describe him to have appeared on earth several times. The legends do not provide a time or place where he was born, consider him to be superhuman. North Indian hagiographies suggest. Other hagiographies on Gorakhnath in and Bihar suggest; these hagiographies are inconsistent, offer varying records of the spiritual descent of Gorakhnath. All name Matsyendranath as two teachers preceding him in the succession. Though one account lists five gurus preceding Adinath and another lists six teachers between Matsyendranath and Gorakhnath, current tradition has Adinath identified with Lord Shiva as the direct teacher of Matsyendranath, himself the direct teacher of Gorakhnath.
The legends in the Nath tradition assert that he traveled across the Indian subcontinent, accounts about him are found in some form in several places including Nepal, Sindh, Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Bengal, Kathiawar, Maharashtra and Sri Lanka. The Nath tradition states that its traditions existed before Gorakhnath, but the movement's greatest expansion happened under the guidance and inspiration of Gorakhnath, he produced a number of writings and today is considered the greatest of the Naths. It has been purported. In India there are many caves, many with temples built over them, where it is said that Gorakhnath spent time in meditation. According to Bhagawan Nityananda, the samadhi shrine of Gorakhnath is at Nath Mandir near the Vajreshwari temple about one kilometer from Ganeshpuri, India. According to legends Gorakhnath and Matsyendranath did penance in Kadri Temple at Mangalore, Karnataka, they are instrumental in laying Shivlingam at Kadri and Dharmasthala. The temple of Gorakhnath is situated on hill called Garbhagiri near Vambori, Tal Rahuri.
There is a famous temple of Gorakhnath in the state of Odisha. The Gorakhnath Math is a monastery of the Nath monastic group named after the medieval saint, Gorakhnath, of the Nath sampradaya; the math and town of Gorakhpur in Uttar Pradesh is named after him. The monastery and the temple perform various cultural and social activities and serve as the cultural hub of the city; the monastery publishes texts on the philosophy of Gorakhnath. Some scholars associate the origins of Hatha yoga with the Nath yogis, in particular Gorakhnath and his guru Matsyendranath. According to British indologist James Mallinson, this association is false. In his view, the origins of hatha yoga should be associated with the Dashanami Sampradaya of Advaita Vedanta, the mystical figure of Dattatreya, the Rāmānandīs. While the origins of Hatha yoga are disputed, according to Guy Beck – a professor of Religious Studies known for his studies on Yoga and music, "the connections between Goraknath, the Kanphatas and Hath
Temperance is defined as moderation or voluntary self-restraint. It is described in terms of what an individual voluntarily refrains from doing; this includes restraint from retaliation in the form of non-violence and forgiveness, restraint from arrogance in the form of humility and modesty, restraint from excesses such as splurging now in the form of prudence, restraint from excessive anger or craving for something in the form of calmness and self-control. Temperance has been described as a virtue by religious thinkers and more psychologists in the positive psychology movement. In classical iconography, the virtue is depicted as a woman holding two vessels transferring water from one to another, it was one of the cardinal virtues in western thought found in Greek philosophy and Christianity, as well as eastern traditions such as Buddhism and Hinduism. Temperance is one of the six virtues in the positive psychology classification, included with wisdom, humanity and transcendence, it is characterized as the control over excess, expressed through characteristics such as chastity, humility, self-regulation, decorum, abstinence and mercy.
The term "temperance" can refer to the abstention from alcohol with reference to the temperance movement. The Greek definition of temperance translates to "moderation in thought, or feeling. Temperance is a major Athenian virtue. According to Aristotle, "temperance is a mean with regard to pleasures". In "Charmides", one of Plato's early dialogues, the one who possessed'sophrosune' is defined in four ways: one who has quietness, one who has modesty, one who does his own business, one who knows himself. Plato dismisses the three first definitions and argues against that if'sophrosune' would have been only the property of knowing what one knows or not it would be useless without knowledge about other matters. Themes of temperance can be seen across cultures and time. Temperance is an essential part of the Eightfold Path; the third and fifth of the five precepts reflect values of temperance: "misconduct concerning sense pleasures" and drunkenness are to be avoided. In the Judeo-Christian tradition, temperance is prolific.
The Old Testament emphasizes temperance as a core virtue, as evidenced in both Solomon's Book of Proverbs and in the Ten Commandments, with its admonitions against adultery and covetousness. The New Testament does so as well, with forgiveness being central to theology and self-control being one of the Fruits of the Spirit. With regard to Christian theology, the word temperance is used by the King James Version in Galatians 5:23 for the Greek word ἐγκρατεία, which means self-control or discipline. Thomas Aquinas promoted Plato's original virtues in addition to several others. Within the Christian church Temperance is a virtue akin to self-control, it is applied to all areas of life. It can be viewed in practice among sects like the Amish, Old Order Mennonites, Conservative Mennonites. In the Christian religion, temperance is a virtue that moderates attraction and desire for pleasure and "provides balance in the use of created goods". St. Thomas calls it a "disposition of the mind which binds the passions".
Temperance is believed to combat the sin of gluttony. Temperance is broken down into four main strengths: forgiveness, humility and self-regulation; the concept of dama in Hinduism is equivalent to temperance. It is sometimes written as damah; the word dama, Sanskrit derivative words based on it, connote the concepts of self-control and self-restraint. Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, in verse 5.2.3, states that three characteristics of a good, developed person are self-restraint and love for all sentient life, charity. In Hinduism literature dedicated to yoga, self-restraint is expounded with the concept of yamas. According to ṣaṭsampad, self-restraint is one of the six cardinal virtues; the list of virtues that constitute a moral life evolve in upanishads. Over time, new virtues were conceptualized and added, some replaced. For example, Manusamhita listed ten virtues necessary for a human being to live a dharmic life: Dhriti, Dama, Saucha, Indriyani-graha, vidya, akrodha. In verses this list was reduced to five virtues by the same scholar, by merging and creating a more broader concept.
The shorter list of virtues became: Ahimsa, Asteya, Satyam. This trend of evolving concepts continue in classical Sanskrit literature, Dama with Ahimsa and few other virtues present in the evolving list of virtues necessary for a moral life. Five types of self-restraints are considered essential for a moral and ethical life in Hindu philosophy: one must refrain from any violence that causes injury to others, refrain from starting or propagating deceit and falsehood, refrain from theft of other's property, refrain from sexually cheating on one's partner, refrain from avarice; the scope of self-restraint includes one's action, the words one speaks or writes, in one's though
The Shandilya Upanishad is a Sanskrit text and one of the minor Upanishads of Hinduism. It is one of twenty Yoga Upanishads in the four Vedas, is attached to the Atharvaveda; the text is focussed on Yoga techniques, is among the most detailed in the Upanishadic corpus of texts dedicated to Yoga. It describes ten Yamas, ten Niyamas and eight Asanas, along with three Pranayamas, five types of Pratyaharas, five kinds of Dharana, two types of Dhyana and one Samadhi. Gavin Flood dates the text to around 100 BCE to 300 CE. Roy Eugene Davis suggests Shandilya Upanishad pre-dates Patanjali's Yogasutras, while Georg Feuerstein suggests the text post-dates the Yogasutras. Thomas McEvilley states that the chronology of the text is uncertain, but it was composed around the time Dhyanabindu Upanishad and before Hatha Yoga Pradipka, Kaulajnananirnaya and Shiva Samhita; some historical manuscripts of this Upanishad are titled as Śāṇḍilyopaniṣad. It is listed at number 58 in the serial order of the Muktika enumerated by Rama to Hanuman in the modern era anthology of 108 Upanishads.
It is known as the Shandilya Yoga Sutras. According to Alain Daniélou this Upanishad is one of the three Upanishads in the genre of the Hatha yoga; the Shandilya Upanishad is structured as three chapters with many sections in each chapter. The first chapter of the text deals with Ashtanga Yoga, it contains eleven sections. Yama Niyama Asana Pranayama: Nadis and Kundalini Pranayama: Purification of Nadis Pranayama with Pranava Pranayama: Purification of Susumna and others Pratyahara Dharana Dhyana SamadhiThe other Chapters have a single section each; the Second chapter expounds the Brahma Vidya. The Third Chapter talks about the nature and forms of Brahman: Sakala Brahman, Niskala Brahman and Sakala-Niskala Brahman. Raman states that the first chapter is one of the most detailed Upanishadic treatises on various types of Yoga; the last two chapters integrate the Vedanta philosophy the "nondual Nirguna Brahman as the ultimate self" concept of Hinduism, asserts that there is oneness of Atman in all living beings, that everything is Brahman.
The Yoga techniques-related chapter 1, the largest part of this Upanishad, begins by asserting that to be an accomplished Yogin, one must possess self-restraint, introspectively delight in truth and in virtue towards self and towards others. A successful Yogin is one, proficient in Yoga theory and practice. Yoga is best done in a peaceful pleasant place, states the Upanishad, such as near river banks or water bodies, garden abounding with fruits, water falls, a place of silence or where Vedic hymns are being recited, frequented by fellow yoga practitioners and such, there the Yogi should find a level place. After settling into his posture, he should do breath exercises to cleanse his body meditate, states the text; the Upanishad elaborates without citing Patanjali. The Upanishad defines each Niyamas. For example, Ahimsa states the text is the Yamas of "not causing pain to any living being at any time either mentally, vocally, or physically". Section 1.3 of the text describes eight Asanas, which includes Svastikasana, Padmasana, Simhasana, Bhadrasana and Mayurasana.
The Yogi who has mastered all the Yamas, the Niyamas and an Asana, states the Upanishad, should proceed to the Pranayama to help cleanse the inner body. The text is notable in reminding the importance of ethical virtues in a Yogi, virtues such as truthfulness, non-anger, proper eating habits, proper conduct and others, as it transitions from one stage of Yoga to next. After reminding the ethical mandates, the Upanishad describes three types of Pranayama, namely Ujjayi and Sitala; the text is one of the four Upanishads which includes a discussion of Kundalini chakras from Yoga perspective, the other three being Darshana Upanishad, the Yogachudamani Upanishad, the Yogashikha Upanishad. However, the ideas in the four texts show an acceptance of a diversity of views. Section 1.8 of Shandilya presents five kinds of Pratyahara, namely the ability to withdraw sensory organs from the external world at will, the ability to view everything as the Atman, the ability to give away fruits of one's effort, the ability to be unaffected by the presence of sensual pleasures, the fifth Pratyahara being the ability to project one's attention to one of eighteen vital parts of one's own body.
Section 1.9 of the Upanishad presents five kinds of Dharanas, section 1.10 presents two kinds of Dhyana, while section 1.11 describes Samadhi – its last stage of Yoga. The ultimate goal of its teachings is the realization of the nature of one's Atman and its nonduality with Brahman; this is the "Shandilya doctrine", named after the Vedic sage after whom this text is titled, and, credited in section 3.14 of the Chandogya Upanishad with the oldest known statement of the Vedanta foundation. This doctrine repeated in the last two chapters of this text, is "the identity of Brahman with the Atman, of God with the soul", states Deussen; the closing sections of the text declare the Aum, Brahman and Dattatreya to be one and the same. Hatha yoga Yoga Yogatattva Upanishad Yoga Vasistha BibliographyAiyar, Narayanasvami. "Thirty minor Upanishads". Archive O
Arthur Anthony Macdonell
Arthur Anthony Macdonell, FBA, 7th of Lochgarry, was a noted Sanskrit scholar. Macdonell was born Muzaffarpur in India the son of Charles Alexander Macdonell, of the Indian Army, he was educated at Göttingen University matriculated in 1876 at Corpus Christi College, gaining a classical exhibition and three scholarships. He was appointed Taylorian Teacher of German at Oxford. In 1883 he obtained his PhD from the University of Leipzig, became Deputy Professor of Sanskrit at Oxford in 1888, Boden Professor of Sanskrit in 1899. Macdonell edited various Sanskrit texts, wrote a grammar, compiled a dictionary, published a Vedic grammar, a Vedic Reader, a work on Vedic mythology. MacDonell, Arthur Anthony. A History of Sanskrit Literature. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1-4179-0619-7; the Brhad-Devata Attributed to Saunaka: A Summary of the Deities and Myths of the Rgveda—Critically edited in the original Sanskrit with an introduction and seven appendices and translated into English with critical and illustrative notes, Arthur Anthony MacDonell.
Cambridge, 1904. 2 v. xxxv, 198, 334 p.* A Vedic grammar for students, A. A. Macdonald. Delhi, 1916, Oxford. History of Vedic Mythology, A. A. Macdonald. New Delhi, Sanjay Prakashan, 2004, ix, 270 p. ISBN 81-7453-103-3. Macdonell, Arthur Anthony. A practical Sanskrit dictionary with transliteration and etymological analysis throughout. London: Oxford University Press, 1929 A Sanskrit Grammar for Students, Arthur Anthony Macdonald, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-815466-6. A Vedic Reader for Students, Arthur Anthony Macdonald, Oxford, 1917. Works by Arthur A. MacDonell at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Arthur A. MacDonell at Internet Archive Sanskrit Grammar, by Arthur Anthony Macdonell
Varaha Upanishad is a minor Upanishad of Hinduism composed between the 13th and 16th centuries CE. Composed in Sanskrit, it is listed as one of the 32 Krishna Yajurveda Upanishads, classified as one of 20 Yoga Upanishads; the text has five chapters, structured as a discussion between Vishnu in his Varaha avatar and the sage Ribhu. The discussion covers the subjects of Tattvas, the nature and relationship between the individual soul and the Ultimate Reality, the seven stages of learning, the characteristics of Jivanmukti, the four types of Jivanmuktas; the last chapter of the text is dedicated to its goals and methods. It is, as an Upanishad, a part of the corpus of Vedanta literature that presents the philosophical concepts of Hinduism; the Varaha Upanishad emphasizes that liberation from sorrow and fear requires a human being to know the non-dualistic nature of existence, oneness between Self and Vishnu, the role of Yoga in self-liberation, lists ten Yamas as essential to a liberation of one's soul: nonviolence, asteya, compassion, kshama, non-hypocrisy and shaucha.
The text describes the Jivanmukta as one whose inner state, amongst other things, is neither affected by happiness nor by suffering inflicted on him, who does not shrink out of fear from the world, nor the world shrinks from him with fear, whose sense of calm and inner contentment is free from anger and joy toward others. Varaha means boar referring to the incarnation of Vishnu as a boar in Indian mythology; the term Upanishad means it is knowledge or "hidden doctrine" text that belongs to the corpus of Vedanta literature presenting the philosophical concepts of Hinduism and considered the highest purpose of its scripture, the Vedas. The text is known as Varahopanishad; the text is listed as 98th in the modern era anthology. A Sanskrit text, it is considered one of the 32 Upanishads under the Krishna Yajurveda or Black Yajurveda. Classified as a Yoga Upanishad, the author and source of this Hindu text has been in question, it is a late Upanishad. Varaha Upanishad was not listed in the anthology of known Upanishads published in the 17th century by Dara Shikoh, in the early 19th-century Henry Thomas Colebrooke anthology, or in the Narayana compilations of Upanishads.
The text opens by acknowledging Itihasa and other post-Vedic era texts, thus implying that it was composed in the common era. The text incorporates terminology such as Yogi Siddhi, suggesting that, like other Yoga Upanishads, it was composed after Yoga Sutras of Patanjali and other major Yoga texts; the text incorporates sections on tantra terminology such as Chakra and Nāḍi in its discussion of Laya and Hatha yoga. The minor Yoga Upanishads, according to Antonio Rigopoulos, a professor of Indology at the University Ca'Foscari of Venice, were recorded in the medieval period of India's Advaita and Yoga-rooted traditions in the middle of the 2nd millennium CE, but may well represent established ideas and practices before the epic and medieval period, given that they use concepts and terminology rooted in the 1st millennium BCE Vedic era text, such as pranava and Brahman. According to Ananda, the text was composed between the 13th and 16th centuries. Ribhu, after observing Tapas for 12 long deva years, is visited by Vishnu in his Varaha avatar.
Ribhu declines all worldly pleasures, asks Vishnu to explain "that science of Brahman which treats of thy nature, a knowledge which leads to salvation". From this point on, the Upanishad is structured as a sermon by Varaha to the sage Ribhu, it has five chapters with a total of 247 verses. In Chapter 1 of the text, Varaha tells Ribhu first about the science of Tattvas, meaning "principles"; the Tattvas are said to be 24, 36, or 96 by some teachers, which Varaha elaborates. In the Tattvas, asserts Varaha, are included the five sensory organs, five organs of action, five vital airs essential to a living body, five rudimentary principles of perception, the faculties of knowledge – Manas which produces uncertain knowledge, Buddhi which leads to certain knowledge, "Chitta" which produces doubts and fluctuations in knowledge, "Ahankara" which produces egoism; these total 24 tattvas, states the text. Some scholars, asserts Varaha, expand the list of tattvas of a human body to 36, by including the five elements – earth, water and fire.
Varaha describes how the list of tattva increases to 96 in verses 1.8 to 1.14. It includes the six stages of changes.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or way of life practised in the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal tradition", or the "eternal way", beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder; this "Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE, after the end of the Vedic period, flourished in the medieval period, with the decline of Buddhism in India. Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, shared textual resources, pilgrimage to sacred sites. Hindu texts are classified into Smṛti; these texts discuss theology, mythology, Vedic yajna, agamic rituals, temple building, among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas and Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, the Ramayana, the Āgamas.
Sources of authority and eternal truths in its texts play an important role, but there is a strong Hindu tradition of questioning authority in order to deepen the understanding of these truths and to further develop the tradition. Prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include the four Puruṣārthas, the proper goals or aims of human life, namely Dharma, Artha and Moksha. Hindu practices include rituals such as puja and recitations, meditation, family-oriented rites of passage, annual festivals, occasional pilgrimages; some Hindus leave their social world and material possessions engage in lifelong Sannyasa to achieve Moksha. Hinduism prescribes the eternal duties, such as honesty, refraining from injuring living beings, forbearance, self-restraint, compassion, among others; the four largest denominations of Hinduism are the Vaishnavism, Shaivism and Smartism. Hinduism is the world's third largest religion. Hinduism is the most professed faith in India and Mauritius, it is the predominant religion in Bali, Indonesia.
Significant numbers of Hindu communities are found in the Caribbean, North America, other countries. The word Hindū is derived from Indo-Aryan/Sanskrit root Sindhu; the Proto-Iranian sound change *s > h occurred between 850–600 BCE, according to Asko Parpola. It is believed that Hindu was used as the name for the Indus River in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. According to Gavin Flood, "The actual term Hindu first occurs as a Persian geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus", more in the 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I; the term Hindu in these ancient records did not refer to a religion. Among the earliest known records of'Hindu' with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by Xuanzang, 14th-century Persian text Futuhu's-salatin by'Abd al-Malik Isami. Thapar states that the word Hindu is found as heptahindu in Avesta – equivalent to Rigvedic sapta sindhu, while hndstn is found in a Sasanian inscription from the 3rd century CE, both of which refer to parts of northwestern South Asia.
The Arabic term al-Hind referred to the people. This Arabic term was itself taken from the pre-Islamic Persian term Hindū, which refers to all Indians. By the 13th century, Hindustan emerged as a popular alternative name of India, meaning the "land of Hindus"; the term Hindu was used in some Sanskrit texts such as the Rajataranginis of Kashmir and some 16th- to 18th-century Bengali Gaudiya Vaishnava texts including Chaitanya Charitamrita and Chaitanya Bhagavata. These texts used it to distinguish Hindus from Muslims who are called Yavanas or Mlecchas, with the 16th-century Chaitanya Charitamrita text and the 17th-century Bhakta Mala text using the phrase "Hindu dharma", it was only towards the end of the 18th century that European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus. The term Hinduism spelled Hindooism, was introduced into the English language in the 18th century to denote the religious and cultural traditions native to India. Hinduism includes a diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions, but has no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet nor any binding holy book.
Because of the wide range of traditions and ideas covered by the term Hinduism, arriving at a comprehensive definition is difficult. The religion "defies our desire to define and categorize it". Hinduism has been variously defined as a religion, a religious tradition, a set of religious beliefs, "a way of life". From a Western lexical standpoint, Hinduism like other faiths is appropriately referred to as a religion. In India the term dharma is preferred, broader than the Western term religion; the study of India and its cultures and religions, the definition of "Hinduism", has been shaped by th
Sanskrit is a language of ancient India with a history going back about 3,500 years. It is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and the predominant language of most works of Hindu philosophy as well as some of the principal texts of Buddhism and Jainism. Sanskrit, in its variants and numerous dialects, was the lingua franca of ancient and medieval India. In the early 1st millennium CE, along with Buddhism and Hinduism, Sanskrit migrated to Southeast Asia, parts of East Asia and Central Asia, emerging as a language of high culture and of local ruling elites in these regions. Sanskrit is an Old Indo-Aryan language; as one of the oldest documented members of the Indo-European family of languages, Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies. It is related to Greek and Latin, as well as Hittite, Old Avestan and many other extinct languages with historical significance to Europe, West Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, it traces its linguistic ancestry to the Proto-Indo-Aryan language, Proto-Indo-Iranian and the Proto-Indo-European languages.
Sanskrit is traceable to the 2nd millennium BCE in a form known as the Vedic Sanskrit, with the Rigveda as the earliest known composition. A more refined and standardized grammatical form called the Classical Sanskrit emerged in mid-1st millennium BCE with the Aṣṭādhyāyī treatise of Pāṇini. Sanskrit, though not Classical Sanskrit, is the root language of many Prakrit languages. Examples include numerous modern daughter Northern Indian subcontinental languages such as Hindi, Bengali and Nepali; the body of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of philosophical and religious texts, as well as poetry, drama, scientific and other texts. In the ancient era, Sanskrit compositions were orally transmitted by methods of memorisation of exceptional complexity and fidelity; the earliest known inscriptions in Sanskrit are from the 1st-century BCE, such as the few discovered in Ayodhya and Ghosundi-Hathibada. Sanskrit texts dated to the 1st millennium CE were written in the Brahmi script, the Nāgarī script, the historic South Indian scripts and their derivative scripts.
Sanskrit is one of the 22 languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India. It continues to be used as a ceremonial and ritual language in Hinduism and some Buddhist practices such as hymns and chants; the Sanskrit verbal adjective sáṃskṛta- is a compound word consisting of sam and krta-. It connotes a work, "well prepared and perfect, sacred". According to Biderman, the perfection contextually being referred to in the etymological origins of the word is its tonal qualities, rather than semantic. Sound and oral transmission were valued quality in ancient India, its sages refined the alphabet, the structure of words and its exacting grammar into a "collection of sounds, a kind of sublime musical mold", states Biderman, as an integral language they called Sanskrit. From late Vedic period onwards, state Annette Wilke and Oliver Moebus, resonating sound and its musical foundations attracted an "exceptionally large amount of linguistic and religious literature" in India; the sound was visualized as "pervading all creation", another representation of the world itself, the "mysterious magnum" of the Hindu thought.
The search for perfection in thought and of salvation was one of the dimensions of sacred sound, the common thread to weave all ideas and inspirations became the quest for what the ancient Indians believed to be a perfect language, the "phonocentric episteme" of Sanskrit. Sanskrit as a language competed with numerous less exact vernacular Indian languages called Prakritic languages; the term prakrta means "original, normal, artless", states Franklin Southworth. The relationship between Prakrit and Sanskrit is found in the Indian texts dated to the 1st millennium CE. Patanjali acknowledged that Prakrit is the first language, one instinctively adopted by every child with all its imperfections and leads to the problems of interpretation and misunderstanding; the purifying structure of the Sanskrit language removes these imperfections. The early Sanskrit grammarian Dandin states, for example, that much in the Prakrit languages is etymologically rooted in Sanskrit but involve "loss of sounds" and corruptions that result from a "disregard of the grammar".
Dandin acknowledged that there are words and confusing structures in Prakrit that thrive independent of Sanskrit. This view is found in the writing of the author of the ancient Natyasastra text; the early Jain scholar Namisadhu acknowledged the difference, but disagreed that the Prakrit language was a corruption of Sanskrit. Namisadhu stated that the Prakrit language was the purvam and they came to women and children, that Sanskrit was a refinement of the Prakrit through a "purification by grammar". Sanskrit belongs to the Indo-European family of languages, it is one of the three ancient documented languages that arose from a common root language now referred to as the Proto-Indo-European language: Vedic Sanskrit. Mycenaean Greek and Ancient Greek. Mycenaean Greek is the older recorded form of Greek, but the limited material that has survived has a ambiguous writing system. More important to Indo-European studies is Ancient Greek, documented extensively beginning with the two Homeric poems. Hittite.
This is the earliest-recorded of all Indo-European languages, distinguishable into Old Hittite, Middle Hittite and Neo-Hittite. I